COMMS 101 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE
COMMS 101 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE COMMS 101
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Christensen on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMMS 101 at Brigham Young University taught by Lisa Swenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Mass Comm & Soc in Communications at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
COMMS 101 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE WEEK 1 Communication — process by which messages are formulated, exchanged and interpreted in an attempt to gain shared meaning. You MUST have shared meaning. Shared Meaning — where both sides understand (text messages are often hard to accomplish this) Levels of Communication (3) Intrapersonal — communication with yourself Interpersonal — communication between 2+ people (verbal/non-verbal, accidental/intentional) o There can be a medium (phone, Skype, IM, etc.) o Characteristics (4) 1. 2+ individuals 2. Interactive 3. Two way 4. Not anonymous Mass Communication — using technology to communicate to a large unknown audience across time and space o Characteristics (5) 1. Messages are mass produced 2. One way: Sender → Receiver 3. Anonymous, impersonal 4. Passive audience, little/delayed feedback 5. More often persuasive o General Conference is an example of interpersonal AND mass communication o Types of Mass Comm (2) 1. Synchronous media → receive as transmitted (radio, live TV) 2. Asynchronous media → receive whenever (newspaper, billboards) o Functions of Mass Comm (4) 1. Surveillance → provide information about what is going on in society (journalism) 2. Correlation → how media portrays information to help others form an opinion 3. Cultural Transmission → culture transferring from one generation to another or to immigrants Mainly affects new people i.e. It’s a BYU cultural norm to ring check. You learn that when you come here. COMMS 101 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE 4. Entertainment SMCR/ Transmission Communication Model & Elements of Mass Communication: SITUATION Message (Content) Nn Encoding — creation and Decoding — understanding preparation for transmission the message ($) CHANNEL — medium used to transmit the message (print, audiovisual, or RECEIVER — typically SENDER — large interactive) group/individual anonymous audience for the message transmitting the message Feedback NOISE — interference in delivery & decoding of message Mass Media (3) → technological tools used to transmit messages 1. Print Media (books, magazines, newspaper) 2. Audiovisual media (radio, TV, podcast) 3. Interactive media (internet, apps) Contemporary Mass Comm Models Ritual Model → why we consume certain media & with who o Ritualistic? Going to the movies vs watching at home o It’s a shared experience Reception Model → what is your audience going to get out of your media? o Advertising, i.e. different people of different political beliefs will get different things out of political news stories Convergence (3) → coming together in a digital environment Technological → print to online (digital format) Economical → merging companies, consolidation (i.e. A broadcast and a radio news company combine) COMMS 101 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE Cultural → one group of people’s beliefs influence another (i.e. Thailand factory workers are fans of Sex and the City WEEK 2 Oral Society o Organized themselves into communities o Pass on stories (knowledge, experience, beliefs) o Meaning and language is very specific to local communities Print Society o Standardized language for people, increasing nationalism, no time and space constraints o Laws, rituals, and being able to own things Mass Communication (beginning in Rome) o Leisure time (news, govt, gossip) o Newsletters, regular postal service (a REGULAR means of communication) o Colosseum (main form of Mass Comm) Emperors would re-enact how awesome they were in battle Rome’s talking statues (first blog) Mass Comms — Roman Catholic Church o Communication down the line of authority began with Interpersonal and by the time it reached the congregation it had become Mass Comm Evolution of the Media World o Books and Printing Rise of the middle class (through the spread of religion and increase of literacy) because they had access to books that were originally restricted to the upper class (i.e., Bible) Moveable type and printing press made books easier and faster to print o Martin Luther — “The First Mass Communicator” “95 Thesis” (Protestant revolt against Roman Catholic Church) Posted on a church door and then sent copies throughout Germany Role of media in Contempory society o Agricultural society Living away from the city, print media to electronic media (telegraph, gramophone, radio) o Industrial Society Cultural shift to the cities “Era of Mass Communications” Internet, power given to individuals instead of companies, feedback o Informational society TODAY! Exchange of information, information overload, heavy dependence on technology Historical Development of Media o Regulatory factors o Sociocultural factors o Technological