General Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
General Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide 01:830:101
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emy Cabera on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 01:830:101 at Rutgers University taught by Prof. Persing in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see General Pyschology in Psychology (PSYC) at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
General Psychology Study Guide- Test 1 Chapter 1: Introduction and Research Methods − Definition of psychology: Psychology is the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. − Ways that psychology can be applied to everyday life: Helps you to understand the nature of your thoughts and behavior − Helps you understand how social situations can change or influence your behavior and the behavior of other individuals and groups − Has principles and practices that can dramatically affect “the bottom line” for businesses and individuals in the workplace! − Understand interpersonal relationships o (ex. friendships, love, sexuality, etc) − Understand personality & motivations − Understand cultural and gender diffs − Understand why things go wrong o (ex. Stereotyping, Prejudice,Anorexia/bulimia, excessive exercise, distorted body image, binge drinking, excessive anger, bi-polar disorder, schizophrenia, depression,Alzheimers − Different types of psychologists (Developmental, biological, Industrial, etc.): − Biological Perspective −Social Perspective −Developmental Perspective −Personality − Humanistic / Transpersonal −Learning Perspective −Cognitive Perspective −Evolutionary −Quantitative / Statistical −Socio-cultural Perspective −Industrial / Organizational / Human Factors − Basic vs.Applied psychology: − Basic Psychology: The study of psychological issues to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than for its practical application − Applied Psychology: Research or psychological practice with topics that have direct practical significance − − The early schools of psychology: Structuralism, Functionalism, Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, Humanistic, Gestalt: • Wilhelm Wundt established the theory of Structuralism, meaning the mind should be studied in smaller components of mental experiences. • Gestalt Psych. was against the idea of structuralism , instead believed that the mind should be studied as a whole. The “perceived” whole is greater then the sum of the parts. • William James believed in Functionalism , an approach that behavior as purposeful and contributing to survival. • Humanistic Psych. is an approach to psychology that saw people as inherently good and motivated to learn and improve. Psychoanalysis is The study of the relationship between physical events and the • psychological experience of those events. − 4 goals of psychology; describe, explain, predict, and control behavior: Describe Behavior, Understand and predict behavior, and optimize behavior − Why psychology is a science: Scientific Method − Must be Empirical − Must be Testable − Must be Repeatable − - Types of psychological studies, and their advantages and disadvantages: - Laboratory Observation- Good control, Not as Natural. You control the situation.ment - Case Study- 1person, range of behavior- oliver saks - Survey- Lots of data cheaply- lack honesty - Test- Measures of Psychological construct-correlational o direction of relationship : - Relationship or association between variables of interest - Uses the correlation coefficient to describe the direction and strength of relationship. o absolute value: - + and - , when two thing increase and decrease together they are POSITIVE, When one thing increases while another decreases it is considered NEGATIVE / EX; the more beer you drink the lower your grades. this is negative - ranges from +1 to -1 with 1 being perfect correlation - Absolute value of number indicates strength o 3 variable problem: correlation does not mean causation - 3rd variable is the problem. − Experimental method: − Theory vs. Hypothesis: Theory:An organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships. Hypothesis:Astatement that attempts to predict or to account for a particular phenomenon. − Independent & Dependent variables : − Independent variable- variables that are manipulated by the experimenter. − Dependent Variable- the variable that cannot be manipulateMeasure of participant’s response to IV. Variable that is expected to be dependent on effects of the IV − Confounding Variables-Almost considered like a 3rd variable except it is known. Confounding variables are factors other than the independent variable that may cause a result. In your caffeine study, for example, it is possible that the students who received caffeine