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Bio 1050-02 Exam 2 (Chapters 5-8)

by: Kelsey Notetaker

Bio 1050-02 Exam 2 (Chapters 5-8) BIO 1050

Marketplace > Wright State University > BIO > BIO 1050 > Bio 1050 02 Exam 2 Chapters 5 8
Kelsey Notetaker

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About this Document

Covers chapters 5-8 of Food Biology. Covers all course objectives given to us with extra information.
Biology of Food
Amy Wissman
Study Guide
Bio, 1050-02, 1050, food, Biology, Lipids, Fats
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Notetaker on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1050 at Wright State University taught by Amy Wissman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Biology of Food in BIO at Wright State University.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Monday, October 3, 2016 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE BIO 1050-02 CH 5 What are lipids? •Compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. • Are hydrophobic (insoluble in water) Important functions they perform: -energy storage -insulation -protein & fat transporter in blood (lipoproteins) -cell membrane Name the three types of lipids & describe their basic structure What are the three types of lipids? •Triglycerides • 3 fatty acids connected to glycerol backbone • most common lipid found in food & body • referred to as fats • Phospholipids • glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acids & a phosphorus group • phosphorus-containing head is hydrophilic • fatty-acid tail is hydrophobic • cell membrane is made of phospholipid bilayer • lecithin is an emulsifier • Sterols four connecting rings of carbon & hydrogen • 1 Monday, October 3, 2016 What is a fatty acid? • Fatty acid •chain of carbon & hydrogen atoms •acid group (-COOH) at one end Describe the structure & physical properties of saturated & unsaturated fatty acids. • Saturated fatty acid •all carbons in chain are single bonded •solid at room temperature • Unsaturated fatty acid •1 or more double bond between carbons (less saturated with Hydrogen) •more liquid at room temperature • kinked carbon chain • 2 types of unsaturated fatty acids monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) • • one carbon to carbon double bond •polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) • more than one. carbon to carbon double bond Discuss the roles of lipoproteins. •Transport some fats in blood •Phospholipid + Protein = Lipoprotein VLDL: Very-low-density lipoprotein •Delivers fat made in liver to the tissues. •Remnants are converted into LDLs LDL: Low-density lipoprotein •Deposits cholesterol in the walls of the arteries. •Referred to as the bad cholesterol carrier(because it can lead to heart disease) HDL: High-density lipoprotein •Removes cholesterol from the tissues and delivers it to the liver to be used as a part of bile and/or to be excreted from the body 2 Monday, October 3, 2016 • Known as the good cholesterol carrier What is the function of fat in your body? • Essential for energy storage & insulation What are essential fatty acids? • Means that your body cannot make them on its own •They help keep cell membranes healthy •They make eicosanoids (local acting hormone-like subst) What are the types of essential fatty acids? - Linoleic acid: used to make arachidonic acid (precursor of omega-6) - Alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid) -limited amount can be converted into EPA and DHA: heart & brain healthy omega-3 fatty acids found in fatty fish. What is heart disease and what increases your risk? • Heart Disease begins with buildup in the coronary arteries • Buildup of LDL & other substances • Injury of lining of arteries, contributed by high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, & smoking Describe atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis • Arteriosclerosis is the stiffening or hardening of the artery walls. • Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of the artery because of plaque build-up. • Atherosclerosis is a specific type of arteriosclerosis. What are 3 risk factors for heart disease that you cant control? Age/gender • • Family history of heart disease • Type 1 diabetes 3 Monday, October 3, 2016 What are 3 risk factors for heart disease you can control? • Type 2 diabetes High blood pressure • • Smoking • Physical inactivity • Excess weight • A low HDL “good” cholesterol level • A high LDL “bad” cholesterol level Explain HDL and LDL as related to cardiovascular health • HDL: •Stands for High-density lipoprotein Removes cholesterol from the tissues and delivers it to the liver to be used as a part • of bile/ be excreted from the body Referred to as the “good” cholesterol carrier because of this • • LDL: •Stands for Low-density lipoprotein •Deliver cholesterol to your cells •Deposits cholesterol into the walls of your arteries which can lead to heart disease •Referred to as the “bad” cholesterol carrier because of this Identify lifestyle and diet modifications that may help lower LDL cholesterol • Minimize saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol in your diet. • Eating more plant foods high in fiber. Select foods rich in antioxidants and phytochemical • • Take part in routine exercise 4 Monday, October 3, 2016 CH 6 What are proteins? How are they different from