HIST111 Midterm Study Guide
HIST111 Midterm Study Guide History 111
Popular in United States History to 1865
Popular in History
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cleopatra Shabazz on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Eric Rose in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 286 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
HIST111 Exam 1 Study Guide Important Term Definition/Main Idea Important People Places Important Terms Chapter 1 Old World: Eurasia (Europe and Asia) and Africa, the “known world” as of 1500 PreColumbia: time period before 1500 which is before the old world came in contact with the New World “the unknown world” Encomienda: Spanish form of labor tribute which allowed the holder to claim labor from an Indian district for a limited period of time Hacienda: institutions (large estates) of crops and herds located in the countryside Chapter 2 Mercantilism: economic trading system in which European nations completed to control large trading markets in order to accumulate a lot of wealth NonSeparatists: Puritans who remained loyal to the “true Church of England” and sought to expand England overseas Separatists: extreme Protestants who did not believe that the Church of England was the “true church” and decided to establish their own independent congregations Chapter 3 Africanism: language or culture with African characteristics o Gullah Culture in South Carolina Diaspora: forcing people to spread out Fictive Kinship: familiar bonds are created with people who are not blood relatives Syncretism: two or more religious systems are combined into one new religious belief o Candombl é: Brazilian god combination of African and Portuguese gods both gods were famous for killing a dragon Ogum + St. George = Candomblé Chapter 4 Revival: instant conversion to Christianity by hearing a message from God Indentured Servants: White slaves Antinomianism: my actions won’t change anything if I’m destined to go to Heaven Chapter 5 Hospitality is received when the Europeans can benefit from the Native Americans Hostility is received when Native Americans are no longer useful to the Europeans Mourning Warfare: neighbors are kidnapped by the bereaved and inherit a spirit of the dead Imperial Reform: Britain is no longer flexible because they strictly enforce laws now Nonimportation agreement: boycott British goods External tax: tax on imports Important People Hiawatha: Iroquois prophet of peace and tribal unity Moctezuma: ruler of the Aztecs The “HalfKing”: a leader from the Iroquois league who started the French and Indian War by creating conflict between the British and the French Metacom: (King Phillip) leader of the Wampanoag tribe who went to war against the colonists who invaded their land Important Places o Roanoke Colony: failed attempt by Sir Walter Raleigh to establish a settlement in North America o Plymouth: colony accidently found but established by Radical Puritans that became a part of the Massachusetts Bay colony o Jamestown Established by Virginia company First permanent settlement in North America Royal authority obtained Jamestown in 1624 o Sao Tomé: Portuguese colony located on the coast of Africa o Barbados: sugar colony in the West Indies owned by wealthy, British sugar planters o Carolina: home of British West Indies emigrants who helped restore the colony o Georgia: colony for people were not super wealthy (not so poor but not that rich people) o Pennsylvania: proprietary colony that was home to the Quakers o Rhode Island: colony founded by Roger Williams that granted colonists with religious freedom o New Netherland: colony ran by the Dutch West India Company Pre-Columbian Civilizations Contact between Native American and Europeans Eurasia America EastWest Axis NorthSouth Axis Same Time Zone Different Time Zones Equal crops and climate Various crops and climate People remained isolated and rarely People are integrated and interact more through trade interact amongst each other Guns and Swords (ride on horses) Bow and Arrow (move on foot) Immune to germs and diseases Died from European diseases Sedimentary SemiSedimentary Why Sedimentary is the Best Sedimentary: method of growing crops and cultivating the land o Always fertile o Mass production of crops o Healthy soil SemiSedimentary: soil is slashed and burned to grow crops o Produces a limited number of crops o Damages the soil over time NonSedimentary: nomadic behavior of hunting for food and constantly travelling Europe = Sedimentary = land ownership o (invest in good land that will produce numerous crops for a long time) America = SemiSedimentary = no sense of land ownership o (damages the land over time which limits their resources) Portugal vs. Spain vs. England All three of these countries used indigenous people as slaves in order to accumulate resources and wealth The differences between them are their locations and religious methods Portugal 1. Established small posts along the African coast 2. Religion is not force, but becomes syncretic (merged into a new religion) Spain 1. Conquistadores conquered the indigenous tribes of the Americas 2. Indigenous people are forced to become Catholics England 1. Transition of Slavery a. Native Americans: hard to enforce when they can easily flee into the woods b. Indentured Servants: white people are enslaved for 7 years with food and housing until the Bacon Rebellion c. African Slaves: Africans are brought to America to be enslaved for life 2. African slaves are not forced to convert, which