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TOWSON / Psychology / PSYC 461 / How is cognitive neuroscience used?

How is cognitive neuroscience used?

How is cognitive neuroscience used?

Description

School: Towson University
Department: Psychology
Course: Cognitive Psychology
Professor: John webster
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: nervous system, dendrites, glia, axon, Myelin Sheath, Soma, resting, action, potential, synapse, synesthesia, EEG, erp, cat, MRI, fMRI, forebrain, temporal, frontal, Occipital Lobe, lobe, parietal, pre-frontal, cortex, HM, Phineas, Gage, aphasia, and blindsight
Cost: 25
Name: 461 - 5
Description: Notes from September 28 - October 4, 2016 Neuroscience and Behavior Outline with Notes
Uploaded: 10/06/2016
5 Pages 45 Views 1 Unlocks
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Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 1


How is cognitive neuroscience used?



Neuroscience and Behavior

Why Cognitive Neuroscience? Levels of analysis

Cells of the Nervous System – Basic components

• Neurons – send and receive information. Three basic types (easily seen in a spinal reflex arc): o Sensory: PNS → CNS Don't forget about the age old question of How do you find the direction of a vector?

o Motor: CNS → PNS

o Interneuron: Neuron → Neuron


Where do dendrites carry messages?



∙ Information transmission:

o Electrical (within neuron)

o Chemical (between neurons)

• Glia (“glue”)

o 10X as many glia as neurons

• Covering of Axon

• Produce Myelin

o Many different types

o Play critical roles in nervous system

Neuron and Its Parts  


What is the charge difference across a resting nerve cell membrane and how is it maintained?



∙ Dendrites: Receive messages from other neurons (tho

∙ Soma: Cell body; body of the neuron

∙ Axon Hillock: Action Potential starts here. We also discuss several other topics like What is exploratory data analysis explain with an example?

o Small Hill – nerve impulse

∙ Axon: Fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron

∙ Myelin Sheath: Lipid (fatty) covering of some axons. Made up of glial cells

o Unmyelinated axons shorter and gray Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of post-humanism?

o Myelinated axons longer and white

∙ Axon Terminal Branches with terminal buttons:  

∙ Terminal Buttons (Boutons)

Neural Impulse: Resting Potential (RP) to Action Potential (AP) 

∙ Potential: A difference in electrical charge across a membrane

o Two rules for action potentials: 1) All or none, 2) One-way 

o Permeability: Permeable, Semipermeable, and Impermeable

∙ RP (~-70 mv): cell is negatively charged on inside (large charged organic molecules), positive  outside (mostly Na+). Membrane is semipermeable: Permeable to K+, impermeable to Na+ ∙ Stimulation via dendrites to threshold (~-55 mv)

∙ AP (shift to ~+30 mv): Na+ channels (AKA “gates”) open and charge is reversed – more negative  outside than inside.  

∙ Repolarisation: a lot of K+ first pumped out (~-80 mv), then Na+ via Na+/K+ pump (back to RP -70  mv)Don't forget about the age old question of What is muscular dystrophy?

Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 2

Synapse: Microscopic gap between two neurons

• Neurotransmitter activity: (Presynaptic N. neurotransmitter molecules) ???? (Postsynaptic N. receptor site) • Neurotransmitter—Receptor Site Analogy: Locks and Keys

• key = the NT molecule

• Lock = receptor site  

• Two forms of information

o Excitation – the information from A makes B more likely to “fire” (i.e.,  

produce an impulse).

o Inhibition – the information from A makes B less likely to “fire” (i.e.,  We also discuss several other topics like Is nadh oxidized or reduced in electron transport?

does not produce an impulse).

• At any point in time a neuron will be processing both excitatory and  

inhibitory signals

• Cleanup used NTs  

o broken down by enzymes.

o absorbed back into the pre-synaptic neuron (reuptake).

Principle of Neural Representation 

∙ In general – Simple to complex: Hierarchical processing (bottom-up)

o Particular neurons are triggered by very specific stimulus

o There is a particular neuron that is triggered when you see a particular person (specific coding) o Neuron pathways that have been destroyed will be created again by other existing neurons  through exposure, practice, & repetition

∙ Feature detectors [edges] (e.g., Huber & Wiesel): Simple (orientation), Complex (orientation+location) ∙ How is complex information coded? We also discuss several other topics like What should an 18-month old be doing developmentally?

o Specific (one neuron) coding

o Population (many neurons at once) coding

o Sparse (selective group of neurons) coding

BUT – If all neural signals are the same why do some result in vision while others results in sound or touch? Synesthesia: If you experience one sensory occurrence you will also have another sensory occurrence at the  same time (Experience visual synesthesia while experiencing auditory synesthesia)

∙ Nerves are made of bundled axons 

∙ Non-synesthesic People’s neural pathways go to where they’re supposed to go (Visual to Occipital) ∙ Synesthesic People’s neural pathways are interfering with other pathways causing more than one  sensation at once (visual touching temporal and occipital) – has genetic influence;  

more on females and people with higher intelligence Methods of understanding brain structure and function

• Damage (Functional Neurology):

• Electrical Recording:  

o EEG – Measure brain waves

o ERP – Evoked Response Potential

• Imaging

o Structure: CAT & MRI (magnetic not radiation)

Phineas Gage

o Function: fMRI (1st Picture) and PET (2nd Picture) positron emission tomography maps brain  activity – useful in studying cognitive processes.

Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 3

Localization, Distribution, and the “Binding Problem”

⮚ Localization: Particular areas of the brain associated with particular behavior.  ◊ Faculty Psychology (e.g., Franz Gall) – basis of Phrenology (different parts  

of brain – visual, auditory, etc.)

◊ Solid evidence (functional neurology) developed in 19th c.

▪ e.g. of Phineas Gage (1848)

▪ Broca (1861) & Wernicke (1874)

▪ Aphasia: organic speech disorder (Broca’s Area)

▪ Wernicke’s Aphasia: organic speech disorder where people could not  

understand  

◊ Experimental neurology. e.g.:

▪ Fritsch & Hitzig (1820)

▪ Penfield (1930 ????)

⮚ Modularity

⮚ Distributed: Some cognitive processes (e.g., memory storage and retrieval) do not seem to be localized ◊ Binding: How are different components of a complete percept bound (linked) together?  ◊ Dissociations, e.g., Agnosia, show this

A Few Cortical & Subcortical Structures (under the cortex)

⮚ Subcortical Structures of Forebrain – Limbic System

◊ Cortex – outer part (thick as a CD) Cognitive processing

▪ Folded up because it’s a meter long and it needs to fit  

inside the skull

◊ Brain stem/hind brain – keeping heart going, muscling toning, etc.  

◊ Thalamus – processing and routing of sensory information.

▪ Stimulus – thalamus – occipital, temporal, or etc.

◊ Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL) structures

▪ Hippocampus – necessary for processing and storing memories.

∙ Anterograde Amnesia – Henry M

∙ Spatial memory – memory of where things are

∙ Early stages of Alzheimer’s

▪ Amygdala – emotional states (fear); impact on memory.

◊ Basal Ganglia -- motor

*Lobes of the Cortex

Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 4

Examples of localization in the lobes (lots of double dissociations – damaged 2 areas of brain and impairs 2  functions)

⮚ Pre-frontal cortex

⮚ Frontal Lobe (+ prefrontal cortex): Executive control – decision, ADHD, OCD, Turret’s Syndrome ◊ Initiation and control of motor activity (e.g., apraxia)

◊ planning and judgment. (e.g., dysexecutive syndrome)

◊ Lower LH adjacent to the motor areas used for language production. Broca’s (Productive) Aphasia ◊ Working memory functions

⮚ Motor & (Somato)Sensory Cortex (mapped by Wilder Penfield)

◊ Primary motor cortex – responsible for motor actions

◊ Cerebellum – responsible for refined actions

◊ Somato Sensory – tactile information

▪ 2/3 of motor control are dedicated in the hands and face

▪ With Anesthesia can’t talk – because can’t feel when tongue is moving (fine tuned feedback)

⮚ Parietal Lobe

◊ Tactile perception, Spatial/body perception (Contralateral Control – left brain controls right side of  body vice versa)

▪ Take in and interpret spatial information

▪ Know how far and near you are and where your body parts are (tactile feedback) ▪ e.g.,Sensory Neglect - neglect syndrome (usually in dominant hemisphere) – person with neglect  syndrome is not aware of the other hemisphere/side of what he/she is looking at. (right picture)  problem with body integration (not knowing your body part)

▪ Person ignores (neglects) information on contralateral side. Oob

▪ e.g., of RH parietal lobe damage causing visual sensory neglect for information on the left side.

◊ Lower LPL: Anomic Aphasia

⮚ Temporal lobe

◊ Auditory perception (upper ridge)

◊ Large association area evident with effects of different effects of  

damage to different areas

▪ LH: Wernicke’s (Receptive) Aphasia – can’t understand what  

information you’re receiving

Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 5

▪ Visual agnosia (near junction with occipital lobe)

▪ Prosopagnosia (poss. Related to Capgras Syndrome?) – cannot recognize human faces ▪ MTL – Anterograde Amnesia

Occipital Lobe

◊ Processing visual information

◊ Damage e.g.

▪ Primary visual cortex – blindness

▪ Secondary visual cortex – color vision (acquired achromatopsia – cannot see color – left picture) – hemiachromatopsia – half cannot see color – right picture

⮚ “BlindSight”- (rare) blind but can still navigate

Dorsal and Ventral Streams

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