Lab Practical 1 Study Guide
Lab Practical 1 Study Guide biol 216
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Charissa Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to biol 216 at Liberty University taught by Ms. Lenz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 11 Lab in Biology at Liberty University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Endocrine System Purpose of the Endocrine System 1. “Command and control”. 2. Monitor internal conditions and control slow or cyclic body functions. 3. Example: a. Female menstrual cycle. Organs of the Endocrine System 1. Brain 6. Heart 2. Pineal gland 7. Pancreas 3. Pituitary gland 8. Kidney 4. Thyroid and parathyroid 9. Adrenal glands 5. Thymus 10. Gonads – ovaries & testes *Some organs are both endocrine and exocrine. *Some organs are part of other body systems. The Pituitary Gland & Hypothalamus 1. Location of the pituitary in relation to the brain & hypothalamus: a. Pituitary stalk or infundibulum. 2. Basic anatomy of the pituitary gland: a. “Master gland” i. Produces hormones that directly control the activities of other endocrine glands (causing them to produce their own hormones). ii. Close physical and functional relationship with the hypothalamus of the brain. 3. Two methods of communication: a. Hypophyseal portal system (blood). i. From hypothalamus to anterior pituitary. b. Hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract (neurons). i. From hypothalamus to posterior pituitary. 4. Hypothalamus secretes regulatory hormones to control anterior pituitary hormones (Ex. TRH, GH- RH, etc.). 5. Anterior pituitary hormones: a. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone). b. LH (leutenizing hormone). c. ATCH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). d. GH (growth hormone). e. TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). f. PRL (prolactin). g. MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone). 6. Posterior pituitary hormones: a. ADH (antidiuretic hormone). i. A.k.a. vasopressin. b. OT (oxytocin). **These are made by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary. Pathologies 1. Growth hormone: a. Acromegaly – excessive GH after puberty (fusion of growth plates). b. Gigantism – excessive GH before puberty (bones and tissue never stop growing). c. Pituitary dwarfism. 2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone: a. Cushing’s disease – excessive ACTH excess cortisol. i. High blood glucose. ii. Fatty deposits. iii. “buffalo hump” b. Addison’s disease – lack of ACTH low cortisol levels. i. Fatigue. ii. Low blood pressure. iii. Pigmentation changes. Adrenal Glands 1. Two glands – rest superiorly on the kidneys. 2. Each gland has two layers: a. Medulla: i. Hormone releasing cells are triggered directly by the nervous system – neuroepithelial cells. ii. Controlled by sympathetic nervous system. iii. Releases epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) into the blood. 1. “Fight or flight” response. b. Cortex: i. Three regions (outermost to innermost): 1. Zona glomerulosa – salt. a. Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone). 2. Zona fasiculata – sugar. a. Glucocorticoids (cortisol). 3. Zona reticularis – sex. a. Sex hormones (androgens/gonocorticoids). Thyroid Gland 1. Produces two hormones: a. T 3triiodothyronine). i. Active form. b. T 4thyroxine). 2. Produced by follicular cells. a. Iodine is required for production. b. Hypothyroidic goiter is caused by iodine deficiency. 3. Released in response to TSH. a. Increases overall metabolic activity. 4. Parafollicular cells produce Calcitonin (CT). a. Cells monitor concentration of calcium in blood and release calcitonin when blood calcium is too high. b. Kidneys respond to CT by excreting calcium into urine, reducing blood levels. Parathyroid Glands 1. Four small nodules on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. 