carbs and lipids? • Predominant structural and functional material in every cell • Play a role in virtually every cellular activity Describe basic structure of amino acids & proteins • Proteins •Consist of a chain of amino acids •Typically contain between 100 and 10,000 amino acids in a sequence • Amino acids •Each contains a central carbon surrounded by an acid group (COOH), an amine group(NH2), and a side chain. •Joined to each other by peptide bonds to build proteins How is a peptide bond created? • When the acid group (COOH) of one amino acid is joined with the amine group (NH2) of another amino acid. Explain protein synthesis • Process in which the DNA code within a cells nucleus directs the cells production of specific proteins. •In the nucleus, DNA unwinds to allow a cope of the code (mRNA) to be made •mRNA leaves the nucleus •mRNA brings the coded information to the ribosome •Ribosome moves along the mRNA, reading the code. tRNA brings specific amino acids to the ribosome based on the code •Ribosome builds a chain of amino acids (the protein) in the proper sequence, based on the code in the mRNA •When all appropriate amino acids are added & the protein is complete—the protein is released from the ribosome 5 Monday, October 3, 2016 What does hydrophilic mean and what does this chain do? • Water loving • Assemble on the outside surface of the protein, closer to the watery environments of blood and other body fluids What does hydrophobic mean and what does this chain do? • Water fearing • Tend to cluster together in the interior of the protein causing the protein to be globular in shape. Explain the difference between essential & nonessential amino acids and how many there are of each • Essential amino acids •Amino acids that your body cannot make and you must obtain from foods •Found in meat & milk. •There are 9 of them. • Nonessential amino acids •Amino acids that can be created in your body. •There are 11 of them. Key steps & enzymes in digesting protein • Begins after chewed food enters your stomach Hydrochloric acid in stomach denature the protein strands. • •This allows digestive enzyme pepsin found in stomach lining to begin breaking the proteins down. • Pepsin breaks protein into shorter polypeptide strange and they enter the small intestine Broken down more in small intestine. • • Absorbed into the cells of small intestine lining, tripeptides and dipeptides are broken down into single amino acids and enter the blood and travel to the liver. • Liver uses the amino acids depending on needs of your body. 6 Monday, October 3, 2016 Identify the functions of protein in the body • Provide structural & mechanical support & help maintain body tissues • Build most enzymes & many hormones • Help maintain fluid balance Help maintain acid-base balance • • Transport substances throughout the body • Contribute to a healthy immune system • Provide energy • Improves satiety and appetite control Sources of lean protein in the diet • Meat, fish, poultry, dried beans, pinto beans, peanut butter, nuts, soy. Explain health consequences of consuming 2 little/much protein • Too much •Increased risk for heart disease •Increased risk for kidney stones •Increased risk for osteoporosis •Increased risk for cancer •Displacement of other foods • Too little Reduction of lean body mass • •Increased risk of becoming frail 7 Monday, October 3, 2016 Explain complete/incomplete protein & examples • Incomplete •Protein that is low or deficient in one or more of the essential amino acids •Protein from plant foods • Complete •Protein that provides all nine of the essential amino acids, along with some of the element nonessential amino acids • Protein from animal sources such as meat, fish & poultry. CH 7 Explain the differences between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins, and classify each vitamin according to its solubility. • Fat soluble vitamins •Are absorbed with dietary fat, no benefit if taken on an empty stomach. •Stored in the body (can build up to a toxic level) •A, D, E, K • Water soluble vitamins •B vitamins & C •Absorbed with water •Not stored in body, excesses still can be harmful. Define the term antioxidant and explain which vitamins perform this function. Explain free-radical action. • Compounds that neutralize free radicals that cause cell damage • Vitamins C & E are antioxidants. • Free Radicals are unstable molecules that damage cells 8 Monday, October 3, 2016 Explain vitamin toxicity and deficiency • Toxicity •Very rare •Results from ingesting more of the vitamin than the body needs, to the point where the tissues become saturated. •Can damage cells, sometimes permanently.. • Deficiency •A failing or shortcoming of a certain thing A chronic deficiency will cause physiological symptoms/disease • Name the main vitamin deficiency disease associated with each fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamin. • Fat soluble •Vitamin A • deficiency causes night blindness •Vitamin E • Chronic deficiency can cause nerve problems, muscle weakness. Can also increase the susceptibility of cell membranes to damage by free radials. •Vitamin K • Could cause blood clotting. If you are on a blood thinner, you must take consistent Vitamin K to avoid getting blood clots. •Vitamin D • Deficiency disease in children: Rickets • Adult equivalent: Osteomalacia Water soluble • •Thiamin (B1) • Beriberi: loss of appetite, weight, memory, confusion. •Riboflavin (B2) • Sore throat, inside of mouth will swell, tongue would be inflamed. •Niacin (B3) • Pellagra (4 D’s) Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death •Vitamin B6 • sore tongue, inflammation of skin, depression, confusion, possibly anemia. 