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A&P Study Guide

by: Daria Hebron

A&P Study Guide Biol221-001

Daria Hebron
GPA 3.5

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These notes will cover whats going to be on the exam !! They are really helpful.
Human Anatomy % Physiology
Dr.Harald Beck
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Daria Hebron on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol221-001 at Towson University taught by Dr.Harald Beck in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy % Physiology in Biology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
[Anatomy and Physiology I ] [Prof. Harald Beck] [Exam 1] Highlight = Important Principle            Highlight = Important Concept           Highlight = Key Term [Chapter# 1] [Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology ] [Specialities of Anatomy & Physiology]  Definition and examples of Gross Anatomy o Macroscopic (gross anatomy) is the examination of large structures without using a  microscope, hence the word GROSS=LARGE  o Developmental anatomy is the study of structural changes between conception (egg) and adulthood.  o Systemic anatomy­ the body is studied system by system  o Clinical Anatomy­medical specialities  Definition and examples of Microscopic anatomy  o MICROscopic anatomy = examination of SMALL structures like cells and molecules o Cytology­ study of Cells structures,  o Histology ­ study of tissues  Physiology=functions or process   Cell physiology is the process of cells  Systemic physiology is the functions of an organ system [Organization Levels of the Human Body ]  Atom.Molecule.Cell.Tissue.Organ.Organ system.  Organism.  Chemical level  o Atoms combine to form molecules  o Atoms are the smallest , tiniest building blocks of matter  Cell Level o Cells are basic structures and functional units of plants and animals o Molecules form organelles which are make up of cells o example , mitochondria is the powerhouse for cell, it produce ATP  for cells  Tissue Level o Tissues are made up of similar cells working together o The surrounding material characterize the function of the tissue  Organ Level   Organs are combined with different tissues operating together   Organ system Level  Different organs working together ,       ­Organism Level      ­organ systems make up a person or organism [Homeostasis]  Maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body o All organs systems work together to maintain a constant environment in the body   o variables: temperature, volume, oxygen, nutrients molecules, carbon dioxide, water, salts ,pH, and pressure  Intrinsic or AUTOregulation   o AUTOmatic response to a change in the environment  o Example: Oxygen levels decreased → cell releases chemicals → the blood vessels are  dilated  →oxygen levels increase  o Example:   Extrinsic regulation  o Responses controlled by the endocrine or nervous system, not automatic  o Example: exercising, your nervous system needs an increase in heart rate → blood  circulate faster→ decrease blood can circulate tract  Negative Feedback:  1. Stimulus detects a change in your body when you are exercising. your heart rate  increases, body is overheating,  and you losing oxygen  2. Receptor: receives the information the stimulus simulated. Your runs and tell the  control center 3. The control center , your brain, process what the receptor was saying and sends  the instructions to stabilize your body  4. The effector receives the instructions and your body start to release heat by  sweating, more blood pumping to the areas that lack oxygen  Positive Feedback : blood clotting 1. Blood vessels is damaged 2. Damaged cells, or platelets release chemicals 3. Platelets piled up on injured site, creating a clot  4. Blood vessel is fixed but now a huge clot in the bloodstream=fatal  [Chapter # 29] [Development] [Stages of Development ]  Embryological development  o Occurs in the first 8 weeks after fertilization  o Prenatal development o Detail  Fetal development  o Starts at the 9th week and continues until birth o Prenatal development   Postnatal development   Starts a birth   Continues to maturity when aging process begins  [Fertilization]  Introduction  Oocyte (egg)  is the female gamete.   ­provides cellular organelles ,genetic programming and nourishment   Sperm is the male gamete.   ­delivers paternal chromosomes, uses flagella to swim,   Egg+sperm= zygote( fertilized egg)  ­the zygote have 23 PAIRS of chromosomes, 23 each from its mother and father          Process of Fertilization o 1. During ejaculation, more than hundred millions sperm enters the vagina but only 1  sperm fuse with the egg. o 2. The head of the sperm(acrosome) will release hydrolyze enzymes to break down the  corona radiata (jelly coat that protects the egg).  o 3. The plasma membrane of the sperm and the egg is fused together.  o 4. Then the sperm’s nucleus is released into the egg. o 5. Once the one sperm’s nucleus is in, the egg membrane hardens and the other sperm  cells are inactivated, this process is called cortical reaction.  