also had more sleep than the control group. Or, the experimental group may have spent more time overall preparing for the exam. − Ethics in Psychological Experimentation (participants’rights, informed consent): Institutional Review Board (IRB) − Research with people − Informed consent − Avoid deception unless necessary − Debriefing − Research with animals − Avoid mistreatment − Proper housing − Ethics in Psychological Clinical Practice: − Proper training and supervision − Maintain privacy − APAcode of conduct Chapter 2: Behavioral Neuroscience − Definition/functions of a neuron: ANeuron is a specialized nerve cell that receives, processes, and transmits information to other cells in the body. We have a fixed number of neurons, which means they do not regenerate. − Synapse: Site (Gap) where a nerve impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another; includes the axon terminal, synaptic cleft, and receptor sites on receiving cell. − 3 types of neurons: sensory, motor, interneuron. − Glial cell: Fills the gaps between neurons • • Supports and feeds neurons • 10 times more glial cells than neurons • Newer research suggests that Glia does more − Components of a neuron: Axon, dendrites, cell body, myelin sheath. • Axon: The branch of a neuron that is usually responsible for transmitting information to other neurons. • Dendrite:Abranch from the neural cell body that usually receives input from other neurons. • Cell Body: The large, central mass of a neuron, containing the nucleus. • Myelin Sheath: The insulating material covering some axons.Allows signals to travel more efficiently. − All-or-None Law: The all-or-none law is a principle that states that the strength of a response of a nerve cell or muscle fiber is not dependent upon the strength of the stimulus. If a stimulus is above a certain threshold, a nerve or muscle fiber will fire. A. Action Potential: The electrical signal arising in a neuron’s axon. B. Resting potential: The measure of the electrical charge across a neural membrane when the neuron is not processing information. − Neurotransmitter: Chemical messengers that transmit signals between neurons or across a synapse. − Types of neurotransmitters: 1. Acetylcholine (ACh): Enables muscle action (movement), learning, memory. 2. Dopamine: Influences movement, learning , attention, emotion, planning, and reward. 3. Serotonin:Affects mood, hunger/appetite and sleep. 4. NorepinephrineAKAAdrenaline: Arousal and vigilance. 5. Gamma amino (Gaba): Inhibition of brain activity. 6. Endorphins: Chemical substances in the nervous system that are similar in structure and action to opiates; involved in pain reduction, pleasure, and memory, and are known technically as endogenous opioid peptides. − Agonist vs.Antagonist: I. Agonist is a chemical or a drug that binds to receptors in the brain and causes a reaction. II. Antagonist:Asubstance that acts against and blocks an action. − Reuptake/Degradation: • Reuptake: Aprocess in which molecules of neurotransmitter in the synaptic gap returned to the axon terminal from which they were released. • Degradation: Degradation occurs when an organism's ability to do things decreases. It is a reduction of normal functions and can sometimes be seen by the break down of parts. − Concept of plasticity/connections in brain: refers to the brain's ability to CHANGE throughout life. The human brain has the amazing ability to reorganize itself by forming new connections between brain cells (neurons). − Concept of pruning: Pruning Process refers to the normally occurring process that change and reduce the number of neurons, synapses and axons that exist within the brain and nervous system. Infants are born with a massive number of available nervous synapses that, with growth, age and experience, reduce in number to include those which are useful and needed, while the unused disappear with time. For this reason it is important to create a mentally and physically stimulating environment for infants and children in order to maximize the neural pathways created before this pruning process begins. − Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord) vs. Peripheral Nervous System − Central Nervous System: The brain and spinal cord. − Peripheral Nervous System: The nerves exiting the Central Nervous System that carry sensory and motor information to and from the rest of the body. Somatic andAutonomic. − Outer structures of the brainAND their functions: − cerebral cortex: The thin layer of neurons covering the outer surface of the cerebral hemispheres. The outer covering of the forebrain is known as the cerebral cortex. Cortex = bark, rind • Wrinkled for more surface area. • It is made up of the gray matter, the cell bodies of the cortical neurons. • The interior of the forebrain is made