factors o Economic factors Pervasiveness of the media (3) COMMS 101 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE o Learn about the world o Express ideas o Media persuades us Information Storage o Clay tablets, papyrus, cloud, etc. o Storage technology — any type of device or medium in which information can be kept for later retrieval o Key Characteristics (5) Longevity i.e., hieroglyphics many let go of this for capacity/ portability capacity portability i.e., kindle can store thousands of books accessibility i.e., so many places to charge your phone in airports now reproducibility Social and Political Impacts o Western World shaped by media storage o Printing lead to literacy, advertising and trade o Electronic storage led to politics, social issues and legal case o With the whole police brutality issue soaring through social media— because there was a video, there was a case. Is more information a threat or an opportunity? o Threat — perhaps this is the reality of the situation. Misinformation What’s real? Use others ideas? (Pinterest) o Opportunity — ideal More resources Knowledge is power Increase agency in your thinking Opens up career opportunities. You don’t have to be just what your parents are. (i.e., Zootopia) WEEK 3: MEDIA LITERACY Instruction on how to use the tools wisely and for good. DEFINITION: being able to both understand and respond to media; gathering, analyzing and critiquing media so that we can better understand both who is sending the message and what is being left out. o What is media, how operated, what is the message, role in society, how audience response o Reading the media; educated media consumer COMMS 101 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE Remember that the media we see is from the choices and perspective of people who work for the media. FILTER. GATEKEEPING. Propaganda/censorship. o Media are constructions (biases, personal opinions, often not real even in documentaries) Media diet? o Why do you make the choices that you do? Four Basic Dimensions of ML — KNOW THESE o Cognitive — ability to process info o Emotional — feelings created by info o Aesthetic — ability to interpret from artistic/critical view o Moral — examining values MEDIA BIAS o Omission and selection Determining what to use, what Qs to ask Combat this by just going to different sources to try and get all sides o Story selection and placement Many people think that if there’s a big photo or front page article, it must be the most important. o Labeling (word choice) Terrorist vs freedom fighter… their opinion. o Spin Using particular words to influence a reader a particular way (tone) Over a thousand vs several hundred people o Photos, captions and camera angles Why do they choose the pictures for the article that they do? How do we learn to be media literate? — teach in school/ at home Qs to ask: o Who created this?/ Source o What’s the message? Lifestyle, values, points of view o How does it attract me? o Why? o Different interpretation? o What’s missing? 5 Core concepts — to remember o All media messages are contructed o Media messages are constructed using its own rules MEDIA BUSINESS Commercial Forces o Monopoly — market with many buyers and one seller o Oligopoly — control of supply in small number of producers o Media oligopoly — where ownership and diversity are limited and thus the action of any media group will affect its competitors (i.e. Comcast and Disney) COMMS 101 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE Types of consolidation o Concentration within one industry Advantage: can better invest in research and development Better training, higher salaries, better working conditions Keep up with technological change Disadvantage: message from one source instead of multiple, results lean towards profits instead of good products, concentration of information and marketing power o Conglomerate ownership (media and non media) i.e. Disney o Horizontal integration/ cross-media ownership — owning all types of media products but across the board Good for synergy — combination of effects that is greater than the sum of individual effects. Time Warner example: batman books, DC comic, six flag rides, x box games, etc. advertising for any of this is great for synergy (good for the brand of batman) o Vertical integration — owning everything from production through distribution Media Performance o Direct payment — bought from consumer o Indirect payment — revenue comes from advertisers Life cycle of media Short-head media: many people interested in few products o i.e. Many people go to Wal-Mart to buy Beyonce’s new CD. Then it dies out. Long-tail media: few people interested in many products o i.e. A local band gets their song on iTunes. They have few but devoted fans. Power of media o Concerned with transmission and storage of info o Power to influence mass audience o They are gatekeepers of information. WEEK 4 Mass Communication Theory and Effects (How Society and Media Interact) You will not be quizzed on dates, but you do need to know the people associated with the theories. MEDIA EFFECTS 2-hour violence movie vs a 30 sec super bowl ad ($4.5 billion to make us buy a product) … YES