2. Produce PTH (parathyroid hormone). a. Released when blood calcium is too low. b. Kidneys respond by keeping calcium in the blood, and by releasing calcitriol (increases GI absorption of calcium). c. Stimulates osteoclasts that dissolve bone to add calcium to the blood. Pancreas 1. Exocrine function: a. Produce and secrete digestive enzymes. 2. Endocrine function: a. Islets of Langerhans i. Alpha cells – produce glucagon. ii. Beta cells – produce insulin. b. Cyclical maintenance of blood glucose levels. Pineal Gland 1. Produces melatonin. a. Regulates circadian rhythm. b. Production is lowest in daylight hours, highest at night. c. Higher during winter months – may play a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Endocrine Functions of Other Organs 1. The heart: a. ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide). b. BNP (brain natriuretic peptide). c. Released when chambers of the heart become over-stretched. d. Kidneys respond by increasing urine production, removing water from the blood reducing volume and pressure. 2. The kidneys: a. EPO (erythropoietin) – released in response to low blood volume. i. Stimulates production of RBCs. b. Renin – released in response to low blood flow resulting from low blood pressure. i. Stimulates release of ADH and aldosterone leading to water retention and increased thirst. c. Calcitriol, which is discussed earlier. 3. The intestines: a. Gastrin – produced by stomach. b. CCK (cholecystokinin) – produced in duodenum. 4. Adipose: a. Leptin – the “satiety hormone.” i. Made my adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. ii. Leptin is opposed by the actions of the hormone ghrelin, the “hunger hormone.” 5. The thymus: a. Lymphatic organ that atrophies with age. b. Produces thymosins – direct the differentiation of T cells, which are important for immune response. 6. The gonads: a. Ovaries – estrogen. b. Testes – testosterone. Adrenal Gland Anterior/Posterior Pituitary Thyroid and Parathyroid Pancreas Testes/Testis Ovary with Follicles Cardiovascular: Blood Introduction 1. The cardiovascular system has 3 main components: a. Blood – transportation medium for gases, proteins, cells, hormones, etc. b. Blood vessels – conduct blood to every cell in the body. c. Heart – pumps blood through the vessels. Properties and Composition of Blood 1. Blood is a connective tissue – composed of specialized cells suspended in an extracellular matrix. 2. Matrix is a liquid called plasma. a. Plasma is a viscous, watery solution containing numerous different solutes. 3. Specialized cells in blood are collectively called formed elements. a. RBCs. b. WBCs. c. Platelets. 4. Together they form whole blood. a. Whole blood is an extremely useful tissue clinically as alterations in its properties can provide clues to many pathological conditons. Components of Whole Blood Blood Plasma 1. Protein found abundantly in plasma is fibrinogen. 2. Fibrinogen is soluble in water. a. Converted to a non-soluble form called fibrin. b. Insoluble fibrin fibers catch cells floating in the bloodstream resulting in a blood clot. 3. Blood plasma with fibrinogen removed is called serum. The Formed Elements 1. Three types of cells: a. RBCs (red blood cells). b. WBCs (white blood cells). c. Platelets (thrombocytes). Red Blood Cells 1. Erythrocytes: a. Most abundant (~5 million RBCs per microliter of whole blood). b. Not “living” cells. i. No nucleus or mitochondria. c. Sacs filled almost entirely with one protein: hemoglobin. i. Reversibly binds oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the cells in the body. d. Only circulate through the bloodstream for 120 days before being replaced. 