9 Monday, October 3, 2016 •Folate (B9) • Deficiency can lead to macrocytic anemia •Vitamin B12 • Can lead to macrocytic anemia •Vitamin C Fatigue, limb pain, skin spots/bruising, gum swelling/pain • • Panothenic acid (B5) •Fatigue, nausea, vomiting, numbness, muscle cramps, difficulties walking • Biotin •Hair loss, skin rash, feelings of depression, fatigue, or nausea. Explain the role of vitamin supplements and fortified foods in the diet, and which population groups may benefit from their use. • Fortified foods •Foods that have nutrients added to them •Can be valuable for individuals whose diets fall short of some nutrients Ex. someone who is lactose intolerant—could drink calcium fortified soy milk • • Vitamin supplements •Meant to be used to supplement your diet, and should never be used to replace a healthy diet. •Can be useful for people who are pregnant, who don't drink enough milk, people with food allergies, etc. What is bioavailability? •Degree to which a nutrient is absorbed from foods and used in the body • Same for vitamins & minerals. •depends on • amount of vitamin in food • persons nutrient need & digestion ability 10 Monday, October 3, 2016 What can vitamins be destroyed by? • air, water, or heat. • less exposure to air, less cooking, Extra Information on Vitamins Vitamin A • fat soluble vitamins • most usable form is retinol • performed can be found in animal foods • found as pre-vitamin in plant form (provitamin A) • Carrots have beta-carotene, gives color to carrots, can be converted to VitA • Essential for vision and skin •Too much/too little • Pre-formed: Can be toxic if taken too much. •Plant sources: Are not toxic, but can lead to nonthreatening condition (carotenodermia if eat too much carotenoids) •Chronic vitamin A deficiency causes night blindness • #1 cause of preventable blindness in children (mostly in developing countries) Vitamin E • fat soluble • aka Alpha-tocopherol • Functions: •powerful antioxidant •protects cell membranes •anticoagulant (inhibits the formation of clots inside bloodstream) •Chronic deficiency can cause nerve problems, muscle weakness. Can also increase the susceptibility of cell membranes to damage by free radials. 11 Monday, October 3, 2016 Vitamin K • fat soluble • 2 forms • Menaquinone (synthesized by intestinal bacteria) • Phylloquinone (found in green plants) (in kale) • Functions: • Essential for blood clotting • Important to bone health • Too much/too little • No known problems of consuming too much • People taking blood thinners need to keep Vitamin K intake consistent • Could cause blood clotting. If you are on a blood thinner, you must take consistent Vitamin K to avoid getting blood clots. Vitamin D • fat soluble • Sunshine Vitamin, because if is made in the body with help from sunlight • Starts with cholesterol in skin, goes through a several step process before becoming Vitamin D (circulates through liver, kidney, etc) • Functions: • active form acts as a hormone • regulates absorption of calcium & phosphorus • stimulates intestinal absorption of Ca & P • Deficiency disease in children: Rickets • Adult equivalent: Osteomalacia Water soluble Vitamins(C&B) -not stored in the body -excess is excreted in urine -avoid excess amounts 12 Monday, October 3, 2016 B vitamins share common role as coenzymes -help many enzymes produce chemical reactions in cells Thiamin (B1) • First B vitamin discovered • Function: • Nerve Impulse transmission • Metabolism •Breakdown alcohol • Found in enriched and whole grain products, pork • Deficiency Disease: Beriberi: loss of appetite, weight, memory, confusion. Riboflavin (B2) • Light sensitive • Functions: • Energy metabolism(turns macronutrients into energy) • Found in milk, yogurt • Deficiency disease: sore throat, inside of mouth will swell, tongue would be inflamed. Niacin (B3) • Function: • Energy metabolism • can be made in the body from the amino acid tryptophan •too much can be toxic • deficiency disease: Pellagra (4 D’s) Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death 13 Monday, October 3, 2016 Vitamin B6 • Function: • Major coenzyme for over 100 enzymes in protein metabolism •makes amino acids •converts tryptophan to niacin •metabolize fats & carbohydrates and break down glycogen •Keeps immune and nervous system healthy •Deficiencies sore tongue, inflammation of skin, depression, confusion, possibly anemia. Folate (B9) • Natural in foods • Folic acid: synthetic form, added to our foods or supplements • Vitamin for DNA synthesis (production of all cells) • Very important to early development of a fetus • Deficiency can lead to macrocytic anemia Vitamin B12 • Function: • Make DNA • To use certain fatty acids and amino acids • Healthy nerves and cells especially red blood cells • Deficiency will lead to macrocytic anemia • Needs Intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed into SI 14 Monday, October 3, 2016 Vitamin C • Ascorbic acid • Function: • coenzyme • needed to make collagen • healthy bones, skin, etc • immune system • helps absorb iron from plant