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Bio Exam Guide 2

by: Gabrielle Woolery

Bio Exam Guide 2 BIOL 222

Gabrielle Woolery
Penn State
GPA 3.65

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About this Document

These notes are on the next exam they are not finished yet and I am still uploading material which should be done by sunday
Paul Babitzke
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabrielle Woolery on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 222 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Paul Babitzke in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at Pennsylvania State University.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
Bio 222 Study Exam Guide 2 Chapter 8: The Chemical Nature of the Gene Transforming Principle  S strain o Normal, virulent, smooth o This infects people with pneumonia and kills mice  R Strain o Mutant, avirulent, rough o Does not affect people or mice  It was discovered that the S strain could put its cellular information into the R strain thereby making the R strain and S strain.  It was also discovered that when RNA, proteins, and DNA were destroyed the only one the stopped the S strain from infecting people was destroying the DNA. Blender Experiment  Phosphorous is found in DNA  Sulfur is found in protein  This experiment was to determine if phosphorous or sulfur was injected into the cell. Phosphorous was found in the cell and sulfur was found outside of the cell. This illustrated that DNA was the genetic material. DNA Structure  DNA made of 4 nucleotides  The nucleotides are in the middle of the DNA molecule and are connected to deoxyribose sugar which is connected to phosphate which are the backbones of the molecule  Ribose has a hydroxyl group OH  Deoxyribose contains only one hydrogen  Purines o Adenine and Guanine o No sugar o Made of two rings  Pyrimidine o Cytosine (DNA) Thymine (DNA) Uracil (RNA o Has sugar linked to it o One ring  Phosphate Group o Linked to 5’ carbon and 3’ hydroxyl group in sugar phosphate backbone Rosalind Franklin  Used X-ray crystal data to determine DNA is helical and double stranded DNA Double Helix  Two antiparallel strands o 5’ to 3’ o 3’ to 5’ o Phosphate and Sugar in the backbone are held together by covalent phosphodiester bonds o Nucleotides held together through hydrogen bonds o Purines pair with pyrimidine’s  A to T  G to C  Helix is right handed and has major and minor grooves Chromosome Structure  Each chromosome has 1 DNA molecule  Human DNA is huge  Chromatin o DNA and histones  Euchromatin o Active DNA that is expresses  Heterochromatin o Inactive DNA, this DNA is modified so it is not expressed Nucleosomes  DNA is wrapped around a histone twice which makes the nucleosome  Histone o 8 subunits, four different proteins that have 2 subunits each  Fist Level Packaging Solenoid  Coil of nucleosomes  Second level Packaging  Think of beads on a string coiled up Supercoil  Third level packaging  The coil of nucleosomes are attached to a protein scaffold that packages chromosomes together more  Think of the coiled beads on a string attached to a flimsy rod that also coils up


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