Intro to Psych Exam 2 STUDY GUIDE
Intro to Psych Exam 2 STUDY GUIDE PSYC 1000
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Cialone on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1000 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Liza Lizcano in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Intro to Psych: Chapters 4-6 EXAM 2 Study Guide (Wednesday, Oct. 12, 2016) Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception Main terms to know Transduction- where one type of energy is transformed into another, the conversion of a stimulant into an electric signal Sensory Adaptation- the change in responsiveness of the senses to a stimulus, initially there is a high activation to the senses from a signal but over time it becomes neutral Absolute threshold- the lowest level of stimulus an organism can detect 50% of the time JND (Just Noticeable Difference)- the level something must be changed in order for it to be noticeable Weber’s Law- the proportional relationship between JNB and the original stimulus Accommodation- the process of changing existing ideas when given new information or new experiences Phantom pain- a pain sensation coming from a body part that’s no longer there Proprioception- a sense of perception of the position of the body Perceptual set- expectations influence perceptions Synesthesia- when a person’s senses cross Ex. Seeing sound or tasting colors Inattentional blindness- ignoring stimuli that is right in front of you because your focus is on something else Selective attention- focusing on one stimulus and ignoring others Pain threshold- the level at which a stimulus becomes painful Vestibular sense- equilibrium and balance What is sensation? It is the detection of energy Perception? How the brain interprets a signal PsychophysicsDiscovered by Fechner Signal Detection theory: the ability of an organism to use discrimination as well as the psychological factors that bias their judgments McGurk Effect: an illusion through a demonstration using hearing and vision The Eye Myopia: near sightedness, you can see up close but you cannot see far away Hyperopia: far sightedness, you can see far away but you cannot see up close Color perception Trichromatic theory: Opponent process theory: when you stare at one color for about 30 seconds and then look at a white blank page, you will see the other (opponent) color Red=green blue=yellow black=white Malfunctions Blindness: vision less than or equal to 20/200 on the eye chart Blind sight: when the brain does not measure visual input Visual agnosia: a person can describe objects but cannot name it The Auditory System What is sound? It is the vibration of waves Components: pitch, loudness and timber (the complexity of a sound) Place theory: different tones excite different areas of the basilar membrane Hearing Loss Conductive: when sound is not conducted efficiently from the outer ear canal to the eardrum and the ossicles Noise induced: caused by exposure to very loud sounds The Senses Olfaction: smell Gustation: taste Papillae: the little bumps on the tongue with taste buds Limbic system: emotions interfere with smell and taste perception ex. Being sick or depressed can make taste and smell almost non- existent Taste aversions: having linked food with a bad experience that the body does not want to experience again, the body develops a dislike for that certain food Somatosensory System How are we able to sense pain? Through specialized nerve endings Perception Processing Parallel: the brain can attend to multiple things at once Top-down: Bottom-up: start with stimulus and then make a hole from those parts of the stimuli Gestalt Principles +examples Proximity: when the brain perceives objects that are close together are seen as a group Similarity: similar objects form a whole Continuity: objects are whole even if something blocks a part of it Closer: the brain fills in the missing pieces (subjective contour) Symmetry: objects that are symmetrically arranged are whole objects Figure-ground: the brain focuses on an essential figure and ignores the background Chapter 5 Main terms to know Consciousness- state of awareness Lucid dreaming- the dreamer is aware that they are dreaming Déjà vu- the feeling of already experienced the present situation Tolerance- the ability to withstand something or a certain quantity, need greater amounts to get the same initial effect Withdrawal- a symptom someone can experience after the stopped usage of drugs or alcohol Dependence- reliance on something Sleep Sleep Theories Freud’s Dream Protection: dreams reveal what the brain wishes for, interprets dreams to have a hidden meaning Activation-Synthesis: dreams are the brains attempt to make sense of random signals Forebrain: damage can eliminate dreams Neurocognitive: dreams are a product of cognitive capacities Altered State of Consciousness Hallucination: realistic stimulations but no external stimuli Out of body experiences: consciousness has left the body Near-death experiences: when an organism encounters a near-death experience, they undergo certain states of being Ex. seeing a bright light or a loved one who has passed Mystical experiences- sense of wonder and awe Hypnosis Induction Method: thinking about pleasant things and relaxing Sociocognitive theory: responses to hypnosis depend on expectations or beliefs Myths: It is not a trance or like sleep It does not improve memory Hypnotized people do not forget what happened and are still aware of their surroundings when hypnotized Drugs and their effects Name Effect Example Depressants Decrease central Alcohol, Xanax, nervous system benzos (CNS) Stimulants Increase central Nicotine, cocaine, nervous system amphetamines (CNS) activity Opiates Decrease pain, Vicodin, heroin, cause a sense of morphine euphoria Psychedelics Alter mood and Marijuana, LSD, thoughts, change ecstasy perception Alcohol Influences: weight, food, male/female and setting Elevated mood Increased talkativeness Slowed thinking and impaired coordination Chapter 6 Main terms to know Extinction- the gradual weakening of a conditioned response, the behavior decreases or disappears Spontaneous recovery- the return of an extinguished conditioned response without reinforcement Extinction burst- when a behavior that has disappeared or put to a stop reappears Higher-order conditioning- when a stimulus is used in the initial step of learning the organism then uses this experience to base off of new stimuli Law of effect- responses that get a positive effect are more likely to occur again, but when responses get a negative effect they are less likely to occur Insight- “AHA” moment Scapegoat food- try a new food to pair with negative experience Conditioning Operant: behavior is controlled by consequences Examples Positive reinforcement: given candy to answer more questions Negative reinforcement: to stop a snooze alarm continuously Positive punishment: spanking Negative punishment: a girl wants her doll but she is cryingwait for the girl to stop crying and then give her the doll Classical: when two stimuli are repeatedly paired, one after the other Cognitive Models of LearningSkinner SR (Stimulus Response): Classical Conditioning SOR (Stimulus Organism Response): Classical conditioning the organism can decide how to react differently to the same stimulus Latent learning (Tolman): learning what we cannot see Competence: what you know Performance: showing what you know Instinctive drift: animals show their innate behavior when being reinforced Observational learning: learning by watching Mirror neurons: active during observation of action and found in the prefrontal cortex, linked with sympathy Preparedness -We are evolutionary predisposed to fear; we fear some things more than others Equipotentiality: the idea that we can condition to all things the same
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