o The zona pellucida, which is the thick transparents membrane surround the ovum (egg)  make sure an egg with not get  fertilized by multiple sperm, polyspermy(poly=many)  Place where fertilization happens?  o Occurs in the uterine tube o The sperm meets the egg or oocyte in the uterine tube   Monozygotic twins (identical twins)  One egg splitting and form two embryos   Dizygotic twins (fraternal twins)   Two different eggs being fertilized by two different sperm cells [Regulation of Developmental processes]  Cleavage  o Series of cell divisions to form a ball of cell (morula) then eventually develop into in  blastocyte o Day 0. Ferlitization happens o Day 1­3. Blastomeres (identical daughter cells) are present and divides. The pre­embryo  starts to look like a morula (ball of cells). o Day 4­5. Morula reaches the uterus. o Day 6. blastomeres, which are not identical anymore, forms a blastocyst.  ­blastocoele: blastocyst cavity ­trophoblast: outer layer of cells  o Two layered blastocyst outer layer is trophoblast. ­cells separating the outside world from the blastocyst cavity  ­ provides nutrients to the immature embryo  Two layered blastocyst  inner cell mass  Cluster of cells that are exposed to the cavity  Will form embryo  Day 7­10. Implantation of the blastocyst  in the uterine wall.                      ­ the blood vessels starts to form around the blastocyst →placenta forms   Formation of the Amniotic Cavity  (Day 9)  Inner cell mass forms the amnion which form the amniotic cavity   2 layers :one that faces the amniotic cavity( superior layer)  and the other one faces the  cavity ( deep layer)  Formation of the yolk sac (Day 10)  Formation of the yolk sac includes the migration of the cells from the deep layer that  surrounds the edges  Yolk sac help form digestive tract, blood cell, and sperm   Gastrulation (Day 12)        ­ forming the third layer of the embryo        ­migrating superficial cell goes inside creating three layers:          ­ Ectoderm­ superficial cells                                       ­ Mesoderm­middle layer with migrating cells ­ Endoderm­ deep layer cells         ­ Embryonic disk is formed by gastrulation and it will formed embryo  Allantois         ­ form the umbilical cord  and urinary bladder  Chorion         ­is formed by the mesoderm, trophoblast  [Chapter # 5] [Histology] [All about Epithelia Tissue]  Structure of E.T o Layer covering external surface or internal layer of the body  o Glands  o Detail  Functions  o Physical protection  o Permeability  o Sensations o secretions(glands)  Characteristics o Polarity       ­ apical and basolateral surface       ­ cilia are motile organelle that moves fluids and particles by synchronized beating        ­ microvilli :cellular membrane protrusions that increase surface area 20 times     transport and absorb and secrete in areas of the digestive tract  o Cellularity       ­ Tight junctions: preventing  passage between cell membranes with the adhesion  belt and restrain wastes in the lumen        ­ Gap junctions: together by channel proteins, allow cellular communications, and  passage of molecules to pass       ­ Desmosomes  1. Button desmosomes hold cells together and allows mechanical stress 2. Hemidesmosomes are attached to the basal lamina (“the ground”) o Attachment o Avascularity o Regeneration       ­epithelia is replaced by germinative stem cells near the basal lamina  Layers and shape and epithelia                     ­Simple Squamous epithelia : single and flat cells that  are highly permeable.        ­mesothelium (lines body cavities)/Endothelium (lines heart and blood vessels       ­     Stratified Squamous Epithelium : multilayers flat cells                                  ­protects from stress/Keratin proteins add strength and water resistance                                  ­ lines of mouth, surface of skin, throat and esophagus, anus, and rectum         ­     Simple Cuboidal Epithelium: single layer of cube shaped cells       ­ protects, secretes, and absorbs       ­ located on glands, ducts, and kidney tubules       ­     Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium : multi layered cubed shaped cells        ­ located on ducts of sweat and mammary glands       ­ functions: protects, secretes, and absorbs                     ­     Simple Columnar Epithelium: single tall shaped cells       ­ Located in small and large intestines and the stomach       ­ function: protects, absorbs, and secretes       ­  Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium: may seem multi layered but it’s not        ­ ciliated and located in the respiratory track, nasal cavity and trachea        ­    Stratified Columnar Epithelium: multi layered shaped tall cells         ­protects and located in pharynx, anus, and salivary gland duct       ­     Transitional Epithelium        ­ flexible tissue that is located in the urinary bladder. When bladder full is stretch and  empties its small again: flexibility.   