study guide exam 2
study guide exam 2 HDFS 1070
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 1070 at University of Connecticut taught by Cynthia Van Fleet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Individual and Family Development in Human Development & Family Science (HDFS) at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
HDFS 1070 Chapter 3 September 14, 2016 Foundations of Psychosocial Theory Significance to lifespan development Components Stages Tasks Crises Central processes Radius of significant relationships Coping Mechanisms Psycho-Social Theory Stage theory Erik Erikson – 8 stages of development 3 additions to allow for changes in the developmental pathway Each stage involves a tension or “crisis” to be resolved The Stages -pregnancy-prenatal -infancy (0-24 months) -toddlerhood (2-3) -early school age (4-6) -middle childhood (6-12) -early adolescence (12-18) -later adolescence (emerging adulthood) (18-24) -early adulthood (24-34) -middle adulthood (34-60) -later adulthood (60-75) -very old age (75+) What is the rationale for the additional stages? What are the developmental pathways that led to this change? Epigenetic (one thing that leads to another) Developmental Tasks Skills and competencies Physical, cognitive, social, emotional First introduced by Havinghurst –sensitive periods teachable moments Konrad Lorenz “imprinting” Mastery of tasks influenced by previous resolution of crises Psychosocial Crisis Normal set of stress or strains tensions anxieties Adjustment to demands of society during each stage Expressed as polarities – 2 opposing forces Resolution on positive side gives confidence to meet demands of next stage Negative poles – basic vulnerabilities Need to experience both ends to be adaptive Tension and conflict are necessary for growth Unforeseen stresses may interrupt Crisis Trust vs Mistrust (0-2) Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (2-3) Initiative vs Guilt (4-6) Industry vs Inferiority (6-12) Group Identity vs Alienation (12-18) Individual Identity vs Identity Confusion (18-24) 2 Intimacy vs Isolation (24-34) Generativity vs Stagnation (34-60) Integrity vs Despair (60-75) Immortality vs Extinction (75+) Central Process Means by which to resolve crisis Based upon cultural expectations Built upon new relationships between self and society Example Mutuality – caregiver Imitation Identification Education Peer pressure Role experimentation Mutuality – peers Person – environment Interaction Introspection Social Support Radius of significant Relationships Initially small number of relationships expanding during life span Return to small number toward end of life Varies – your personal “network” Interconnected system – families communities, school, clubs, work Coping Behaviors Managing stressful events 3 Based upon values/beliefs of person/family People in similar situations may handle things very differently Prime adaptive ego qualities From positive resolutions More psychologically resilient Hope, will, purpose, competence, love, care, wisdom, confidence Core Pathologies Negative resolutions Withdrawal, Compulsion, inhibition, inertia, Dissociation Human Development Superstars -Sigmund Freud -B.F. Skinner -Ivan Pavlov -Jean Piaget -Leo Vygotsky -Urie Bronfenbrenner -Erik Erikson 4 HDFS 1070 September 21 Prenatal and Pregnancy (additional stage) When Things go Wrong Infertility (25%) miscarriage Ethical considerations Infant Mortality Infertility Increase with age (more in women) Exposure to toxins (environmental toxins, smoking, drugs) Choices? Adoption- Treatment- fertility clinic ($$) not all insurances cover, many times without success Egg Donors Freezing your eggs Did we go too far? If you can’t have babies, you can go to an egg bank In Vitro (test tube babies) Limits? Financial considerations Available for all? Post-menopausal women? Who makes the judgements if older people have in vitro What about the “OctoMom” Had in vitro and had 8 children Surrogacy Legal issues Ethical issues Sibling, grandmothers as surrogates Recent media attention with celebrities Nicole Kidman and Keith Urban, Sarah Jessica Parker and Matthew Broderick Infant Mortality # of infants who die during the first yeat/1000 2/3 occur during the first month – causes? Birth Complications (premature) Exposure to Teratogens (smoking, drugs, alcohol, toxins) Mothers age (really young or old) Facilities for care (depends on where you are) facilities are not available Low birth weight Varies among countries as well as regions in U.S. U.S. falls behind other industrialized nations -Variability in regions - Poverty / low income - Environmental concerns -Norm of reaction/reaction range First Trimester Germinal period By the 6 eggs make contact with the uterine wall th By the 6 day it is a embryo Embryonic Period First reliable test Teratogens 3 -4 week brain, heart, neural tube, head, upper/lower trunks 2 By the end of 2 ndmonth Looks human, inch long, most internal organs, finger, toes Embryonic period ends at about 2 months Now called fetus Fetal Period 3 month grows to 3 inches head is 1/3 total body length differentiation of genitalia moves spontaneously Babinski reflex (toe fanning) Fetal heartbeat heard through amplified stethoscope Second Trimester Grows on average 10” and 2 lbs Quickening – early movements Skin thickens cheesy coating – vernix Hair on scalp, eyebrows, back, arms, legs Swallows, digests, excretes, moves, sucks thumb, rest, grows Chance of survival outside uterus