Sociology Study Guide for Test 2
Sociology Study Guide for Test 2 SOCI 1301 06
Sam Houston State University
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SOCI 1301 06
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Renata Griggs on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCI 1301 06 at Sam Houston State University taught by Professor Zimpfer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Principles of Sociology in College of Humanities/Soc Sc at Sam Houston State University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Sociology Test Two Study Guide Primary and Secondary Groups Primary Groups are considered “Close Ties” Primary Groups are characterized by intense emotional ties, intimacy, and identification with membership in the group Secondary Groups are considered “Impersonal Ties” Secondary Groups are large, impersonal groups with minimal emotional and intimate ties (Cooley1909). Secondary Groups may evolve into primary groups for some members The Power of Groups Cooley’s “Looking – Glass Self” describes how we judge ourselves by how we think we appear to others Reference Groups provide a standard for judging our own attitudes or behaviors Group think A process by which the members of a group ignore ways of thinking and plans of action that go against the group consensus Characteristics of Bureaucracies Bureaucracies are rational not reasonable 5 Characteristics that are found in a Bureaucracy 1. Written Rules and Regulations 2. Specialized Offices 3. Knowable Hierarchy 4. Impersonality in Record Keeping 5. Technically Competent Staff Group size and relationships German sociologist Georg Simmel (1858 – 1918) was the one of the first to call attention to the influence of group size on people’s behavior The simplest group, which Simmel (1955) called a Dyad, consists of two persons. Dyads offer both intimacy and conflict Are likely to be simultaneously intense and unstable Adding on other person to a Dyad changes the group relationship considerably, making what Simmel termed a Triad. Triads are apt to be more stable than Dyads, since the presence of a third person relieves some of the pressure on the other two members to always get along and maintain the energy of the relationship An Alliance or Coalition may form between two members of a triad, enabling them to “gang up” on the third member, thereby destabilizing the group Social Closure, a concept originally developed by Max Weber, is especially relevant here, insofar as it speaks to the ability of a group to strategically and consciously exclude outsiders or those deemed “undesirable” from participating in the group or enjoying the group’s resources Deviance and biology argument Deviance is any attitude, behavior or social condition that violates cultural norms or societal laws and results in disapproval, hostility, or sanction if it becomes known Biological Perspective Early sociologists thought that biology was to blame for deviant behavior They claimed that deviants were atavisms or throwbacks to primitive early humans (Lombroso 1896) Phrenology is the theory that skull configurations of deviant individuals differed from those of nondeviants Labeling and Labeling theory Labelling Theory holds that deviant behavior is a product of labels that people attach to certain types of behavior From this perspective, deviance is seen as socially constructed. Holds that deviance is the product of interactions wherein the responses of some people to certain types of behaviors produces a label, which also end up being applied to people engaging in certain types of behavior, can influence how people conduct themselves Also called Societal Reaction Theory Types of deviance Everyday Deviance – A broad spectrum of acts could fall under this particular label, from plagiarism among high school students, shoplifting, underage alcohol consumption, spitting, using pornography, smoking, binge eating, eating meat, or calling in sick to work or school when you actually feel fine Sexual Deviance – Sex, sexual orientations, sexual practices are diverse, as are the responses to them Deviance of the Powerful – Fraudulent reporting of corporate profits to the misleading of investors to bribery, corruption, misuse of public trust, and violence against ordinary citizens Crime – Deviance that is applicable to legal sanctions White – Collar Crime – Crime committed by people of high social status in connection with their work Organized Crime – Crime committed by criminal groups that provide illegal goods and services Violent and Property Crimes Police corruption and brutality State Crimes – When government organizations enlist in criminal activity Characteristics of Class and Caste societies Class Societies In a Class Society social mobility allows an individual to change their socioeconomic position Open societies Economically based – Class is determined by money Relatively fluid – The class that you are born in is not necessarily the class that you will remain in throughout life Caste Societies The society levels are closed, so that all individuals remain at the social level of their birth throughout life No opportunity for social or economic growth Historically, caste societies are a part of ancient civilizations and third world countries such as India Modernization theory A marketoriented development theory that envisions development as evolutionary and guided by “modern institutions, practices, and cultures. This theory is associated with the work of Walt Rostow (1961) World Systems theory The global capitalist economic system has long been shaped by a few powerful economic actors, who have constructed it in a way that favors their class interests Characteristics of core, periphery, and semiperiphery countries Core Countries: The economically advanced Peripheral Countries: Low national incomes and low levels of technological and industrial development Semiperipheral Countries: Share some characteristics with both core and peripheral states ‘lookingglass self’ The concept developed by Charles Horton Cooley that our selfimage results from how we interpret other people’s views of us Durkheim and anomie Anomie is a state or normlessness that occurs when people lose sight of shared rules and values that give order and meaning to their lives Durkheim raised the question of what would hold societies and communities together as they shifted from homogeneity and shared cultures and values to heterogeneous masses of diverse occupations, cultures, and norms Types of groups Organizations – A group with an identifiable membership that engages in concerted collective actions to achieve a common purpose Formal Organization – Rationally designed to achieve particular objectives, often by means of explicit rules, regulations, and procedures Utilitarian Organizations – Those that people join primarily because of some material benefit they expect to receive in return for membership Coercive Organizations – Those in which members are forced to give unquestioned obedience to authority Normative Organizations – Voluntary associations, are those that people join of their own will to pursue morally worthwhile goals without expectation of material reward Types of capital Economic Capital – The most basic form, consists of money, and material that can be used to access valued goods and services Social Capital – The personal connections and networks that enable people to accomplish their goals and extend their influence (Bourdieu, 1984; Coleman, 1990; Putnam 2000) Cultural – Anything that is lifestyle Language, habits, manners, etc. Strain theory Robert K. Merton adapted Durkheim’s concept of anomie Structural Strain is a form of anomie that occurs when a gap exists between the culturally defined goals of a society and the means available in society to achieve those goals Opportunity theory Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin (1960) felt that while Merton’s theory helped us to understand the structural conditions leading to high rates of deviance, it neglects the fact that not everyone has the same access to deviant solutions The theory that people differ not only in their motivations to engage in deviant acts but also in their opportunities to do so Social stratification Social Stratification is the systematic ranking of different groups of people in a hierarchy of inequality Social Inequality is a high degree of disparity in income, wealth, power, prestige, and other resources ‘working poor’ “Working Poor” are the people who have lower incomes and little or no wealth, their wages fail to lift them above the poverty line, and many struggle to meet their basic needs Working Poor is the margin of individuals who are not really poor but they aren’t working class either Achieved and ascribed status Achieved Status – Social position linked to an individual’s acquisition of socially valued credentials or skills Ascribed Status – Social position linked to characteristics that are socially significant but cannot generally be altered (such as race or gender) Functional alternatives Gans notes that the “functions” served by the poor have functional alternatives – that is, they could be fulfilled by means other than poverty However, he suggests, those who are betteroff in society are not motivated to fight poverty comprehensively because its existence is demonstrably functional for them
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