New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Victoria Andreski

Exam 2 Study Guide MGT 4000

Marketplace > Clemson University > Management > MGT 4000 > Exam 2 Study Guide
Victoria Andreski

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Study Guide
Organizational Behavior
Dr. Michael A Cole
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Organizational Behavior

Popular in Management

This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Andreski on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 4000 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Michael A Cole in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Management at Clemson University.

Similar to MGT 4000 at Clemson


Reviews for Exam 2 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/06/16
Ethics, Trust, & Justice • Trust—willingness to be vulnerable to an authority based on positive expectations about the authority’s actions and intentions. – Willingness to take a risk – Willing to be vulnerable • Disposition-based trust means that your personality traits include a general propensity to trust others. – Whastyou’re born with – 1 level; least complex – Has less to do with the authority and more to do with the trustor • Some trustors are high in trust propensity —a general expectation that the words, promises, and statements of individuals and groups can be relied upon. • Shaped from both genetics and environment • Cognition-based trust means that trust is rooted in a rational assessment of the authority’s trustworthiness. – Our trust begins to be based on cognitions we‘ve developed about the authority, as opposed to our own personality or disposition.-data – Trustworthiness is defined as the characteristics or attributes of a trustee that inspire trust. – Driven by the authority’s “track record.” • Competence is defined as the skills, abilities, and areas of expertise that enable an authority to be successful in some specific area. • Doctor, lawyer • Character is defined as the perception that the authority adheres to a set of values and principles that the trustor finds acceptable. • Walk the talk • Consistent with values? • Benevolence is defined as the belief that the authority wants to do good for the trustor, apart from any selfish or profit-centered motives. • Mentor-protégé • Is the person a nice person? • Are they trying to help others? • Affect-based trust means that it depends on feelings toward the authority that go beyond any rational assessment. – Highest level; most complex – Often more emotional than rational. – Acts as a leap of faith in the face of uncertainty about trustworthiness. – Sometimes acts as a supplement to the types of trust discussed previously. – An emotional bond develops, and our feelings for the trustee further increase our willingness to accept vulnerability. Types of Trust Over Tome   “World’s Most Admired Companies” Factors that Influence Trust Levels • Justice—perceived fairness of an authority’s decision making. • Distributive justice—reflects the perceived fairness of decision-making outcomes. – Employees gauge distributive justice by asking whether decision outcomes, such as pay, rewards, evaluations, promotions, and work assignments, are allocated using proper norms. – What gets distributed to you • Procedural justice—reflects the perceived fairness of decision-making processes. – Fostered when authorities adhere to rules of fair process. – Proceduresà how we made the decision – Rules: – Voice concerns giving employees a chance to express their opinions and views during the course of decision-making. – Improves employees’ reactions to decisions. – Correctability provides employees with a chance to request an appeal when a procedure seems to have worked ineffectively. – Consistency, bias suppression, representativeness, and accuracy rules help ensure that procedures are neutral and objective, as opposed to biased and discriminatory. – Interview questions, compensation practices Combined Effects of Distributive and Procedural Justice • Distributive justice and procedural justice combine to influence employee reactions. – When outcomes are bad, procedural justice becomes enormously important. • If prof. decided to give us all A’s, no one would want to know why • If prof. decided to give us all F’s, we would all want to know – Procedural justice tends to be a stronger driver of reactions to authorities than distributive justice. • How stuff is done creates more emotion than what happens • Interpersonal justice reflects the perceived fairness of the treatment received by employees from authorities. • Informational justice reflects the perceived fairness of the communications provided to employees from authorities. The Four Dimensions of Justice • Ethics—degree to which the behaviors of an authority are in accordance with generally accepted moral norms. • Research on ethics seeks to explain why people behave in a manner consistent with generally accepted norms of morality, and why they sometimes violate those norms. – 76 percent of employees have observed illegal or