Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Towson - PSYC 461 - Class Notes - Week 5
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Towson - PSYC 461 - Class Notes - Week 5

Already have an account? Login here
Reset your password

TOWSON / Psychology / PSYC 461 / How is cognitive neuroscience used?

How is cognitive neuroscience used?

How is cognitive neuroscience used?


School: Towson University
Department: Psychology
Course: Cognitive Psychology
Professor: John webster
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: nervous system, dendrites, glia, axon, Myelin Sheath, Soma, resting, action, potential, synapse, synesthesia, EEG, erp, cat, MRI, fMRI, forebrain, temporal, frontal, Occipital Lobe, lobe, parietal, pre-frontal, cortex, HM, Phineas, Gage, aphasia, and blindsight
Cost: 25
Name: 461 - 5
Description: Notes from September 28 - October 4, 2016 Neuroscience and Behavior Outline with Notes
Uploaded: 10/06/2016
5 Pages 110 Views 1 Unlocks

Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 1

How is cognitive neuroscience used?

Neuroscience and Behavior

Why Cognitive Neuroscience? Levels of analysis

Cells of the Nervous System – Basic components

• Neurons – send and receive information. Three basic types (easily seen in a spinal reflex arc): o Sensory: PNS → CNS Don't forget about the age old question of How do you find the direction of a vector?

o Motor: CNS → PNS

o Interneuron: Neuron → Neuron

Where do dendrites carry messages?

∙ Information transmission:

o Electrical (within neuron)

o Chemical (between neurons)

• Glia (“glue”)

o 10X as many glia as neurons

• Covering of Axon

• Produce Myelin

o Many different types

o Play critical roles in nervous system

Neuron and Its Parts  

What is the charge difference across a resting nerve cell membrane and how is it maintained?

Don't forget about the age old question of What kind of frequency distribution table is used for categorical data?

∙ Dendrites: Receive messages from other neurons (tho

∙ Soma: Cell body; body of the neuron

∙ Axon Hillock: Action Potential starts here.

o Small Hill – nerve impulse

∙ Axon: Fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron Don't forget about the age old question of What does rsas stand for in sociology?

∙ Myelin Sheath: Lipid (fatty) covering of some axons. Made up of glial cells

o Unmyelinated axons shorter and gray

o Myelinated axons longer and white

∙ Axon Terminal Branches with terminal buttons:  

∙ Terminal Buttons (Boutons)

Neural Impulse: Resting Potential (RP) to Action Potential (AP) 

∙ Potential: A difference in electrical charge across a membrane

o Two rules for action potentials: 1) All or none, 2) One-way 

o Permeability: Permeable, Semipermeable, and Impermeable

∙ RP (~-70 mv): cell is negatively charged on inside (large charged organic molecules), positive  outside (mostly Na+). Membrane is semipermeable: Permeable to K+, impermeable to Na+ ∙ Stimulation via dendrites to threshold (~-55 mv)

∙ AP (shift to ~+30 mv): Na+ channels (AKA “gates”) open and charge is reversed – more negative  outside than inside.  

∙ Repolarisation: a lot of K+ first pumped out (~-80 mv), then Na+ via Na+/K+ pump (back to RP -70  mv)If you want to learn more check out What is muscular dystrophy?

Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 2

Synapse: Microscopic gap between two neurons

• Neurotransmitter activity: (Presynaptic N. neurotransmitter molecules) ???? (Postsynaptic N. receptor site) • Neurotransmitter—Receptor Site Analogy: Locks and Keys If you want to learn more check out Is nadh oxidized or reduced in electron transport?

• key = the NT molecule

• Lock = receptor site  

• Two forms of information

o Excitation – the information from A makes B more likely to “fire” (i.e.,  

produce an impulse).

o Inhibition – the information from A makes B less likely to “fire” (i.e.,  

does not produce an impulse).

• At any point in time a neuron will be processing both excitatory and  

inhibitory signals

• Cleanup used NTs  

o broken down by enzymes.

o absorbed back into the pre-synaptic neuron (reuptake).

Principle of Neural Representation 

∙ In general – Simple to complex: Hierarchical processing (bottom-up)

o Particular neurons are triggered by very specific stimulus

o There is a particular neuron that is triggered when you see a particular person (specific coding) o Neuron pathways that have been destroyed will be created again by other existing neurons  through exposure, practice, & repetition If you want to learn more check out What should an 18-month old be doing developmentally?