up of white matter or axons of cortical neurons. It is white because of the myelin that coats axons. − Brain right and left hemispheres: • Each hemisphere receives information about the opposite side of the visual field. • Objects to your left put images on right side of each retina; goes to right side of brain • Half of optic nerve fibers cross at the optic chiasm. − corpus callosum: Awide band of of nerve fibers connecting the right and left cerebral hemispheres. − Motor: Rear of frontal lobe. − Somatosensory strips: Front of parietal lobe. − 4 lobes of the brain and their locationsAND their major functions − Frontal Lobe: Front of the brain (of course) • • Functions include • Planning • Memory search Fine Motor control • • Reasoning • Executive Functions − Parietal Lobe: Top, rear of the brain • Functions include • Attention • Spatial location • Motor control • Somatosensory cortex • body senses − Occipital Lobe: • At the back of the head • Functions include • Many aspects of vision − Temporal Lobe: • In front of the ears • Functions include • Hearing • Memory • The left temporal lobe • language processing • language comprehension − Inner brain structuresAND their functions: Mid Brain or Limbic System--contains: Agroup of brain areas involved in emotional reactions and motivated behavior. Amygdala: The hypothalamus helps to regulate emotional and motivated behavior. The amygdala, an almond-shaped structure that is crucial for emotional processing (e.g., fear and anger), is deep inside the temporal lobes. Hippocampus: The hippocampus is a vital structure for memory processing. Short Term memory. Thalamus: Relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex. Hypothalamus: Involved in emotions and drives vital to survival (e.g., fear, hunger, thirst, and reproduction); it regulates the autonomic nervous system. Pituitary Gland: Small endocrine gland at the base of the brain, which releases many hormones and regulates other endocrine glands. Brain Stem: The part of the brain containing the midbrain, pons, and medulla. Basal Ganglia: Participates in the control of movement. − Hindbrain- contains Medulla, Cerebellum, Pons, ReticularActivating System and their functions • Medulla: Responsible for some automatic functions, such as breathing and heart rate. • Cerebellum: (Little Brain) Regulates movement and balance, and is involved in learning some simple responses. • Pons: Involved in sleep, waking, and dreaming and facial expressions. • Midbrain: The part of the brainstem that lies between the pons and the cerebral hemispheres. • ReticularActivating System: An ascending “net” or dense network of neurons found in the core of the brain stem; it arouses the cortex and screens incoming information. • Reticular Formation: Acollection of structures located along the midline of the brainstem that participates in mood, arousal, and sleep. Parts and functions of the Peripheral Nervous System: 1.) Somatic Nervous System: The part of the peripheral nervous system that brings sensory information to the central nervous system and transmits commands to the muscles. Motor: Somatosensory: 2.)Autonomic Nervous System: The division of the peripheral nervous system that directs the activity of glands, organs, and smooth muscles. sympathetic Nervous System: Prepares the body for situations requiring the expenditure of energy. Coordinates arousal. The sympathetic nervous system is the crisis management center. It increases heart and respiration rate and prepares the body for fight or flight. parasympathetic: Directs the storage of energy.Associated with rest, repair and energy storage. The parasympathetic nervous system is in charge of long-term survival related functions, nutrition and energy conservation. It decreases heart rate, increases digestive activities and promotes processes in the body that take place during rest. − Endocrine System: Asystem responsible for the release of hormones into the bloodstream. − definition of hormones: Chemical substances, secreted by organs called glands, that affect the functioning of other organs. − definition of endocrine glands: Internal organs that produce hormones and release them into the bloodstream. − Different techniques for observing the brainAND how they work: o EEG: Measures Electrical activity using electrodes placed on scalp. o CT: Visualizing structure o MRI: Visualizing structure o PET: Visualizing function o fMRI: Visualizing function - The effects of alcohol on the brain and behavior: • Damage the brain’s frontal lobes (thinking areas) Lead to addiction and health problems • • Cause Wernicke's and Korsakoff's Syndromes, which are characterized by impaired memory, confusion, lack of motor coordination, and disorientation. • Severe shrinkage also found in: o Hippocampus (memory center) o