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## Biology Lab Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Kayla Patterson

34

0

3

# Biology Lab Exam 1 Study Guide Bio 1103K

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Bio 1103K > Biology Lab Exam 1 Study Guide
Kayla Patterson
GSU
GPA 3.9

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This is the study guide for our lab exam, which covers labs 1-5.
COURSE
INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY I
PROF.
Blaustein
TYPE
Study Guide
PAGES
3
WORDS
CONCEPTS
Study Guide, lab, Biology
KARMA
50 ?

## Popular in Biology

This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Patterson on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1103K at Georgia State University taught by Blaustein in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY I in Biology at Georgia State University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
Lab Study Guide 1.  Lab Number One (The Scientific Method and Statistics)  a. The Scientific Method i. Observation ii. Hypothesis iii. Experiment iv. Reevaluation v. Conclusion  b. Experiment: Pea Seed Experiment Importance of the experiment was to learn  about sample sizing and evaluating you hypothesis  c. Statistical Evaluation i. Null Hypothesis: No real difference between the measured and expected  values ii. Chi Square Analysis: Used to estimate how frequently the observed  deviation can be expected to occur strictly as a result of chance 1. X^2= Total (Observed­expected/expected) ^2 2. Test generates a P value: P value is the probability of obtaining by  chance a specific deviation at least as great as the one observed 3. Example: Coin Toss out of 10 a. Heads: 8   Tails: 12 b. Heads= (8­10/10) ^2=4/10  c. Tails: (12­10/10) ^2=4/10 d. 4/10+4/10=8/10 2.  Lab Number Two (Chemical Concepts and Organic Molecules) a. Purpose: Perform test to identify certain basic biological molecules b. Biological Molecules i. Carbohydrates: Reducing sugars (monosaccharides,  disaccharides(sucrose), polysaccharides(starch))  ii. Proteins: (Amino Acids) iii. Lipids (Fats and Oils): No soluble in water iv. Nucleic Acids: (DNA and RNA)  c. Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis i. Dehydration Synthesis: Joining two molecules, or compounds, together  following the removal of water. ii. Hydrolysis: The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water. d. Test Done for Molecules i. Benedicts: Testing for Sugars  1. Positive: Orange    Negative: Light Blue ii. Iodine: Testing for starch 1. Positive: Black    Negative: Amber iii. Biuret: Testing for Proteins 1. Positive: Violet     Negative: Light blue iv. Sudan IV: Testing for Lipids 1. Positive: Confluent red solution   Negative: Suspension of  reagent(insoluble) v. Sucrose inversion: Testing for yeast via hydrolysis 3.  Lab Number Three (Acids and Bases)  a. Acid: Compounds containing hydrogen ions(H+) that dissociate in water b. Bases: Compounds that contain hydroxide ions (OH­) that dissociate in water c. Neutralization: Process of adding a base to an acid and producing water d. pH: An inverse relationship  i. If the pH goes up, then H+ goes down ii. If H+ goes up pH goes down (more acidic)  e. Acid                 Neutral                      Base red orange yellow greenaqua  blue purple F. Buffers: Solutions that are able to resist changes in pH when either an acid or base  is added g. pH indicator: When the pH changes this results in a change in color of the  indicator 4. Lab Number Four (Diffusion and Osmosis)  a. Diffusion: Movement of particle from high concentration to low concentration i. The rate is inversely proportional too size (Potassium permanganate v.  methyl orange)  b. Osmosis: Movement of water down a concentration gradient, through a  selectively permeable membrane i. Dialysis Experiment: The tube acted like a semipermeable membrane  where water moved down a concentration gradient c. Hypertonic Vs. Hypotonic i. Hypertonic: Solution with higher number if solutes but low H2O ii. Hypotonic: Solution with lower number of solutes but with a higher H20 d. Isotonic: A solution with the same number of non­penetrating solute particles 5.  Lab Number Five (Microscope and Cells)  a. Compound microscope Vs. Dissecting Microscope a. Compound: Uses several objective lenses with different strengths to view smaller specimens  b. Dissecting: Uses one lens to look at a specific specimen that is usually  larger b. Parts of the microscope a. Oculars: Helps in magnifying the sample object. b. Objective: Primary optical lenses on a microscope. They range from 4x­ 100x c. Stage: Flat surface where the slide with the specimen is placed. d. Diaphragm: Used to control the amount of light reaching the specimen c. Magnification Vs. Resolution a. Magnification: Helps with the enlargement of a specimen b. Resolution: Making the specimen clearer  d. Cellular organization a. Prokaryotes (Kingdom Monera)  i. Bacteria (Bacilli, Cocci, Spirals)  ii. Cyanobacteria (anabaena, gleotrichia)  b. Eukaryotes (Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia) i. Plant 1. Elodea c. Animal Specimen i. Cheek cell

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