2. Structure = Function a. Several structural features that aid in their function, which is to deliver oxygen to all cells. i. Extremely small. 1. Increases rate of transmission of oxygen, allows RBCs to fit through tiny capillaries. ii. Flattened shape. 1. Allows them to stack like dinner plates as they pass through tiny capillaries. iii. Bi-concave discs. 1. Shape has the maximum surface area: volume ratio, increasing transmission rate of oxygen. White Blood Cells 1. Less than 0.1% of the formed elements. 2. Lymphocytes: a. Cells of the lymphatic system. b. Participate in immune response. c. Smooth appearance, thin crescent of cytoplasm, stain purple. 3. Basophils: a. Accumulate at injury sites. b. Release histamine and heparin. i. Histamine – dilation of blood vessels. ii. Heparin – slows blood clotting. c. Dark granules, nerd candy appearance, stain purple. 4. Neutrophils: a. Phagocytic – engulf and destroy foreign cells. b. Most abundant of the WBCs. c. Make up the white/yellow appearance of pus in a wound. d. Multi-lobed nucleus, stain pink. 5. Monocytes: a. Phagocytic – can destroy pathogens and infected body cells. b. Large cell, U-shaped nucleus, stain purple. 6. Eosinophils: a. Attack and destroy large invading organisms like parasitic worms. b. Light granules, bi-lobed nucleus, stain pink. 7. Platelets: a. Lack organelles, metabolically inactive. b. Small sacs filled with proteins for clotting. c. Proteins are required to convert fibrinogen to fibrin. Blood Typing 1. Blood type is determined by antigens present on the RBC surface. a. Rh antigen (“positive” or “negative”). b. A antigen. c. B antigen. 2. The body develops antibodies to any other type that is not naturally present. 3. Blood types cannot be mixed in the body. 4. Antibodies bind to foreign antigens agglutination (clumping) reaction. Blood Pathologies 1. Sickle Cell Anemia: a. Mutant hemoglobin distorts the shape of the RBC into a crescent, or sickle shape. b. Don’t transport oxygen as well. c. Clump up in blood vessels. 2. Leukemia: a. Cancer affecting leukocytes (WBCs) abundant, mutant leukocytes. 3. CBC – Complete Blood Count: a. Lab test to provide overall picture of patient’s blood. Cardiovascular: Heart Heart: A Double Pump 1. Pulmonary circuit. 2. Systemic circuit. a. Cardiac circuit. Surface Anatomy 1. Atria are smaller than ventricles. 2. Left ventricle is much larger and stronger than the right. 3. Remember: base, apex, ventricle, atria, interventricular sulcus, coronary sulcus, auricles, aorta, superior and inferior vena cava, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary veins, and coronary sinus. Internal Anatomy 1. Trabeculae carneae. 2. Atrioventricular valves (AV). a. Right – bicuspid, mitral. b. Left – tricuspid. c. Chordae tendineae. d. Papillary muscles. 3. Semilunar valves. a. Aorta. b. Pulmonary. Blood Flow through the Heart 1. Right atrium. 2. Tricuspid valve. 3. Right ventricle. 4. Pulmonary semilunar valve. 5. Pulmonary artery. 6. Lungs. 7. Pulmonary veins. 8. Left atrium. 9. Bicuspid valve. 10. Left ventricle. 11. Aortic semilunar valve. 12. Aorta. 13. Body. 14. Superior and inferior vena cava. 15. Coronary sinus. Cardiac Cycle 1. Sinoatrial (SA) node – “pacemaker” a. Begins heart contractions. b. Atrial contraction. 2. Atrioventricular (AV) node. 3. AV bundle. 4. Bundle branches. 5. Purkinje fibers. 6. Systole – chamber contraction. 7. Diastole – chamber relaxation. Electrocardiogram (ECG) 1. P wave – atrial depolarization. 2. QRS complex – ventricular depolarization. 3. T wave – ventricular repolarization. 4. The electrical event of depolarization implies the physical event of contraction. Blood Volume 1. End diastolic volume (EDV) – volume in ventricle at the end of diastole. a. 120 mL in the ventricle. 2. End systolic volume (ESV) – volume in ventricle at the end of systole. a. 50 mL in the ventricle. 