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Soc 142, Midterm #1 Study Guide

by: Trang Vo

Soc 142, Midterm #1 Study Guide Soc 142 (Socialization)

Trang Vo


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Notes for Exam #1
Professor Baldwin
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Trang Vo on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 142 (Socialization) at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Professor Baldwin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Socialization in Sociology at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
Socialization 142 Midterm Study Guide Two Kinds of Socialization: 1. Natural Socialization a. Kids are born with exploration and play [e&p] and socialization starts to increase i. Helps child learn about positive aspects in life (such as skills, knowledge, and social roads) b. Things are not always good in natural sczn. (it can be bad too) 2. Planned Socialization a. Parents teach their child to be kind, polite, good @ school i. Things do not always go as plan though and can be bad too b. Works best if done in sync w/ natural sczn Exploration and Play 1. E & P creates stimulation that makes life exciting 2. Leads to exercise, learning, social bonds, and Great Upward Force a. GUF = the energy to play and drives us 3. Can lead to danger a. Mouse that are very active tend to be found easily by owls b. E & P while racing – can lead to a crash and danger Infant Development Overview Positive attribution of socialization: 1. Infants are born into a cradle of love which consist of positive things such as breast milk, warmth, protection 2. Mother gives positive attributes to infants, who then reciprocates the same positivity to mother 3. Repeated positive interaction leads to increased love and security 4. Infant becomes secure over time, which will drive them to e&p a. Such as feeling brave enough to explore the world they live in 5. Increased trust in caregiver Negative attribution of socialization: 1. Too much negativity can lead to endangerment of a relationship 2. Positive to negative ratio should be 15+/-1 a. Ratio shouldn’t drop below 5+/-1 b. Social bond likely to stay strong if ratio is high 3. Nipping/biting is a negative attribution in animal a. But it’s a way for the mother to punish child  which will lead to good behavior b. i.g kid had negative attribution in his life b/c he had relationship w/ his mom who had sex for drugs. He got in to many fights, but ended up getting his life together i. Negative attribution in his life but was able to make it to the positive side of the spectrum by going to law school Infant Development in Detail 1) Reflexes a. Reflexes are starters b. Infant has reflexes which starts the process of learning skills such as grasping, crawling, sucking, rooting i. Grasping leads to the reflex of holding on to mom ii. Crawling  moving and mapping moms body iii. Rooting  opening mouth when putting finger in child’s mouth c. Leads to survival before we actually learn how to survive 2) Inborn Perceptual Capacities (non socialization experience) a. Modified by learning b. Process of learning through trial and error c. Increases chances of survival i. I.g. Child does not venture into what appears to be a cliff b/c it’s IPC tells them to avoid it b/c they can possibly fall ii. This fear will eventually go away once they learn the cliff is shallow and safe iii. Fear goes down and leads to e & p  jumping  freedom  faster movement (EXAMPLES OF POSITIVE REINFORCERS) d. Sd (+) is a positive reinforcement in life & is safe i. I.g if it is safe to jump e. Sdelta (-) is when the experience is negative & dangerous i. I.g jumping off a huge cliff f. Face-like Stimuli i. Attracting a kids gaze which increases a mother infant bond ii. Kid familiarizes itself with the mother and know who to associate it self with iii. They will stray away from a stranger  increasing it’s survival rate 3) Infants attachment to Mother/CG (caregiver) a. Contact comfort i. Isphysical contact ii. Comes from comfort, skin touching, fur, and warmth iii. Animals have contact comfort w/ mother by lying and enjoying mothers body iv. Unconditional stimulus that requires no learning v. I.g Drinking milk provides comfort and attaches child to mothe vi. I.g sloth preferred contact comfort w/ CC mom instead of wired mom w/ a bottle of milk CC is more important 1. Infant gets oxytocin from care giver and feels relaxes 2. Morphine provides sensory stimulations (+) b. Contact Comfort + Sensory Stimulation i. These two work better together than CC alone ii. Infants tend to fall in love w/ stationary mother (cause it provided CC) iii. However, a mother that is active and provides CC leads to a child w/ more e&p & activeness c. Infant monkey’s adopt dogs i. Dogs are natural beings that are active, playful, and lovely ii. Animals raised by dogs reciprocates the same energy iii. Dog has CC that is natural 4) Early Social Environment of the Infant a. Early environment will most likely going to be the mother (center of its life) b. Mother can also allow adults to touch infant and even baby sit c. Juvenile females – woman that never had a infant and has limited skills i. They have different responses to infants (can be lack of skills and lead to problems) ii. Process can turn out good or bad through trial and error iii. Trial and error learning: bad crisis (crude) and leads to a negative outcome (punisher)  punisher decreases the behavior that set the bad outcome [negative consequences, so sDelta) iv. If infant turns out happy w/ juvenile female and it leads to positive outcomes (+) 1. Lead to fun and increases play 5) How the Infant affects its mother a. Birth is unexpected for mother & is a neutral stimulus i. Bring positive reinforcements to mother ii.Positive CC for mother when nursing iii.Infant also collects positive associations in the mothers world b. Mother learns to be more protective i. Protective behavior leads to a happy infant (sD+) 1. Holding infant safely ii. Un-protective behavior leads to a crying infant (sDelta-) c. Genders i. Biological difference btwn male & female ii. M more