Cerebellum (balance and coordination of movements) − His and her’s brains: • Sex differences in the brain have been studied for many years. o Many findings seem to reflect cultural bias, and change with cultural changes • Reliable differences have been found in activity of certain brain areas during some tasks o Example: MRI of language task, right • Pre-Optic area of Hypothalamus implicated in gay orientation − Monozygotic Twins: monozygotic (MZ) twins share nearly 100% of their genes, which means that most differences between the twins (such as height, susceptibility to boredom, intelligence, depression, etc.) is due to experiences that one twin has but not the other twin. − Dizygotic twins: "Fraternal" or dizygotic (DZ) twins share only about 50% of their genes, the same as any other sibling. Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception − Definitions of sensation and perception: are stages of processing of the senses in human and animal systems, such as vision, auditory, vestibular, and pain senses. Included in this topic is the study of illusions such as motion aftereffect, color constancy, auditory illusions, and depth perception. − Transduction: The process of converting physical energy into electrochemical impulses in the nervous system = TRANSDUCTION. − Absolute threshold: The Minimum stimulation needed to register a particular stimulus 50% of the time. − Just noticeable difference: Minimum change needed to detect difference − Weber’s Law: To notice difference a constant magnitude of change. • Light--8% difference • Weight--2% difference • Sound--0.3% difference − sensory receptors: Neurons or cells able to sense changes in the environment transmitted as nerve impulses to the brain. − Doctrine of specific nerve energies: − sensory adaptation: The reduced response or paying less attention to an unchanging stimulus. − sensory deprivation: The absence of normal levels of sensory stimulation. − selective attention: Ability to focus on a subset of available information and exclude the rest. − Signal Detection: The analysis of sensory and decision making processes in the detection of faint, uncertain stimuli. The Eye- The eye detects light that is reflected from objects Light: is a combination of amplitude, frequency, and wavelength. The eye can see visible light from the electromagnetic spectrum from 400-750nm. − Structures of the eyeAND their functions: pupil, iris, lens, cornea, fovea (contains the most cones), retina, optic nerve, rods, cones, • Cornea: The clear surface at the front of the eye that begins the process of directing light to the Retina. • Pupil: An opening formed by the iris. • Iris: The brightly colored circular muscle surrounding the pupil of the eye. • Lens: The clear structure behind the pupil that bends light toward the retina. Retina: Layers of visual processing cells in the back of the eye. • • Fovea:An area of the retina that is specialized for highly detailed vision , (contains most cones). • Rod:Aphotoreceptor specialized to detect dim light. Cone:Aphotoreceptor in the retina that processes color and fine detail. • • Optic Nerve: The nerve exiting the retina of the eye. − Vision disorders: • Presbyopia: develops as humans age because the lens decreases in flexibility, resulting in a reduced ability to focus on nearby objects.Arms too short! • Myopia/nearsightedness: Elongated eyeballs cause myopia, so that the person can focus well on nearby objects, but not distant ones. This condition is also called nearsightedness. Hyperopia/ farsightedness: Flattened eyeballs cause hyperopia, so that the person • can focus well on distant objects, but not on nearby ones. This is also called farsightedness. • Glaucoma: a condition caused by increased pressure within the eyeball, causing damage to the optic nerve and loss of peripheral vision. • Cataract: a disorder in which the lens of the eye becomes cloudy. This disorder is treated by removing and replacing the actual lens with a contact lens. − Know all the Monocular cues: (require one eye) − Motion cues: Motion parallax is the principle that close objects will pass by faster than distant objects. − binocular cues (two eyes): Adepth cue that requires use of both eyes. − Retinal disparity: The difference between the images projected onto each eye. − convergence: the degree to which our eyes must tune in to allow us to focus on a very close object. − Different ways of perceiving objects in the environment: • Top-down:Aperceptual process in which memory and other cognitive processes are required for interpreting incoming sensory information. • Bottom-up: Perception based on building simple input into more complex perceptions. • Gestalt:Agroup of sensory elements forms something new that is greater than itself • Figure/ground:Ambiguous Patterns, Similarity, and proximity. − Perceptual Constancies-shape, color, size: Visual constancy is our tendency to perceive objects as keeping their size, shape and color even though the image that strikes our retina changes from moment to moment Hearing- Know the structures and functions of the ear − Sound waves/the hearing process: 1. Sound waves strike the tympanic membrane, or eardrum. 