3. Stroke volume (SV) = EDV – ESV. a. SV = 120 mL -50 mL 70 mL. Coronary Circuit 1. Arteries: a. Left coronary artery. b. Right coronary artery. c. Circumflex artery. d. Interventricular artery. 2. Veins: a. Small cardiac vein. b. Middle cardiac vein. c. Great cardiac vein. d. Coronary sinus. Cardiovascular: Blood Vessels Blood Vessel Functions 1. Assist heart in unidirectionally moving blood throughout the body. 2. Selectively permit exchange of nutrients within tissues. 3. Assist the formation of blood clots at sites of injury. 4. Help regulate systemic blood pressure. 5. Play important role in regulating body temperature. Types of Blood Vessels 1. Arteries. 2. Arterioles. 3. Capillaries: a. Most nutrient exchange occurs in capillaries. 4. Venules: a. Can have exchange and conducting functions. i. Normally the larger the diameter of the venule, the thicker the walls, and the less nutrients are exchanged. 5. Veins. Blood Vessel Structure 1. Arteries and arterioles carry blood away from the heart. 2. Veins carry blood toward the heart. 3. Structure: a. Tunica externa – connective tissue. b. Tunica media – smooth muscle and elastic tissue. c. Tunica interna – epithelial and connective tissue. Arteries and Arterioles 1. Elastic arteries: a. Generate pressure pulse. b. Recoil helps propel blood. 2. Muscular arteries: a. Propel blood. b. Regulat4 blood pressure. c. P = 1/r d. Circulatory shock: i. Body wide dilation of blood vessels dramatic drop in blood pressure. 3. Arterioles: a. Thin tunica externa. Capillaries 1. Tunica interna only. 2. Site of nutrient exchange. 3. Types: a. Continuous: i. Most common. ii. Muscle, fat, nervous, etc. iii. No holes. b. Fenestrated: i. Allows proteins and hormones to diffuse. ii. Kidneys, small intestine, endocrine. iii. Sporadic holes. c. Sinusoid: i. Allow whole cells to diffuse. ii. Liver, hematopoietic organs (spleen, bone marrow), lymph vessels. iii. Many holes. Capillary Bed 1. Supplied by single arteriole and drained by single venule. 2. Pericapillary sphincters on arteriole side. a. Not enough blood in the body for all tissue at the same time. b. Sphincters help tissues take turns (vasomotion). 3. About 1/3 of capillaries in any given bed are open at one time. 4. Think about places/times when you would want more sphincters open (high nutrient demand) or more closed (quick flow directly through the thoroughfare channels). Veins and Venules 1. Venules: a. Tunica externa and tunica interna. 2. Veins: a. Larger lumens than arteries. b. More numerous than arteries. c. Venous reserve: i. Spare blood in veins. d. Low pressures. e. Thermoregulation: i. Blood shunted from superficial to deep veins or vice versa. f. Valves and skeletal muscle contraction allow unidirectional flow to the heart. i. Valves are folds of the tunica interna. Pulse 1. Pulse pressure: a. Palpable pressure waves created by the alternating contraction/relaxing cycle of the beating heart. 2. Only arteries exhibit a pulse. a. Most arteries are deep to muscle or thick fascia, so there are a few places a pulse can be felt. 3. Pulse pressure can provide clues regarding the blood pressure and volume and/or the condition of the heat. Vessels to Know Arteries Heart o Pulmonary trunk o Aorta Ascending Aortic arch Brachiocephalic Left common carotid Left subclavian Descending o Left and right coronary o Anterior and posterior interventricular Head o Common carotid Internal carotid External carotid o Circle of Willis Middle cerebral Internal carotid Anterior communicating Posterior communicating Posterior cerebral Superior cerebral Inferior cerebrals Vertebral Basilar Upper limb o Subclavian o Axillary o Brachial o Radial o Ulnar o Palmar arches o Digital arteries Thoracic o Common carotid o Subclavian o Brachiocephalic o Internal thoracic o Anterior intercostal o Posterior