rowdy than F iii. Rowdiness interrupts the mother infant bond & is a negative interaction, so she’ll push away 1. Primates do not think about their social roles 6) Early Independence a. E & p is rewarded by SS (esp if novel) i. Novelty is a (+ reinforcer) & adds to GUF (energy) ii. Do not find novelty through boredom 7) How M affects Infant a. Primiparous (first) are less skilled than multiparous (several) mother i. 45% of infant die w/in first 6 months for prim mom ii. 9% die within first 6 month of multi M iii. Multi mom has children that have high skill level through out life iv. While prim mom makes errors that can be deadly but they’ll eventually get high skills b. Primi mom are more restrictive 8) Mother/Infant Seperation a. As infant explores, they push away from their mother b. Mother pushes infant away c. Some enjoy bonds with family, but those with restrictive family may not have the same bond 9) Juvenile Period a. A lot of play and social play 10) Maturing in Adulthood a. Females get maternal skills, afraid of getting hurt i. Menstrual cycle their odors attract males b. Males are playful, looking for SS, stronger, louder i. Serve as watch-ground and SS from play 11) Adulthood a. During adulthood, GUF decreases b. No more novelty, so e&p decreases c. Knowledge/skill still there d. Only 1/10 can keep GUF up The Great Upward Force 1. GUF is a response class w/subsets (sensation seeking behavior a. Exploration i. Came first ii. Make sounds, child in a boring room iii. Learning the basics, not too rowdy, cautious b. Play i. Second ii. More active, often w/ laughter iii. E & p together = stimulating seeking behavior = life seeking behavior c. Creativity i. Fantasy play ii. Continuum of creativity leads to advancement in skills and interests Causes of GUF 1. Evolution/ Natural Selection causes i. 30 evolutionary causes  there’s 4 classses (a,b,c,d)  which leads to increase of GUF ii. Physical benefits 1. Physical exercise  bodily growth  increase strength in muscle, joints, bone 2. More we do, more development iii. NS favors e &p, genes from group #1 will have higher e&p to catch weaker prey. While group #2 gets extinct b/c they are found easily iv. Stimulates the brain 1. (psychology benefits) leading to the development of the brain & custom v. Coping w/ non social environment 1. When monkey jump through vines and sense it’s a strong one – it’s going to be able to cope w/ nonsocial environment better. Learning to cope means you’re more likely to succeed vi. Coping w/ social environment 1. Sexual skills – primates learn sex from trial and error 2. Learn to approach those are aggressive through e&p learning a. Avoid those that are aggressive and approach the those relatable (conspecific) b. Can lead to stronger social bonds & communication skills developed 3. Language play a. Caregiver gives positive responses to help w/ language learning & development b. Positive mothers have infants that are highly responsive c. On the contrary, no rewards meant slower response i. I.g Taking longer for a baby to talk b/c not ii. rewarded in life 2. Bodily Causes a. The Genes i. Genes from e&p is common and strong b. Healthy body i. Genes and healthy body will lead to e&p c. The Reticular formation in the brain i. Measures sensory stimulation (SS) levels and sends stimulates to positive sensors of the brain (when @ optimal level) ii. Stimulation levels determine how well one perform 1. Can range from high to low 2. Optimal zone a. Quality behavior is best b. Survival zone b/c leading to an increase in survival c. E&p lead to optimal zone 3. Under stimulated, quality of behavior tend to be on low side a. Such as lack of sleep leads to sleepiness 4. Over-stimulated can lead to hysteria a. Not most intelligent iii. Hypothal 1. Positive and negative center 2. Stimulates brain 3. CC slows down the brain 4. Reticular Formation  like a homeostat/ thermostat b/c it helps maintain brain levels iv. Other factors 1. Body size, brain size, can make a difference in e&p a. I.g Dolphins discovering they can make air bubbles 3. Developmental Causes a. Reflexive exploration i. Baby reaches hand to the right and looks to the right and vice versa with left ii. Grab reflex trains us to learn via T&E iii. Crawling – starts mechanism of learning about world iv. Leads to sensory stimulation (SS+) and novelty 1. Novelty lead to positive feelings 2. Novelty eventually wears off due to habituation (HAB) & excitement from (SS+) 3. SS+ excites the brain 4. HAB is the psychological process that causes novelty to disappear b. Learned behavior/ e&p i. Trial and error = differential reinforcement ii. Some reflexes in e&p will lead to positive reinforcement iii. The part being reinforced becomes stronger and stronger iv. Positive reinforcement brings happiness and smiles c. Non-social exploration comes first (Mother to infant) i. Natural phase that socialization takes place d. Social e&p (touch first) i. Touching tentatively w/o knowing what will happened at first, but later the fear disappears e. Social Play i. Fear decreases and increase activeness  increasing skill and knowledge to survive 1. I.g Beginning to laugh hysterically ii. Sexual e&p 1. Form of social play 2. I.g animals searching for vulva f. Creativity i. Production of something new ii. Natural variations in behavior which leads to novelty behavior iii. Petite creativity- small creativity not noticed too much g. The end of e&p (& creativity too) i. Two main causes: Evolution and Learning theory 1. Survival of the fittest 2. e&p can lead to danger and death 3. Learning theory has 4 causes a. Habituation i. Causing a decline in novelty ii. Novelty destroy =no longer re-inforcers for e&p b. Gradually won’t be as playful c. After seeing everything in the world life becomes boring d. Limitations of strength and skill i. Losing strength and skill  GUF goes down too e. Effort is a punishment i. People cease to put effort in f. Increased competing responses i. Putting in an effort ii. 1/10 capable of putting effort in to dedicate life to e&p of novelty, going to new places, doing new things


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