BIOL190: Unit 2 Study Guide & Questions
BIOL190: Unit 2 Study Guide & Questions BIOL190 (Intro to Biology for the Health Professions)
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Talia Douglas on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL190 (Intro to Biology for the Health Professions) at Towson University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology for the Health Professions in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
UNIT 2 – CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 2016 STUDY QUESTIONS Study Guide for Unit 2 Exam` ORGANIC MOLECULES 1. What is a molecule? What is the distinction between an organic molecule and an inorganic molecule? A molecule is a substance formed when atoms are held together by covalent bonds. Organic Molecule Inorganic Molecule 1. Always contain carbon bonded to 1. no carbon to hydrogen bonds hydrogen 2. All involve covalent bonds 2. usually involve ionic bonds 3. Often very large with many atoms 3. Often small molecules with few atoms 4. associated with living organisms 4. associated with nonliving organisms 2. What is an atom? Draw the atomic structure of carbon, indicating the number and location of each proton, neutron, and electron. An atom is the basic unit of matter and also the smallest unit of element that retains properties of that element. 3. * What are water’s lifesupporting properties and why are they important to human survival/life? Cohesion (water attraction to self), adhesion (water attraction to different substances), surface tension (cohesion at surface of water), capillary action (ability of water flowing against gravity due to cohesion and adhesion. Ex. Tears, blood vessels), temperature stability 4. What kinds of bonds does carbon usually form with other atoms? How many of these bonds does carbon usually form? Carbon usually forms 4 covalent bonds. 5. What is a chemical (or “functional”) group? List 45 chemical groups and describe how these chemical groups affect the water solubility of the molecule to which they are attached. A functional group is a specific group of atoms attached to Cskeletons of organic molecules. 1. Hydroxyl group: make alcohols (OH) 2. Carbonyl group: Aldehyde is at end of carbon skeleton. Ketone is within the carbon skeleton. (C=O) 3. Carboxyl group: Acts as an acid contributing a H+ to be ionized. 4. Amino Group: Acts as a base by picking up H+ (NH2) UNIT 2 – CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 2016 STUDY QUESTIONS 5. Phosphate group: Compounds within phosphate group 6. * What is the difference between a monomer (subunit) and a polymer (macromolecule)? Provide examples of each. Be able to recognize the structure of the different monomers we have studied. Use the diagram on page 48 of your text (question #1 – Connecting Concepts) to complete your review of this subject. A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many identical or similar building blocks strung together. Example, a train consisting of a chain of cars. and a monomer is the building blocks of polymers. Example, the cars of the train. 7. How do your cells obtain monomers needed to make different types of polymers that are essential to normal cell structure and function? Cells link monomers together to form polymers by a “dehydration reaction”. A DR removes a molecule of water as two molecules become bonded together. Each monomer contributes part of the water molecule that is released during the reaction. 8. What is the chemical reaction that produces a polymer from monomers? What does the name of the reaction tell you about what is happening in the reaction? Diagram this reaction for any one of the 4 classes of macromolecules. The chemical reaction that produces a polymer from monomers is called a dehydration reaction. The name of the reaction tells you that water is being removed from something. 9. * What is the significance of macromolecules to the human body? Macromolecules are significantly important to the human body because every cell in your body is made up of it. In proteins, it makes up cell organelles and enzymes. In nucleic acids, it codes your genetics to produce proteins. In lipids, phospholipids that make bilayer that surrounds a cell. In carbohydrates, it is energy, starch, glycogen PROTEINS 10. What functions do proteins perform in your body? Give at least 4 examples. Proteins perform functions such as speeding up and regulating chemical reactions as enzymes (ex. Lactase), they are responsible for transporting molecules throughout the body (ex. Hemoglobin transporting oxygen), they are responsible for protecting the body from harm (ex. Antibodies), and they also have structural functions aiding the support of cells, tissues and organs in the body (ex. Collagen in connective tissue). 11. What is the basic structure of the repeating subunit (monomer) for proteins? How many different types of this repeating subunit exist, and what makes them different? The basic structure of the monomer for proteins are amino acids. There are 20 amino acids and they are either hydrophobic or hydrophilic. 