Glandular Epithelia  Endocrine glands = release hormones into the bloodstream (examples: pancreas,  thyroid)  Exocrine glands= exit, have ducts, tears, sweat, milk, and saliva all leaving the body                                 ­ Merocrine Secretion : secretions are packaged or transported in vesicles and  release by exocytosis(sweat and saliva glands)       ­apocrine secretion: secretory products are being released by pinching or shedding  off (mammary gland)       ­Holocrine secretion:  secretory vesicles are released by cell bursting and used by  sebaceous glands of the skin  Types of secretions          ­ serous glands­watery secretions with enzymes         ­ mucous glands­secrete mucins (small intestines)          ­ mixed exocrine glands­ both serous and mucous glands (submandibular salivary glands)  Gland structure        ­unicellular glands:  goblet cells, secrete mucous         ­ multicellular: simple gland→ has one duct that doesn’t divide and no branching       Compound gland → has duct that divide and branches [All about Connective Tissue ]  Functions o Enclosing and separating other tissues/storing compounds o Connecting tissues to one another/ supporting and moving parts of the body o Transporting  o Cushioning and insulating o protecting  Cells in connective tissue  o Fibroblast, osteoblast, chondroblast= build matrix/ cyte=maintain matrix, clast= break  down matrix o Adipose tissue : fat cell help insulate and store energy o Mast cells are  released in case of an injury o Macrophages: phagocytized foreign and  injured cells o Mesenchymal cells: stem cells responding to injury, differentiation   Matrix  o Fluid o Connective  o Ground substance [Muscular Tissue ]  Functions o contractions o Produce body movements o Voluntary and involuntary   3 types of muscular tissue  o Skeletal muscle(striated voluntary)­ movement o Smooth muscle(nonstriated involuntary)­found in contracting organs   o Cardiac muscle(striated involuntary )­ responsible for pumping blood through the  circulatory system [Nervous Tissue]   Functions and Characteristics o Specialized in conducting electrical impulses o Process information and control responses o Composed of neurons (nerve cells) and neuroglia (support cells that help supply  nutrients) o Cell body of a neuron contain one nucleus and dendrites( branches that receives  signals)/ axons are the “tail” that carries outgoing electrical signals [Tissue Repair]  Repair and restore homeostasis o Inflammation­first response to injury. Swelling, Redness, Heat, and Pain        ­ blood vessels are dilated,more blood vessels and oxygen / removes wastes o Regeneration: healing and restoration                       ­new cell migrate to the injury area [Chapter # 6] [Integumentary System] [Parts of the Integumentary System ]  Characteristics  Cutaneous membrane: skin  Accessory structures: hair and nails  Subcutaneous layer is below the dermis   Function of the skin   Protects  Excrete  Maintenance  Synthesizes Vitamin D3  Store lips and detects pain, pressure ,and touch   Layers of the epidermis   Come.Let's.Get.Some.Goodies. (top to bottom)  Stratum Corneum­keratinized structural strength, prevent water loss, sloughing off  superficial cells  (25 or more layers)  Stratum Lucidum­found only in thick skin(avascular such as palms and sole of feet) 5  layers  Stratum Granulosum­ 2­5 grainy layer, produce keratohyalin granules, cells die after they  stop dividing  Stratum Spinosum­8­10 layers increased thickness of the epithelium, produced keratin  fibers  Stratum Germinativum­ attached to basal lamina and have stem cells/ melanocytes  produce and contribute to melanin  Layers of the dermis   Papillary layer: brings blood vessels close to the epidermis, dermal papillae form  fingerprints and footprints  Reticular layer: fibrous layer of the dermis, form cleavage lines  Perspiration   Insensible perspiration= fluid lost by evaporation  Sensible perspiration=water excreted by sweat glands [Chapter #7] [Osseous Tissue] [Bone structure]  Long bones  Epiphysis: the two wide ends   Metaphysis: middle , of the epiphysis and the diaphysis  Diaphysis: the shaft  Medullary cavity: a large internal space in a long bone ,filled with bone marrow  Different between spongy and compact bone   Compact bone : is denser and fewer spaces than spongy bone .  Spongy bone: contain trabeculae that are filled with blood vessels and bone marrow   Intramembranous membrane  Osteoblast produce the bone around the membrane fiber to form spongy bone    Occurs in the dermis  Endochondral Ossification  Chondrocytes enlarge and calcify and die  Blood vessels increases and penetrates the cartilage model  Fibroblasts: differentiate into osteoblasts form spongy bone (primary ossification center)  Secondary ossification center: form in the epiphysis   Osteoporosis: severe bone loss.   Calcium homeostasis   Parathyroid Hormone –increased blood calcium by increasing bone breakdown ,  absorption from the small intestine and reabsorption calcium from urine   Calcitonin­ decreases blood calcium by decreasing the bone breakdown. Secreted by the thyroid gland


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