intercostal o Thoracic descending aorta Abdomen o Abdominal descending aorta o Celiac trunk Splenic Left gastric Hepatic o Renal o Gonadal (testicular, ovarian) o Superior mesenteric o Inferior mesenteric o Common iliac o Internal iliac o External iliac Lower Limb o External iliac o Femoral o Popliteal o Anterior tibial o Posterior tibial o Fibular o Dorsalis pedis o Digital Veins Heart o Superior and inferior vena cava o Coronary sinus o Small, middle, great cardiac o Pulmonary Head o Superior sagittal sinus o Straight sinus o Transverse sinus o Sigmoid sinus Neck o Internal and external jugular o Subclavian o Brachiocephalic Upper limb o Subclavian o Axillary o Cephalic o Basilica o Median cubital o Ulnar o Radial o Brachial o Palmar arches o Digital Thorax o Superior vena cava o Hemiazygous o Azygous o Posterior intercostal o Ascending lumbar Abdomen and Pelvis o Inferior vena cava o Renal o Gonadal (testicular and ovarian) o Common iliac Hepatic portal system o Hepatic portal o Cystic o Splenic o Superior and inferior mesenteric o Gastroomental o Gastric Lower limbs o External iliac o Femoral o Deep femoral o Great saphenous o Small saphenous o Popliteal o Anterior tibial o Posterior tibial o Fibular o Planta o Venous arch o Digital Cat Dissection Vessels Thoracic arteries o Brachiocephalic o Common carotids o Subclavians o Axillary Thoracic veins o Pre cava (superior vena cava) o Subclavians o External jugular Arm arteries o Axillary o Brachial o Radial o Ulnar Abdominal arteries o Abdominal aorta o Gastric o Hepatic o Splenic o Common iliac o Renal o Inferior mesenteric Abdominal veins o Post cava (inferior vena cava) o Renal o Hepatic portal o Common iliac Leg arteries o Femoral o Popliteal o Saphenous Leg veins o Femoral o Popliteal o Great saphenous Heart o Aortic arch o Brachiocephalic trunk o Left subclavian o Right subclavian o Superior vena cava o Pulmonary trunk o Ventricles o Atria o Auricles o Inferior vena cava o Anterior and posterior interventricular arteries Lymphatic System Functions 1. Circulates interstitial fluids. a. AKA extracellular fluid – surrounds cells in tissues. b. Enters from arterial capillaries but does not enter venous circulation. c. Edema – accumulation of fluid in body tissues. 2. Cleanses those fluids of debris, wastes and most importantly invading organisms. a. Ex. Bacteria. Tissue Fluid Circulation 1. Collected fluid is called lymph. a. Drains into lymphatic capillaries. b. Passes through lymph nodes. i. Filtered and cleansed. Lymph Flow 1. Lymphatic capillaries. 2. Lymphatic collecting vessels. 3. Lymphatic ducts. 4. Right lymphatic duct. a. Drains right side of thorax, head, and arm. 5. Or thoracic duct. a. Drains rest of the body. 6. Cisterna chyli. a. Lymph from legs and abdomen collects here before entering thoracic duct. b. Receives fatty chyle from intestines (rich in lipids). 7. Unidirectional – toward the heart. 8. Lymph vessels contain numerous valves. 9. Lymph is propelled by massaging action of working skeletal muscles. Lymph Nodes 1. Large nodes: a. Inguinal. i. Groin area. b. Axillary. i. Armpit. c. Cervical. i. Neck. d. Mammary (females). i. Breasts. 2. Clustered in moist, warm areas subject to invasion by pathogens. 3. During infection they may become swollen. Lymph Node Anatomy 1. Afferent ducts. 2. Efferent ducts. 3. Cortex. 4. Medulla. 5. Follicles. 6. Rich in lymphocytes. Other Organs & Tissues 1. Spleen: a. Filters blood. 2. Tonsils: a. 3 pairs: palatine, lingual & pharyngeal. 3. Thymus: a. Development of T cells. b. Atrophies with age. 4. Peyer’s patches: a. Lymphoid tissues distributed along the GI tract. b. Density increases toward distal end where E. coli grows abundantly. Lymph Node Histology Spleen Histology Peyer’s Patches Histology
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