it has an effect on us Powerful/Strong/Direct Effects Model o That messages effect many people the same way COMMS 101 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE o Propaganda — dissemination of info with the intent to mold a public opinion (there is a cause behind it); a belief, cause, doctrine, etc. a deeper channel than simply advertising. o I.e., Orson Wells, War of the Worlds o i.e., Copycat crimes — shootings in CO, NJ, CT, etc. you want to copy things that you see/ hear in the media. Summer of Shark attacks (2001) o i.e., Media’s impact on Body Image — Dove Beauty Campaign — Who decides what is beautiful? o “Hypodermic Needle” or “Magic Bullet” Theory We are passive people that observe all we see. Everything affects us in the media Message Effects o Cognitive effects — what you think about the message you see o Attitudinal effects — feelings about certain brands o Behavioral effects — when you actually do something. A message that causes you to actually do something o Psychological effects — your reaction to those messages Limited Effects Model (Paul Lazarsfeld) o Paradigm shift — (mid-century) where people realized the media’s power over the public was seem limited (defy magic bullet theory) o Media effects are actually good o People are more likely to turn to friends, opinion leaders, neighbors, etc. rather than the media Two-step flow model Medium Effects o Joshua Meyrowitz — development of media can lead to changes in society i.e., video game and texting addicts o Marshall McLuhan — “the medium is the message”, the medium can affect the message you are trying to get out Media ecology — study of media environments and their effects Active Audience Effects o Know the impact of your message — geographics, demographics and psychographics (i.e., urban city dwellers that are pet lovers) Message Effects — cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, psychological Media Representations o Semiotics — the study of signs and symbols o Properties of signs: Signifier —a sign's physical form (such as a sound, printed word, or image) as distinct from its meaning Signified — concept the sign stands for COMMS 101 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE Symbolic Interactionism Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis o Words are symbols that only exist conceptually if we’ve given a word to it. Functional Analysis Theory (Harold Lasswell) o Major social functions of the media Surveillance — provide information, how to find out what’s going on Correlation — how we interpret and make sense of our world Transmission of culture — one generation to the next, how we learn the values of our society, binding across time and distance Entertainment — (added by Charles Wright) Uses and Gratifications Theory (Elihu Katz) o People go to the media to satisfy needs Entertainment/Time Punctuation Information/Surveillance Escapism/Nostalgia Companionship/Conversation building Problem Solving Personal Enrichment and Development Catharsis/Tension Release o Assumptions Active audiences have specific wants/needs Media competes with diff sources of gratification Audience consciously chooses media content Audience makes value judgements about media uses o BASICALLY, WE GO TO THE MEDIA. THEY DON’T ATTACK US Media Dependency (Sandra Ball-Rokeach & Melvin DeFleur) o The more depending an individual is on the media for having their needs fulfilled, the more important the media is to them. o i.e, 9/11, dependency on the news media increased 7x and then returned to normal by the end of the week Agenda Setting Theory (Donald Shaw and Maxwell McCombs, 1972) o Not what to think, but what to think about o Framing the Message How to think about it. i.e., how you put together your ad or magazine. How will your message be perceived by your audiences? Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura) o We learn by observing. (Bo Bo doll studies) o i.e., imitating violent video games or wrestling moves o TV Violence and Children COMMS 101 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE Greater aggressiveness, gradually accept violence as a way to solve problems, identify with certain characters, violence becomes the norm and become “immune to it” Desensitization Theory o People who are experienced to a lot of media violence have a higher tolerance for real-life violence o Media can make socially unacceptable behavior seem normal o Cultivation Analysis (George Gerbner) Watching lots of TV create a different real world view (mean world syndrome — more suspicious, view the world as viscious) TV distorts reality Stereotyping o Shared understanding of the group o A coping mechanism (decisions made on generalization) o Can be good or bad o Used to compensate for inability to get first-hand info WEEK 5 Media Law Roots of free speech lead to democracy (right to speak or right to not speak) The Fourth Estate: Legislative, Executive, Judicial, THE PRESS (fourth estate) o Bloggers (fifth estate) — keep mainstream news media in check o Shield laws Protect journalists from testifying in court or divulging sources Journalists can freely report the news Limits on Free speech o Alien and Sedition