Pols 2401, Study Guide
Pols 2401, Study Guide POLS 2401 010
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Cole on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 2401 010 at Georgia State University taught by Professor Gulcan Saglam in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Global Issues in Political Science at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
STUDY GUIDE (Major Exam 1) Please remember that this is just a tool to help you structure your studies better. You will be responsible for the readings and anything we have learned in class. You also need to be aware of what is happening in the world as well as the foreign policy positions of presidential candidates. 1. Key structural features of the contemporary international system- States are an international actor. INGOs- (states are not members; individuals are)-Having a cause, Non-profit, trying to change government (Red Cross) IGOs- (ex. United Nations, NATO, European Union) (States are members) MNC- McDonald’s, Coca-Cola, Twitter Transnational Actors: 1. MNC 2. INGOs 2. The evolution of the concept of “state” and the idea of “state sovereignty.” Sovereignty- not having any power above the state. Leads to Anarchy in international system and it basically means no higher authority above the states. UN highlights state sovereignty, UN can’t tax, only has power the states give it. State- recognition of other states and consent of the people. a. “Nation state” vs. other forms of states Nation State- each nation should have their own state and state should consist of a nation. A nation state and state are inter changeable. city states- city that is recognized as a state. empires- has power over different states and nations. kingdoms- feudal state- king, lords, etc. b. The Treaty of Westphalia-establishes current international system. started organizing states: sovereignty after this treaty. 3. The concept of “nation” and the historical rise of nationalism Nation- imagined community; feeling of belonging to this group, shared identity. o Modern interpretation- shared language, location, born in that country, common culture/history and religion. o Ethnic interpretation- kinship, DNA, ethnicities Nationalism- shared sense of identity, Pride in the country. Patriotism is loving your country but not feeling it is superior over another. o Claims a territory o Feeling of superiority o French revolution- lead to raise of nationalism- started idea of French nation- started the idea of nation. 4. Migrant vs. refugee Migrant- someone who willingly goes to another country for work, education and etc. Economic reasons- but you can always go back to your country. Refugee- leave their country for safety, political reasons: race, religion and etc. Must cross an international border. Asylum seeker- have to receive access from destination country to go and receive asylum there. a. 1951 Refugee Convention- doesn’t protect migrants b. Who falls under the protection of the Convention? Refugees and asylum seekers c. Who is missing from this definition? migrants Non-refoulement- destination country cannot send refugee back to an unsafe place. (all refugees are asylum seekers, but not all asylum seekers are refugees) 5. International Organizations (IOs) or more specifically International Governmental Organizations (IGOs) a. Students should be able to identify the main organs of the United Nations and their functions. Major objection of UN: protecting international peace and security, protecting human rights and eliminating poverty. o Three pillars of UN – covers sub categories as well, such as Peacekeeping, Disarmament etc. i. Tensions Goal of effective international action vs. state sovereignty o State sovereignty stops us from interfering in international situations. Not able to enforce actions (states must take action instead) ii. Global government vs. Global governance Global government- higher authorities, enforce laws Global governance- actors of that issues, come together and agree on principles (solutions). iii. The process by which states become a UN member 2/3 vote of the general assembly. General Assembly- all states represented, all states equal, one vote. ICJ- international court of justice; it’s a UN organ. Tries states. Treaty disputes between states. Security Council- 5(US, UK, France, China and Russia) permanent members: organize peace and security. The permanent members have veto powers. ICC- not under UN, tries individuals. Genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes. 6. Regional IGOs a. European Union i. Intergovernmentalism vs. Supranationalism Supranationalism- giving up some sovereignty and give it to a higher authority (ex. European Union) Intergovernmenatlism- ii. Functionalism + spillover Started small as coal steel company. Spill over- led to EU eventually, common currency. iii. How many members? 28 iv. Who were the founding members? West Germany, France, Belgium, Netherlands, and v. Historical Evolution of the EU Functionalism & spillover effect à 1951 The European Coal and Steele Community, 1957 Treaty of Rome (European Economic Community, founding document of today’s EU- common market), 1992 Maastricht Treaty (changed the organizations name to EU) vi. Widening: adding new members vii. Deepening: furthering involvement. viii. Challenges to EU 7. Transnational Actors à Multinational Corporations a. International Nongovernmental Organizations i. World Economic Forum Non- profit org., Created in 1971- elite, political leaders are here- one of the most important. ii. Amnesty International Founded in 1961 in London, England. Involves human right abuses and campaigns for compliance with international laws and standard. 1977- Nobel Peace Prize iii. Doctors without Borders Provides health care for everyone who is affect. 1961 in Paris, France. 1999- Noble Peace Prize 8. International Law a. Definition b. Sources of International Law (and also what is NOT a source) c. Central Problem Enforcement i. Determination of Violations: ii. Enforcement 1. Enforcement by Int’l organizations 2. Self enforcement 3. Blended enforcement 9. Human Rights a. Definition- “Inalienable and inviolable rights of all members of the human family.” b. History of Human Rights c. UN Declaration of Human Rights-as the consummate document has many origins/ basis: Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, US Bill of Rights, etc. i. First Generation Rights We call these civil rights- Similar to Bill of Rights They serve to protect individual from state power. ii. Second Generation Rights State has to step in to help these rights Economic, social, and cultural articles iii. Third Generation Rights Group and collective rights, the rights to health environment d. Tensions i. Universalism vs. Relativism Relativism- longstanding customs are considered by some to be legitimate. ii. State sovereignty vs. Human Rights interventions State Sovereignty- UN charter guarantees this and nonintervention. e. Challenges to implementation Some countries signed w/ no intention of implanting rules. Some countries, regardless of human rights record, do not want to submit to jurisdiction of world bodies. State Sovereignty hinders international enforcement f. Enforcement i. Responsibility to Protect The State is primarily responsible for the protection of populations from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing The international community has a responsibility to assist. The international community should use diplomatic, humanitarian, and other means to protect those of these crimes. ii. Ad Hoc Tribunals Nuremburg and Tokyo trails after WW2 Rule of law iii. ICC 1. Jurisdiction- tries individuals not states 2. Non-members are Israel, Russia, China, US, and India why are not they members? US- didn’t want another factor to be able to run their forces, army, or someone above them. iv. Regional Human Rights Org. European commission on human rights, 1950 The European court of human rights, 1959 Inter-American commission on human rights v. Non-governmental Human Rights Org. 10. Genocide a. Definition: the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, or religious group. b. 8 Stages of Genocide Classification- distinguish by nationality, ethnicity, race, or religion Symbolization- languages, types of dress, group uniforms Dehumanization – one group denies the humanity of another group, and makes the victim group seen subhuman. Organization- genocide is a group crime, so must be organized. Arms and financially support the group that conduct the genocide massacre. Polarization-laws are passed that forbid intermarriage/ social interaction. Hate groups broadcast and print polarizing propaganda. Extermination- “Cleansing society”, because they do not believe the victims are fully human. Denial- found during and after genocide. Continual denial- among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. Examples: Nazi- Holocaust, Trail of Tears, Iraq Kurds, Bosnian Genocide, Rwandan, Armenian.
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