∙ Feature detectors [edges] (e.g., Huber & Wiesel): Simple (orientation), Complex (orientation+location) ∙ How is complex information coded?

o Specific (one neuron) coding

o Population (many neurons at once) coding

o Sparse (selective group of neurons) coding

BUT – If all neural signals are the same why do some result in vision while others results in sound or touch? Synesthesia: If you experience one sensory occurrence you will also have another sensory occurrence at the  same time (Experience visual synesthesia while experiencing auditory synesthesia)

∙ Nerves are made of bundled axons 

∙ Non-synesthesic People’s neural pathways go to where they’re supposed to go (Visual to Occipital) ∙ Synesthesic People’s neural pathways are interfering with other pathways causing more than one  sensation at once (visual touching temporal and occipital) – has genetic influence;  

more on females and people with higher intelligence Methods of understanding brain structure and function

• Damage (Functional Neurology):

• Electrical Recording:  

o EEG – Measure brain waves

o ERP – Evoked Response Potential

• Imaging

o Structure: CAT & MRI (magnetic not radiation)

Phineas Gage

o Function: fMRI (1st Picture) and PET (2nd Picture) positron emission tomography maps brain  activity – useful in studying cognitive processes.

Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 3

Localization, Distribution, and the “Binding Problem”

⮚ Localization: Particular areas of the brain associated with particular behavior.  ◊ Faculty Psychology (e.g., Franz Gall) – basis of Phrenology (different parts  

of brain – visual, auditory, etc.)

◊ Solid evidence (functional neurology) developed in 19th c.

▪ e.g. of Phineas Gage (1848)

▪ Broca (1861) & Wernicke (1874)

▪ Aphasia: organic speech disorder (Broca’s Area)

▪ Wernicke’s Aphasia: organic speech disorder where people could not  


◊ Experimental neurology. e.g.:

▪ Fritsch & Hitzig (1820)

▪ Penfield (1930 ????)

⮚ Modularity

⮚ Distributed: Some cognitive processes (e.g., memory storage and retrieval) do not seem to be localized ◊ Binding: How are different components of a complete percept bound (linked) together?  ◊ Dissociations, e.g., Agnosia, show this

A Few Cortical & Subcortical Structures (under the cortex)

⮚ Subcortical Structures of Forebrain – Limbic System

◊ Cortex – outer part (thick as a CD) Cognitive processing

▪ Folded up because it’s a meter long and it needs to fit  

inside the skull

◊ Brain stem/hind brain – keeping heart going, muscling toning, etc.  

◊ Thalamus – processing and routing of sensory information.

▪ Stimulus – thalamus – occipital, temporal, or etc.

◊ Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL) structures

▪ Hippocampus – necessary for processing and storing memories.

∙ Anterograde Amnesia – Henry M

∙ Spatial memory – memory of where things are

∙ Early stages of Alzheimer’s

▪ Amygdala – emotional states (fear); impact on memory.

◊ Basal Ganglia -- motor

*Lobes of the Cortex

Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 4

Examples of localization in the lobes (lots of double dissociations – damaged 2 areas of brain and impairs 2  functions)

⮚ Pre-frontal cortex

⮚ Frontal Lobe (+ prefrontal cortex): Executive control – decision, ADHD, OCD, Turret’s Syndrome ◊ Initiation and control of motor activity (e.g., apraxia)

◊ planning and judgment. (e.g., dysexecutive syndrome)

◊ Lower LH adjacent to the motor areas used for language production. Broca’s (Productive) Aphasia ◊ Working memory functions

⮚ Motor & (Somato)Sensory Cortex (mapped by Wilder Penfield)

◊ Primary motor cortex – responsible for motor actions

◊ Cerebellum – responsible for refined actions

◊ Somato Sensory – tactile information

▪ 2/3 of motor control are dedicated in the hands and face

▪ With Anesthesia can’t talk – because can’t feel when tongue is moving (fine tuned feedback)

⮚ Parietal Lobe

◊ Tactile perception, Spatial/body perception (Contralateral Control – left brain controls right side of  body vice versa)

▪ Take in and interpret spatial information

▪ Know how far and near you are and where your body parts are (tactile feedback) ▪ e.g.,Sensory Neglect - neglect syndrome (usually in dominant hemisphere) – person with neglect  syndrome is not aware of the other hemisphere/side of what he/she is looking at. (right picture)  problem with body integration (not knowing your body part)

▪ Person ignores (neglects) information on contralateral side. Oob

▪ e.g., of RH parietal lobe damage causing visual sensory neglect for information on the left side.

◊ Lower LPL: Anomic Aphasia

⮚ Temporal lobe

◊ Auditory perception (upper ridge)

◊ Large association area evident with effects of different effects of  

damage to different areas

▪ LH: Wernicke’s (Receptive) Aphasia – can’t understand what  

information you’re receiving

Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 5

▪ Visual agnosia (near junction with occipital lobe)

▪ Prosopagnosia (poss. Related to Capgras Syndrome?) – cannot recognize human faces ▪ MTL – Anterograde Amnesia

Occipital Lobe

◊ Processing visual information

◊ Damage e.g.

▪ Primary visual cortex – blindness

▪ Secondary visual cortex – color vision (acquired achromatopsia – cannot see color – left picture) – hemiachromatopsia – half cannot see color – right picture

⮚ “BlindSight”- (rare) blind but can still navigate

Dorsal and Ventral Streams

Page Expired
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here