Acts Punished anyone who published “false, scandalous, or malicious writings” against US Government o Schenck v U.S. “Clear and Present Danger” clause Don’t shout fire in a crowded theater. o USA Patriot Act “Uniting and Strengthening American by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism” Prior Restraint o When the govt attempts to censor the press by restraining the media before something comes out. o Can only be exercised during time of war Obscenity — not protected by Amendment 1 COMMS 101 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE Indecency — subject to federal regulation; protected by Amendment 1; SAFE HARBOR PERIOD (10PM to 6AM) because children are most likely not to be watching broadcasting Libel vs Slander — false attacks on a person’s character that damages his/her reputation o Slander — spoken o Libel — print/written o John Peter Zenger — his court case was the first one and huge in libel. Truth is an absolute defense against libel/slander Published an editorial that was critical of the governor. Governor put him in jail, he continued to publish truth that wasn’t in favor of the governor. Yes he may be guilty, but the information is true. Therefore, truth is an absolute defense against libel. o Must prove the following for libel and slander: Defamation of character Identification (of person, not necessarily name) Publication Damage Malice o Times vs Sullivan — that’s where we get our malice clause Charges: factual errors and personal attack Decision: false statements against public officials made in good faith are protected; public officials have to show “actual malice” o Protection against Libel Careful Research Confirmation of identities Use of quotes and attribution Report facts No bias o Invasion of Privacy Intrusion Embarrassment — too embarrassing False light — portraying someone in a false light Misappropriation of identity — using name without permission o Protection of the Individual They haven’t volunteered themselves for public attention They are less able to defend themselves than public figures o Trespass — unauthorized entry into someone else’s territory Journalists can’t trespass even for a story They should avoid going undercover to get a story unless all means have been exhausted to get a story and the story is viable to the public. Investigative Journalism Nellie Bly — pioneer female journalists, around the world in 72 days, undercover journalists, o Went undercover in a mental institution to experience it for herself for 10 days “Ten Days in a Madhouse” COMMS 101 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE o Copyright Provides protection for invention designs and creative works for life of the author plus 70 use Criteria: must be permanent/stable; creation of ideas NOT ideas are copyrighted Images, designs, logo, or phrases Literary, musical, dramatic, sound recordings, etc. FAIR USE Portions of copyrighted work can be legally used under fair use Teaching, research, news reporting, critical reviews ETHICS Ethics — moral codes to live by Laws — codes of behavior that assign penalties Ethical Decision — something that people can appreciate whether or not they agree with it The Golden Rule — do unto others as you would have them do unto you The Golden Mean — Aristotle; moral value lies between two extremes (moderation) The Categorical Imperative — Immanuel Kant; what is right for one is right for all; right is right and should be done, no matter the circumstances o i.e., Stop at the stop sign even though it’s the middle of the night Utilitarianism — John Stuart Mills; greatest benefit for the greatest number o I.e., Nephi killed Laban so all his decedents could have the scriptures o i.e., social marketing The Veil of Ignorance — John Rawls; Social Justice, Justice is blind and emerges when everyone is treated without social differences (wealthy/poor, male/female, young/old) Performance Codes o Print Media Responsibility, Impartiality, Freedom of the Press, Fair Play, Independence, decency, Accuracy (seven Canons of Journalism) Revised to four main principles *** know this See truth and report it (identify sources, don’t distort content) Minimize harm (show good taste and compassion) Act independently (no accepting of gifts) Be accountable o Advertising industry Relies of individual agencies to come up with their own code of ethics Ethical Conflicts (3) o Public interests vs business interests o Cultural imperialism — forcing your culture on someone else or in your news story COMMS 101 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE o Conflict of Interest — any situation where a journalists might have personal involvement in a story or will gain anything in it i.e., Hitch (she has a conflict of interest in the story) Issues in Ethical Decision-Making o Howard and Korver’s tests “Other shoe” — how would you feel in another person’s shoe? “front page” — how would you feel if it made front page of a newspaper? “loved one” — how would you feel if it were a loved one? “role model” — would we do the same thing if it was about our children? “mother’s” — what would your mother think? GOOD LUCK!!
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