increases after 24 weeks by 30 weeks almost certain (depending on care and circumstances) Abortion laws Third Trimester Average growth is from 10”-20” and from 2-7 lbs. Sensitive to changes in musical notes, sounds, speech – especially mothers voice 3 Takes advantage of minerals in mom’s diet Reaches maximum size Fetal brain produces hormones that lead from shifts from mild to strong contractions Lightening: dropping into position Results in dilation or cervix, rupture of sac, and delivery Approximate time from conception to birth is 38 weeks The Birth Process From the medical perspective 1 stage longest from onset of contractions to full dilation of the cervix 2 ndstage expulsion of the fetus 3 stage from delivery to expulsion of placenta From the Psychosocial perspective Early signs Bloody show the mucus plug (makes it real) Lighting (baby drops) Onset Mild contractions Transition Most difficult intense contractions Birth Postpartum After birth attachment no rule book Got to learn how to adjust life Cesarean Delivery Most common surgery performed in the U.S. 4 Planned or unplanned, the rate is higher for over 30, or for younger mothers Health issues for mom Cervix is too small If the baby is breech (butt or feet first) Controversy over possible misuse Need for anesthetics Intravenous Prolonged recovery Convenience of doctor? Mother wanting to schedule? Bio-psycho-social perspective Impact of fetus on women Impact of women on fetus Finally, a mother Changes in roles and social status How is this shown in our culture Fragile Around the world Highly respected Some completely covered Medical is different Changed in the mother’s emotional state Fathers involvement Body image (how others react) (new style of maternity clothes) Sense of well-being (how happy are you) Changes in physical state Interaction of physical symptoms and emotional state Physical condition may cause irritability 5 Poverty One of most harmful Directly related to poor prenatal care More likely to start having babies at earlier age Repeat pregnancies Mothers age 16-35 have fewer complications (provided care is present) Maternal drug use nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, narcotics, prescription drugs, OB anesthetics Environmental toxins work setting polluted air, water Mothers diet malnutrition some foods need to be avoided (seafood, too much vitamin a, raw food, sushi, processed food) some negative effects can be offset after birth The Birth Culture beliefs, values, and guidelines for behavior regarding pregnancy and childbirth 6 HDFS 1070 September 28 Infancy (0-24 months) Current stats What is the impact of family size in the U.S? Smaller families More emphasis placed on infancy Medical community Growing “baby industry” (baby wipe warmer) (clothes) (toys) Newborns In U.S. – full term: 7-7.5lbs, 20 in Low birth weight: less than 5.5lbs Evaluation using Apgar Scoring 1950s- prior more babies died Developmental Tasks Sensory/perceptual development Motor development Temperament Attachment Sensorimotor intelligence Understanding nature of objects Emotional development Development of sensory/perceptual/motor functions Using senses Moving Why is it so difficult to study? Can’t tell us Reliance on infant to habituate Ways they react Good/Bad behavior Sensory Perceptual Development Hearing talking to baby before born mother fathers music Vision “Faceness” preference 3 months differentiate between mom and stranger voice-face recognition by 3 months 4.5 months imitate facial expressions associated with sounds Taste and smell Taste partially functions in utero As early as 7 days can distinguish mom’s nursing pads Touch Kangaroo Care (skin to skin) Swaddling Use touch to explore objects, people, themselves How are they all connected Example feeding a baby- gazing smell taste comforted by touch Motor Development Reaching and grasping Voluntary reaching Pincher grasp by 12 months (thumb and pointer) New issues of safety (everything in mouth, moving more) Motor sequence Varies slightly but general pattern Lift up head Roll over 2 Crawl Pull self up stand Walking by first year Steadier, more involvnd Movements during 2 year Nature/Nurture Many reflexive responses are hard wired by genetics Differs culturally in opportunities provided Temperament Childs positive/negative reaction to environment Reactions lead to patterned reactions from others Attachment The process to develop specific emotional bonds with others Harlow’s monkeys Developments of attachment Develops as caregivers provide nurturance (taking care of baby) Sequential Early engaging behavior Imitation Seeking physical proximity Stranger anxiety Second half of first year Normally considered to be a positive development (knows who’s who) Separation anxiety About 9 months Rage/despair when parents leave Depends on environment, temperament 3 Over time will find comfort in mental images of them (schemes) Attachments with mothers, fathers, and others Radius of attachment (mom dad in closest ring) Depends on how much time, quality and responsiveness of the care, emotional investment in the infant, presence in their life over time, different styles. Patterns of Attachment *the strange situation* Secure Reconnects positively with mother Anxious-avoidant Avoids mother after separation Anxious-resistant Anger when caregiver returns Disorganized Unpredictable, fear, confused No strategy Home life is crazy When observed at home Babies with secure attachments cry less Seem to have expectations