12. What is the overall structure of most functional proteins, that is, their “native conformation” (functional shape)? The overall structure of most functional proteins is their native 3 dimensional structure. (Tertiary structure) UNIT 2 – CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 2016 STUDY QUESTIONS 13. What is the importance of this structure to the functioning of the protein and, hence, the cell? The tertiary structure determines the overall shape of the protein. The shape of the protein determines the function so if the protein is not shaped correctly, it will not be able to function. 14. What ultimately determines the primary structure of all proteins? mRNA ultimately determines the primary structure of all proteins. 15. For the first three levels of protein structure, answer the following questions: a. What does this level of structure look like? (characteristic appearance): It is a linear sequence of amino acids consisting of peptide bonds that holds it together. b. What is the immediate determinant of this level of structure (how did it get that way)? Coiling or bending of the primary polypeptide into an alphahelix or betapleated sheet. The hydrogen bonds from the “R” groups determine what kind of fold the polypeptide makes. c. What types of bonds stabilize (hold together) this level of structure? Hydrogen bonds d. What conditions can disrupt this level of structure? Excessive heat, pH changes, salt changes 16. What does the fourth level of protein structure look like? What types of bonds stabilize this level of structure, and what conditions can disrupt it? The quaternary structure looks like the tertiary structure overall. Hydrogen bonds stabilize it and excessive heat, pH changes and salt changes disrupt it. 17. Distinguish between globular and fibrous proteins. Globular Fibrous Compact in shape Simple in shape Complex secondary structure Dominant secondary structure Dominant tertiary structure Quaternary structure with noncovalent forces Quaternary structure with covalent bonds Water soluble/sensitive to changes in heat and Not water soluble/less sensitive to changes in PH heat and PH 18. What is protein denaturation? Is this process reversible or irreversible? If it can be either, under what conditions is it reversible? Irreversible? Protein denaturation is the process in which a protein unravels, losing its specific shape and thus its specific function. The process is irreversible. 19. Contrast protein denaturation with protein hydrolysis, in terms of level of structure affected and reversibility. Protein denaturation is reversible while protein hydrolysis is irreversible. Protein denaturation disrupts the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures while protein hydrolysis disrupts the primary structure. CARBOHYDRATES AND LIPIDS 20. Why is CHO a good abbreviation for carbohydrates? CHO is a good abbreviation for carbohydrates because it contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. 21. What are the monomer subunits for carbohydrates? The monomer subunits for carbohydrates is glucose. UNIT 2 – CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 2016 STUDY QUESTIONS 22. What is the structural difference between a monosaccharide, a disaccharide and a polysaccharide? How do they differ in function? A monosaccharide is simply one simple sugar molecule and a building block of carbohydrates. Its main function is to provide immediate energy, store energy and signal cells. A disaccharide is the result of two monosaccharides combined together by a dehydration reaction. A polysaccharide is hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides all linked together by dehydration reactions. Its main function is for longterm energy storage and structural compounds. (starch, cellulose). 23. What 4 different types of lipids exist? Where would you expect to find each one in the human body? Triglycerides (in adipose cells), phospholipids (major component of cell membrane), steroids () and waxes () 24. What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid? What are different health concerns associated with each? Saturated Fatty Acid Unsaturated Fatty Acid Hydrocarbon chain containing all single bonds Hydrocarbon chain containing 1+ double bond Solid at room temperature Liquid at room temperature Usually animalbased Usually plantbased Bad for you Good for you 25. Identify the monomer subunit for triglycerides and phospholipids. The monomer for triglycerides and phospholipids are glycerol or fatty acid. 26. Draw and label one phospholipid, in addition to labeling the component parts – appropriately include the terms hydrophilic and hydrophobic in your labels 27. Describe the unique structure of a steroid. Steroids have three 6sided carbon rings and one 5sided carbon ring. 28. Distinguish the 4 different types of lipids based on their function. 