keeps them at an inferior status because they do not possess the same religious beliefs African Diaspora Atlantic Slave Trade = higher demand for slavery (more labor) Classical vs Chattel Slavery Classical Chattel Race was not defined Law codified race One generation Hereditary through parents Tradition Supply and Demand Cultural Spectrum of Slavery Slavery = Good (Europeanized Culture) Phillis Wheatley o Enslaved at age 7 o Learned how to read and write Famous Poet female slave to publish a book Christianity makes Wheatley grateful for slavery Slavery = Bad (African Culture) Saramaka Tribe o Lived in the jungle o Fought the Dutch against slavery Peace Treaty = freedom Slavery is in Between (Mixture of Cultures) o Candombl é: Brazilian god merged from Portuguese and African religious beliefs o Gullah: regional African culture and dialect in South Carolina (Africanism) American Colonies 13 Colonies 1. Georgia 6. Delaware 2. South Carolina 7. New Jersey 3. North Carolina 8. Pennsylvania 4. Virginia 9. New York 5. Maryland 10. Connecticut 12. Massachusetts 11. Rhode Island 13. New Hampshire 14. Southern Colonies Georgia colony for people were not super wealthy (not so poor but not that rich people) Carolina North and South Carolina home of British West Indies emigrants who helped restore the colony Rice Plantations South Carolina = richest colony Operates the Barbados Virginia First permanent British Colony established by Governor Berkeley Middle Colony Pennsylvania Proprietary colony established by Willian Penn Home of the Quakers New England Colonies Massachusetts Plymouth: colony accidently found but established by Radical Puritans Very intolerant of other religions Rhode Island Established by Roger Williams after he is kicked out of Massachusetts First Baptist Church in 1636 Most religious tolerant colony *New Netherlands and Manhattan are owned by the Dutch* European Empires France vs Spain vs England The imperial structures of France, Spain and England transitioned from being flexible to strict institutions. The primary goal was to establish land in the Americas Once the people were settled into the land, these nations enforced more laws in order to strengthen these locations France 1. King Louis XIV established New France 2. New France begins as a private charter ran by Samuel de Champlain 3. In 1663, New France becomes the first French royal colony in America Spain 1. Alcaldes: Spaniards living in American villages that taxed people a. Familiarity with the people made the Alcaldes more lenient when they taxed people 2. Intendants: Spanish tax collectors sent to America to replace the Alcaldes a. Stricter when taxing people because they are not familiar with them England 1. Jamestown is established by the Virginia Company 2. Royal authority revoked Jamestown and rechartered it as a royal colony The Great Awakening Evangelical Movement Revival: instant conversion to Christianity by hearing a message from God Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield Long testimonies = more passion Success Breaks Anglican tradition Advertised in newspapers Gains numerous followers and expands the newspaper industry Failures Some states clung to Anglican tradition Opposition to slavery is a huge turn off for slave owners Identity Religion is no longer inherited People have the freedom to choose to follow any religious path Being “saved” or having a “spiritual awakening” restructures their life Middle Ground The attempt to establish relations between Europeans and Native Americans Hospitality is received when the Europeans can benefit from the Native Americans Hostility is received when Native Americans are no longer useful to the Europeans Native Americans had the power to establish middle ground when they had control of certain parts of land that Europeans wanted to access French and Indian War The “Half-King” Tribal leader who has limited authority in the Iroquois League Conflict between Britain and France = stronger dominance of the region Starts the French and Indian War o France tries to build places in the Ohio Valley without his permission o Kills a wounded French officer as a result of France’s attempt to claim the land o France blames George Washington for the death of the officer Treaty of Paris (1763) Britain receives Ohio Valley and northern land near Quebec Indian Reserve: land in between Ohio Valley, Louisiana Territory and the 13 colonies Although the Iroquois created conflict that started the War, they lost the Ohio Valley at the end of the War and received a smaller portion of land British Conflict General Pitt convinces the colonists to fund the war by telling them that England can’t voluntarily tax them without their consent However, England spent a lot of money on the War and decides to tax the colonists in order to make them cover the expenses Colonists also do not have any representation in Parliament Damaged relationship between England and the colonists National Identity At first, the colonists were upset about being taxed without representation in Parliament and just wanted the grievances to be resolved The Revolutionary War was NOT inevitable However, the Boston Massacre and the sensationalism of newspapers encouraged War to break out First Stage of War = angry, want problem solved, still loyal to England but want to be treated better Declaration of Independence = we are America, we don’t want to be British anymore, we are independent and united as our own nation
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