that the caregiver is responsive Mothers of the other 3 types have characteristics that seem to explain the baby’s responses Parental Sensitivity and the Quality of attachment Culture Limited research in U.S. however they are normative patterns across ethnic groups Caregivers personal life story Shapes caregiving, reproduce experience 4 Contemporary Factors Roles, relationships, emotional stability, support network Characteristics of the infant Temperament, physical condition Where do you see secure attachment in life later on? -close friends -group friends - intimate relationships -husband wife Sensorimotor intelligence and early causal schemes How infants organize their experiences (Piaget) New Challenges – bring revision in schemes to better interpret experience Causality – one of the most important components (when they cry someone will come take care of my needs) Development of causal schemes – seeing oneself as a causal agent is crucial to developing a sense of competence Understanding the nature of objects and creating categories Object permanence -objects do not cease to exist when out of reach or view -up to 6 months (aware of what is in immediate field (peek-a- boo) -8-9 months (mobility hastens the process) -by 18 months (representational thinking) Categorizing objects -grouping objects (shapes (trial error) toys, putting blocks together) -aid in reasoning, problem solving -able to name and categorize objects as language is learned 5 Emotional Development -Emotional differentiation Distress (crying) Interest (alertness) Excitement (waking activity) –facial expressions, move a lot -Regulating emotions How do we help infants manage distress? Relationships between babies who have high levels of distress with marital dissatisfaction of parents -Emotions as a channel for communication Social referencing (look to mom) Can differentiate facial expressions The Psychosocial Crisis -Trust vs. Mistrust Trust -confidence that their needs will be met and they are valued -how is this related to attachment -caregiver’s response to Moro reflex helps to develop -over time – expands to feelings of how one expects to be trusted Mistrust -result of infant’s wariness -lack of confidence in caregiver (not having needs met) -gross neglect/abuse will result in mistrust and withdrawal 6 -will continue through lifespan – we will have disappointments *need to have a certain amount of mistrust The Central Process -Mutuality with the Caregiver Begins with family rhythms -U.S. culture - 1 year – we make frequent adjustments to our schedule (sleeping, feeding, etc.) -2ndyear – parenting changes as baby becomes more mobile -Mutuality indicates that both have to adapt Coping Mechanisms -Hope (PAEQ) Openness to assert oneself, positive approach to new situations Pervades whole life story allowing us to deal with difficult situations Children take “risks” – climbing out of the crib, first steps -Withdrawal (CP) Wariness toward people and objects Passive, lethargic No signs of exploration Shows up in studies of institutionalized infants 7 8 HDFS 1070 October 8 Toddlerhood (2-3 years) Entering toddlerhood Foundation from infancy Autonomy, confidence New challenges in parenting Developmental Tasks Locomotion Language Fantasy Play Self-Control Locomotion Role in psychosocial development -exploration -playing -conflict with caregivers? (exploring/doing unsafe things) (stopping them from doing something they want to do – mad temper tantrums) Skills beyond walking -gross motor skills (running, walking, using arms legs trunk of body) (climb, jump, dance) -ways toddlers move? (dance, roll, run, jump, walk, climb) -new activities? (swimming, beauty pageants, tumbling, gymnastics) Language Semiotic thinking -Piaget: pre-operational thought (2-5) -Symbols & Signs -With fantasy play, most important through lifespan Communicative competence -becoming adept -integrates then into their culture -common sequences Begins in infancy -language perception -babbling -gestures -first words Competence in toddlerhood -vocabulary -telegraphic speech -grammar -language environment (watch what you say, watch what you do) Fantasy Play Pretend Play -imitations -symbolic play (using one thing to represent another – blanket used for cape or cover for secret hid out) -imagination reflects reality -begins as simple repetitive activities Changes in Play -strings of activities -focus from self to others (parallel play) 2 -substituting objects Contributions from theorists -Piaget -Vygotsky -Erikson Play companions -parents, siblings -direction of play (they are in charge) -imaginary companions (used as a coping mechanisms look to imaginary friend for help) Self-Control Gain control -directed by family, culture -distracting/reasoning -imitation Impulses -discipline -individual differences -effortful control -goal attainment The Crisis Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt 3 Autonomy Independence Daily Tasks (brush teeth, picking outfits, bathroom, feeding themselves) Success promotes autonomy Shame and Doubt Failure, disappointment Toilet Training? Confidence replaced with doubt Central Process Imitation -Shift of action from model to imitator -Assists in becoming part of their culture Coping Mechanisms Will Capacity of mind to direct Move past obstacles Important throughout life Compulsions Beyond rituals or habits Damaged will – no control Contemporary Topics Toddler tutoring Reading Child care 4 5
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