1. Triglycerides insulation and cushioning type of fat in animals, longterm energy storage 2. Phospholipids membrane structure, separation of waterfilled cell from watery environment. 3. Steroids impact growth and sexual development, membrane component 4. Waxes protects plant leaves and reduces dehydration. UNIT 2 – CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 2016 STUDY QUESTIONS CELL TYPES AND BASIC CELL STRUCTURE 29. What is a cell? What is the Cell Theory? A cell is the fundamental unit of life. A cell theory states that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells 30. What are the levels of biological organization? Ecosystem, Biosphere, Community, Population, Organism, Organ System, Organ, Tissue, Cell, Organelle, Molecule, Atom 31. What is the smallest/least complex level of biological organization that exhibits all of the characteristics of life? The atom 32. What are the characteristics of life? Order, Reproduction, Growth & Development, Energy Processing, Regulation, Response to the Environment and Evolutionary Adaption. 33. What 4 structures are present in ALL cells? Cytosol, chromosomes, ribosomes and cytoplasm. 34. What two major types of cells exist, and how do they differ? Give some specific examples. The two major types of cells are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic Cells are smaller, do not contain a nucleus to house DNA and the ribosomes are formed differently than eukaryotic cells. 35. Which major cell type includes the cells in your body? Give some examples of different cell types in your body. What distinguishes these cells from one another? Eukaryotic cells include the cells in your body. 36. Plants and animals (including humans) are multicellular organisms. What characteristics do they share? If all of the cells in a multicellular organism come from the same fertilized egg, how do different types of cells form? INTERNAL CELL STRUCTURE – EUKARYOTIC ORGANELLE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 37. Why does the inside of eukaryotic cells need to be subdivided into compartments (organelles)? What separates these compartments from one another? Identify 23 advantages of this compartmentalization. The inside of eukaryotic cells is subdivided into organelles because it is more efficient if those organelles perform specific functions in the cell in order for it to operate. 23 advantages of compartmentalization are: multitasking, concentration of compatible reactants, and separation of incompatible reactions. 38. What are the major intracellular structures of a eukaryotic cell and how are they arranged? The intracellular structures are: 1) Genetic Control: nucleus, ribosomes 2) Manufacturing, Distribution and Breakdown: RER, SER, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, vacuoles, peroxisomes 3) Energy Processing: mitochondria and chloroplasts and 4) Structural Support, Movement, and Communication between cells: Cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, extracellular matrix, cell junctions and cell wall. 39. What do the individual structures do for the cell (their function)? Use the “cell structure self quiz” on Blackboard (Unit 2 Lecture folder) to test your knowledge and understanding of cell types and cell structure and function. Be able to describe the structure and function of the: nucleus, nucleolus, rough ER, smooth ER, free ribosome, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, mitochondrion and cytoskeleton. The nucleus is bound by a porous, double membrane that stores DNA. The nucleolus is the site where rRNA is synthesized and assemble ribosomal subunits. The RER follows the synthesis, modification and packaging of a secretory protein, it is also “rough” because of the ribosomes attached. SER functions in a variety of metabolic processes such as lipid synthesis, stores calcium ions and is considered UNIT 2 – CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 2016 STUDY QUESTIONS “smooth” for its lack of ribosomes attached. Free ribosomes are ribosomes located within the cytosol whose function is to catalyze reactions. The Golgi apparatus serves as a molecular warehouse and processing station for products manufactured by the ER. 40. Do these structural parts of the cell work separately or together or both? If together, describe at least one example, listing the structures involved and explaining how they interact. The structural parts of the cell do work together. For example, the relationship between the nucleolus, ribosomes, RER and Golgi body. The nucleolus produces ribosomes that some attach to the exterior of the RER. The ribosome then inserts a polypeptide into the lumen (interior space inside ER) which becomes a secretory protein or glycoprotein. Then it transports the glycoprotein by transport vesicles to the Golgi body where it modifies, sorts, packages and ships products for export into or out the cell. 41. Describe the overall structure and function of the cytoskeleton. Distinguish between microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules. The cytoskeleton provides structural support as well as movement and plays a role in organizing the structures and activities of the cell. Microfilaments are thin fibers composed of globular proteins called actin that are arranged in a twisted double chain that helps support the cell shape. Intermediate filaments are made of fibrous proteins that supercoil into cables that reinforce cell shape and anchors organelles. Microtubules are straight, hollow tubes composed of globular proteins called tubulins that makes up flagella and cilia and acts as a track for movement of internal cell parts. 