unethical conduct on the job within the past 12 months. – Whistle blowing occurs when employees expose illegal actions by their employer. The Four-Component Model of Ethical Decision Making • Moral awareness occurs when an authority recognizes that a moral issue exists in a situation or that an ethical standard or principle is relevant to the circumstance. • Moral judgment is when the authority accurately identifies the morally “right” course of action. • Cognitive moral development theory argues that as people age and mature, they move through several stages of moral developmentà each more mature and sophisticated than the prior one. Stages of Cognitive Moral Development Stage 1—do I get caught or do I get punished Stage 2—person covers for another to avoid punishment Stage 3—will mom love/approve of me if I do this or that Stage 4—don’t do something because rule says you can’t • Moral intent – The distinction between awareness or judgment on the one hand and intent on the other is important, because many unethical people know and understand that what they’re doing is wrong—they just choose to do it anyway. • Corporate social responsibility is a perspective that acknowledges that the responsibility of a business encompasses the economic, legal, ethical, and citizenship expectations of society. – A company’s obligations do not end with profit maximization. – Organizations have an obligation to do what is right, just, and fair and to avoid harm. • Wal-Mart • Steve Jobs—never gave any money to charity • Trust relates to performance because it increases an employees ability to focus.         Personality Tests • Integrity tests—focus specifically on a predisposition to engage in theft and other counterproductive behaviors. – Integrity test scores are more strongly related to job performance than conscientiousness scores.   • Clear purpose tests—ask applicants about their attitudes toward dishonesty, beliefs about the frequency of dishonesty, endorsements of common rationalizations for dishonesty, desire to punish dishonesty, and confessions of past dishonesty. • Veiled purpose tests—assess more general personality traits that are associated with dishonest acts. • About one-third of Fortune 1000 organizations relies on, or plans to implement, some form of personality testing. • Research suggests that almost everyone engages in some form of faking — exaggerating your responses to a personality test in a socially desirable fashion. • Because everyone fakes to some degree, correlations with outcomes like theft or other counterproductive behaviors are relatively unaffected. The Effects of Faking on Correlations with Integrity Tests • Personality refers to the structures and propensities inside a person that explain his or her characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. – Personality captures what people are like. – Traits are defined as recurring regularities or trends in people’s responses to their environment. • Cultural values, defined as shared beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in a given culture, influence the expression of a person’s traits. • How does personality develop? – Nature – Study of identical twins – Genes • Nurture – Surrounding – Experiences The Big Five Personality Traits • Conscientiousness - dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hardworking, and persevering. – Conscientiousness has the biggest influence on job performance. – Conscientious employees prioritize accomplishment striving, which reflects a strong desire to accomplish task-related goals as a means of expressing personality. • Agreeableness - warm, kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, and courteous. – Prioritize communion striving, which reflects a strong desire to obtain acceptance in personal relationships as a means of expressing personality. • Beneficial in some positions but detrimental in others. – Agreeable people focus on “getting along,” not necessarily “getting ahead.” • Extraversion - talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold, and dominant. – Easiest to judge in zero acquaintance situations — situations in which two people have only just met. – Prioritize status striving, which reflects a strong desire to obtain power and influence within a social structure as a means of expressing personality. – Tend to be high in what’s called positive affectivity — a dispositional tendency to experience pleasant, engaging moods such as enthusiasm, excitement, and elation. • Neuroticism - nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, and jealous. – Synonymous with negative affectivity — a dispositional tendency to experience unpleasant moods such as hostility, nervousness, and annoyance. – Associated with a differential exposure to stressors, meaning that neurotic people are more likely to appraise day-to-day situations as stressful. – Associated with a differential reactivity to stressors, meaning that neurotic people are less likely to believe they can cope with the stressors that they experience. – Neuroticism is also strongly related to locus