foods • breaks down histamine, cause of inflammation. too much: people with kidney stones/hemochromatosis should avoid • excess too little: fatigue, limb pain, skin spots/bruising, gum swelling/pain • Pantothenic Acid (B5) and Biotin • Function: • coenzymes • Deficiencies are Fatigue, nausea, vomiting, numbness, muscle cramps, difficulties walking • Found in whole grains, nuts, etc • Biotin is made by intestinal bacteria Deficiencies are hair loss, skin rash, feelings of depression, fatigue, or nausea. • CH 8 Explain Diffusion and Osmosis •Diffusion • Molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration across semi-permeable cell membrane •Osmosis • Movement of water molecules across membrane 15 Monday, October 3, 2016 Explain the functions of water in the body. • Acts as a universal solvent & transport medium • Lubricant • Protective cushion • Regulate Body Temperature Describe how thirst is a mechanism that protects us from dehydration. If you are outside on a hot day and your mouth gets dry, the dry mouth is part of your • thirst mechanism. It is your bodys way of telling you to find a water source. Plays a role in helping you avoid dehydration and restore the water balance in your body. Describe the daily recommended intake for water consumption. • 1/2 of your body weight (in oz) Describe the difference between dehydration and water intoxication. • Dehydration •due to inadequate water intake •too much water loss • Water intoxication •Hyponatremia (sodium blood level too low) •consuming too much water List the minerals and know which are major minerals and which are trace; how much is required daily for major/trace minerals categorization • Major Minerals (macrominerals) •needed in greater amounts > 100 micrograms/day •Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Chloride, Magnesium • Sodium (Na), Chloride (Cl), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Sulfur (S) —play key roles in fluid balance • Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (Ph), Magnesium (Mg)—work together to strengthen teeth&bones • Trace Minerals (microminerals •needed in amounts < 20 micrograms/day Iron, Zinc, Copper, Iodide • 16 Monday, October 3, 2016 Recall important functions of minerals for water balance and bone and teeth health • Main minerals associated with water balance •Sodium (Na) regulates fluid balance and transports amino acids across cell membranes Potassium (K) is needed for fluid balance and as a blood buffer • Chloride (Cl) helps maintain fluid balance and acid-base balance • • Calcium helps build strong teeth and bones • phosphorus needed for bones and teeth • magnesium needed for metabolism, bones, heart, etc. • Fluoride helps teeth Identify the role of sodium in your body. • Regulation of fluid balance Name diseases associated with ingesting too much or too little of a mineral. • sodium •too much: high blood pressure •too little: rare • potassium • too much: no known danger, but too much from supplements can cause hyperkalemia (too much potassium in blood) too little: rare, but too little can also cause hypokalemia (too little potassium in • blood) • calcium •too much: constipation, •too little: less dense, weakened, brittle bones, increased risk for osteoporosis. • phosphorus • too much: cause of calcium from bones • too little: cause levels in blood to drop dangerously low & result in muscle weakness, bone pain, rickets, confusion and even death. 17 Monday, October 3, 2016 • magnesium •too much: no known danger, but too much from supplements causes intestinal problems. •too little: deficiencies rare. severe could cause muscle weakness, seizures, fatigue, depression, and irregular heart beats. • chloride • too much: major source in the diet, hard to get too much • too little: rarely occurs however could experience vomiting & diarrhea • sulfur • too much/too little: no known toxicity or deficiency symptoms. • iron • too much: cause constipation, nausea, vomiting • too little: fatigue, weakness • copper •too much: stomach pains, diarrhea, cramps, nausea •too little: rare • zinc •too much: stomach pains, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea •too little: hair loss, loss of appetite, impaired taste of foods, diarrhea, delated sexual maturation, impotence and skin rashes. • selenium •too much: selenosis—brittle nails & hair. stomach and intestinal discomfort, skin rash, garlicky breath, fatigue, damage to nervous system. •too little: rare but can cause keshan disease—damages the heart. • fluoride •too much: fluorosis—teeth become pitted and develop white patches or stains on the surface •too little: increases risk of dental caries • Chromium • too much: no known risk 18 Monday, October 3, 2016 •too little: rare •Iodine •too much: challenge the thyroid. •too little: enlarged thyroid gland. damage brain of developing baby •Manganese •too much: parkinson disease-like symptoms too little: rare • •Molybenum •too much: limited research •too little: has never been seen Describe osteoporosis and the factors that influence the risk of developing the disease. •A condition in which bones are less dense, increasing the risk of fractures. •gender •ethnicity •age •body type •family history •sex hormone level •medications smoking • physical activity • •alcohol •inadequate amounts of calcium & vitamin d 19


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