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Bio 110, study guide 1

by: Alexandra Notetaker

Bio 110, study guide 1 Bio 110

Alexandra Notetaker
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

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About this Document

Covers chapters 5-8 and ch 40
Fundamentals of Biology I
Dr. Phyllis Griffard
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 110 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Phyllis Griffard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I in Biology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
Biology study guide  Tissues o Cells organize into tissues> into organs>into organ systems>into organisms o Four types of tissues  Muscle (voluntary)  Nerve ( spinal cord)  Epithelial (covers, lines, and separates)  Connective (extra cellular matrix)  Membranes o Semipermeable, fluid mosaic with hydrophobic head and hydrophilic tail  Arranged into a bilayer with proteins and cholesterol mixed in  Cholesterol helps maintain fluidity  Length of tails also affect fluidity  Proteins help with transport across the membrane  Transmembrane proteins go through and can move laterally  Peripheral proteins are stuck on outside or inside and can’t move o Osmosis is the diffusion of water into a cell  Water can enter cell via aquaporins  Toxicity affects osmosis (solute concentration in and out of the cell)  Hypertonic solution: more solutes outside than in  Hypotonic solution: more solutes inside than out  Isotonic solution: net movement of solutes is zero o Hypotonic causes cell to burst in animals and turgid in plants o Hypertonic causes cell to shrink in animals and have plasmolysis (pull away from cell wall)  Metabolism o Changes bonds and converts energy/ moves electrons  Anabolism makes something bigger  Catabolism breaks down or makes smaller o Energy  Ability to do work  In reactions the delta G can be smaller than zero where the reaction releases energy (exergonic reaction)  Delta G can be smaller than zero where the reaction requires energy (endergonic reaction) o Laws of thermodynamics  Matter is neither created or destroyed  Every reaction increases entropy or disorder in a system  Reactions only transform energy o ATP is used for mechanical work and transport o Coupled reactions feed off of each other (one's releases and the other takes in energy) o Enzymes help in lowering activation energy needed for reactions to take place  Can be used over and over  They don’t affect the delta G  Substrates bind to the active site of enzymes by induced fit (substrate level complex)  Most enzymes require prothetic groups, cofactors, or coenzymes temporarily  They are regulated by gene expression by competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors  Cellular respiration o Purpose is to make ATP (energy) o C6h12o6 + o2 -> CO2 + H2O + energy o In redox reactions  Oxidation loses electron (reducing agent)  Reduction gains electrons (oxidizing agent) o Glycolysis  Makes 2 pyruvate and NADH and 2 ATP o Pyruvate is transformed into acetyl coA Co2 is formed when carbon breaks off o Citric acid cycle  Carbons break off to make citric acid and Co2 is formed  NADH and 2 ATP formed  Will stop if no oxygen is present o Oxidative phosphorylation  NADH dump H+ which are used to make H20 using chemiosmosis and H+ go through a pump ( ATP synthase) to form 32 ATP o 36-38 ATP made altogether o Fermentation  “an electron dump” for when there is a lack of oxygen  Electrons from NADH dump onto pyruvate to form lactate until oxygen becomes present again  Allows for ATP to continue to make with a lack of oxygen  In plants ethanol is formed instead of lactate  ATP also works as a feedback inhibitor when there is an overabundace of ATP  Photosynthesis o “line between the living and the dead” o Photo autotrophs make their own food using sunlight o CO2 + H20 +sunlight -> C6H12O6 +H2O +O2 o Electron transport happens in the thylakoids within chloroplasts  Light waves come in as photons (energy) to either hit chlorophyll, go through the chloroplast, or reflect off  When light hits the chloroplasts it bounces around photosystem II until it hits the reaction center at P 680 which boost the electron up to the primary electron acceptor  From there it is brought to photosystem I where the same process happens until the energy hits the reaction center at P700 when the electron then gets boosted up to the second primary election acceptor  This stores H+ using NADPH to make ATP using ATP synthase o Chloroplasts contain 3 different ways to absorb light  Chlorophyll A- main photosynthetic pigment  Chlorophyll B- broadens the spectrum of incoming light  Carotenoids- absorbs excessive light o In the second part of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle happens in the stroma or plasma membrane of the chloroplast  Uses ATP and NADPH from electron transport chain  Rubisco (enzyme) transforms RuBP by carbon fixation to make G3P  Every two G3P makes 2 glucose o Photo respiration is when O2 starts to bonds instead of CO2 during dry spells to conserve H2O o The stoma close up trapping O2 in and CO2 from coming in  Some plants have adapted to this by adding in an extra step to combat this C4 plants (special separation)  Cam plants photosynthesize at night to make energy efficiently


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