of control, which reflects whether people attribute the causes of events to themselves or to the external environment. • Tend to hold an external locus of control, meaning that they often believe that the events that occur around them are driven by luck, chance, or fate. • Less neurotic people tend to hold an internal locus of control, meaning that they believe that their own behavior dictates events • Openness to experience - curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined, and sophisticated. – Also called “Inquisitiveness” or “Intellectualness” or even “Culture.” – Openness to experience is also more likely to be valuable in jobs that require high levels of creativity, defined as the capacity to generate novel and useful ideas and solutions. – Highly open individuals are more likely to migrate into artistic and scientific fields. • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (or MBTI) evaluates individuals on the basis of four types of preferences: – Extraversion (being energized by people and social interactions) versus Introversion (being energized by private time and reflection). – Sensing (preferring clear and concrete facts and data) versus Intuition (preferring hunches and speculations based on theory and imagination). – Thinking (approaching decisions with logic and critical analysis) versus Feeling (approaching decisions with an emphasis on others’ needs and feelings). – Judging (approaching tasks by planning and setting goals) versus Perceiving (preferring to have flexibility and spontaneity when performing tasks). DISC Profile • Dominance – relating to control, power and assertiveness • Influence – relating to social situations and communication • Steadiness – relating to patience, persistence, and thoughtfulness • Conscientiousness – relating to structure and organization Holland’s RIASEC model—suggests that interests can be summarized by six different personality types: • Realistic: Enjoy practical, hands-on, real-word tasks. • Investigative: Enjoy abstract, analytical, theory-oriented tasks. • Artistic: Enjoy entertaining and fascinating others using imagination. • Social: Enjoy helping, serving, or assisting others. • Enterprising: Enjoy persuading, leading, or outperforming others. • Conventional: Enjoy organizing, counting, or regulating people or things. Cultural Values • Employees working in different countries tended to prioritize different values, and those values clustered into several distinct dimensions. • Ethnocentrism—a propensity to view one’s own cultural values as “right” and those of other cultures as “wrong.” • Conscientiousness affects job performance. – It is a key driver of what’s referred to as typical performance, reflecting performance in the routine conditions that surround daily job tasks. – Tend to be more committed to their organization. • An employee’s ability is a key driver of maximum performance, reflecting performance in brief, special circumstances that demand a person’s best effort.         • If personality trait does not change across time, it is genetically loaded o #1 genetically loaded trait is extraversion, #2 openness • Non-genetically loaded traits: o Neuroticism—overtime neurotic behavior is not reinforced o Opposite of conscientiousnessà it’s the most environmentally charged § Actions/behaviors are reinforced o Agreeableness goes up over time § Get more pissed off by stuff when you’re younger; as you get older, you pick your battles and get more agreeable Reinforcement= increased behavior -Positive: If we’re doing something well, we get candy, and we do more of that good behavior -Negative: use a negative stimulusà perform the task so that we don’t get yelled at -Positive reinforcement @& extinction should be the most common forms of reinforcement used by managers to create learning among their employees -Child screaming in the store for candy (use condoms) >Negative reinforcement >Kid created a negative stimulus—to stop the screaming, dad would have to give him the candy >Increase candy behavior or increase condom use to create negative reinforcement -Time out= positive reinforcement >Technically a punishment—we have bad behavior and we want to decrease that behavior >Time out—put kid in “un-fun” situation where you put kid somewhere where tv isn’t—to work, it must time out must be a place the kid doesn’t like Interval=reinforcing TIME Ratio=reinforcing BEHAVIOR Fixed interval—paycheck Variable interval—supervisor walk-by telling random people good job Fixed ratio—piece-rate pay Variable ratio—commission pay (If you sell 2 cars, we’ll give you a bonusà varies based on what manager feels)à slot machine >Most addicting Fundamental Attributions • The fundamental attribution error argues that people have a tendency to judge others’ behaviors as due to internal factors • The self-serving bias occurs when we attribute our own failures to external factors and our successes based on our internal factors Escalation of commitment—decision to continue to follow a failing course of action


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.