42. Identify and distinguish between 3 types of cell junctions that allow adjacent cells to interact. Tight Junction: forms water tight seal between two membranes; prevents leakage of fluid across a layer of cells. Anchoring junctions connect the cytoskeletons of adjacent cells and “anchors” the cytoskeleton to the ECM. Gap junctions are channels that allow small molecules such as ions to flow through protein lined pores between cells. 43. What is the difference between a plasma (cell) membrane and a cell wall? Plasma Membrane Cell Wall Thin Thick Semipermeable Fully permeable Found in all cells Found in prokaryotes Made of phospholipids, proteins, CHOs, Made of cellulose in plants or peptidoglycan in cholesterol bacteria Flexible Rigid Barrier, regulates transport, communication, Provides structure identification and recognition 44. What organelles are present in plants and not animals? How do their functions benefit plants? The organelles present in plants and not animals are: chloroplasts, cell walls, and central vacuole. CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 45. What is the structure of the plasma membrane of the cell? What molecules are present in this membrane? Draw a diagram of a segment of the membrane, and label each type of UNIT 2 – CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 2016 STUDY QUESTIONS molecule. The structure of the plasma membrane of the cell is represented by the fluid mosaic model. Tcell membrane is composed of phospholipids, embedded proteins, carbohydrates and cholesterol. 46. How can a signaling molecule from one cell alter gene expression in a target cell without even entering the target cell? Signal transduction pathway is a series of molecular changes that covert a signal on a target cell’s surface. The cell sends a message that secretes a signaling molecule. It then binds to a specific receptor protein that is in the target cell’s membrane. The binding activates relay proteins within the target cell. Transcription of a specific gene is now triggered. 47. What are the major functions of this outer membrane? Regulates the exchange of materials and also protects the cell. 48. What are the major types of membrane transport, i.e. ways by which material gets into and out of cells? How are they similar? How do they differ? Provide an example of a material that might be transported by each type of membrane transport. The major types of membrane transport are passive and active transport which deals with small solutes. Passive transport is the movement of molecules diffusing across its membrane (ex. Oxygen comes into cell and carbon dioxide leaves) and active transport is when a cell expends energy to move to a solute across a membrane to the more concentrated solute side. (ex. Moves sodium ions out of cell and potassium ions into cell.) Endocytosis (Cell takes in large molecules) (ex. Amoeba take in food particles this way) and Exocytosis (exports bulky materials) (ex. Cells in your pancreas secrete insulin by this way where it is picked up by the bloodstream.) deal with large molecules. They are similar because they all deal with the exchange of material and they are different because some transports only work with small solutes while others work with larger solutes. 49. What is osmosis? What is the relationship between osmosis and diffusion? Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. The relationship between them is that osmosis uses the process of diffusion to carry out its function. 50. How does a cell move material in bulk (large quantities) across the plasma membrane? By exocytosis. A transport vesicle filled with macromolecules buds from the Golgi apparatus and moves to the plasma membrane. Once there, the vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and the vesicle’s contents spill out of the cell. 51. What is tonicity and how would you expect an animal cell to react under different tonic conditions? Tonicity refers to the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water. Isotonic solutions are with the solute concentration is constant, gaining and losing water at the same rate. Hypotonic solutions are when a cell gains more water than it loses it, so an animal cell may burst. In a hypertonic solution, the cell loses more water than it gains so the animal cell with shrivel up and die.
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