2. The vibrations of the eardrum cause three very tiny bones, the malleus, the incus, and the stapes, (literally the hammer, anvil and stirrup) to work to make the sound waves become stronger signals. 3. The stirrup causes the cochlea to vibrate. 4. This vibration displaces hair cells along the basilar membrane within the cochlea. − outer ear (Pinna): Collects sound and identifies its location as coming from above or below the head. − middle ear (contains eardrum and hammer (bone), anvil (bone), and stirrup (Bone) : (Tympanic Membrane): Begins the Process of transduction of sound waves to neural signals when the movement occurs. − inner ear (contains cochlea): The Structure in the inner ear the contains auditory receptors. − Organ Of Corti: Astructure located on the basilar membrane that contains auditory receptors. − basilar membrane- (contains hair cells): Membrane in the cochlea on which the organ of Corti is Located. − pitch (frequency of sound waves): The perception of frequency.Adult humans can hear sound waves approximately between 15 and 20,000 Hz. − loudness: Amplitude of sound waves. − causes of deafness: Prolonged loud noise destroys hair cells. III. Conduction deafness results when the three special bones in the ear fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea. IV. Nerve deafness results from damage to the structures that receive and transmit the impulses - the cochlea, hair cells or auditory nerve. − auditory localization: Auditory localization describes an organism's ability to perceive the location of the source of a sound. When a newborn hears a sound it typically turns towards the sound in attempts to locate the source. This is an example of auditory localization. − definition of Vestibular Sense: The sense or system or in the inner ear that provides information about body position and movement. − Auditory Nerve: Nerve Carrying sound information from the cochlea to the brain (cerebral cortex). The hair cells are connected to neurons of the Auditory nerve. The Chemical Senses − Olfaction (smell) How it works: The sense of smell. Olfactory cells: Cells at the base of the receptors responsible for producing the mucus surrounding the Receptors. Olfactory bulb: One of two structures below the frontal lobes of the brain that receive input from the olfactory receptors in the nose. Olfactory Nerve: Anerve carrying olfactory information from the olfactory receptors to the olfactory bulbs. − Gustation (taste): The sense of taste. − Papillae: Small bumps on the tongue that contain taste buds. Taste buds-sweet, salty, sour, bitter: Astructure found in papillae that contains taste receptors cells. Cutaneous senses: These are most noticeable in our skin, but we do have the same receptors in our internal organs, allowing us to feel internal pain, pressure, and temperature changes. − The skin and body senses/Somatosensory System: The body senses, including body position, touch, skin, temperature, and pain. A. In certain areas, such as the fingertips and lips, there are proportionally many more cutaneous receptors. B. These areas also are allotted more tissue in the parietal lobes of the human cerebral cortex. C. Most humans with no impairment in these areas are very good at identifying familiar objects by touch alone. − Sense of touch includes: • Pressure Warmth and Cold • • Pain • Vibration • Movement and Stretch of Skin Pain- • Pain receptors are simple nerve endings that travel to the spinal cord. • The perception of pain is a complex mixture of sensation and perception that is in part mediated by emotion. Gate Theory of Pain: The theory that suggests that input from touch fibers competes with input from pain receptors, possibly preventing pain messages from reaching the brain. − Definition of kinesthetic Sense: Imagine this...you drive into a parking lot, get out of the car, and start to walk toward your destination. You decide to cut through a bunch of parked cars and notice that some of them are close together, so when you get to them, you have to turn and adjust your body in order to get through the tight spaces. The reason you are able to sense whether you can fit, what type of movements you need, how to adjust your body position, etc., is because you have kinesthetic sense, or an ability to sense body position and the movement of muscles, tendons, and joints.
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