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Exam 2 Study Guide Questions

by: Sabrina Woods

Exam 2 Study Guide Questions BIOL 23100-01

Marketplace > Purdue University > Biology > BIOL 23100-01 > Exam 2 Study Guide Questions
Sabrina Woods

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About this Document

These questions cover all of the material that could be on the exam!
Cellular Biology
Dr. Peter Hollenbeck
Study Guide
DNA, Memrabnes, Energy
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sabrina Woods on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 23100-01 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Peter Hollenbeck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Cellular Biology in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
BIOL 23100 Exam 2 Study Guide Lectures 10­20 (Questions in order of lectures) ● Outline the logic, results and interpretation of the classic experiments carried out  by: Griffiths (1920s); Avery, MacLeod and McCarty (1940s); Hershey and Chase  (1950s). ● What is the basic structure of the DNA double helix? Label its parts on a typical  diagram like the one in your text. How do the shapes of the bases and hydrogen bonding explain the A::T and G:::C pairs? ● Diagram two complementary DNA strands with clear 3' and 5' polarity. ● What are the 3' and 5' ends of a nucleotide strand? What do we mean when we  say they are “anti­parallel” to each other? ● What are chromatin and chromosomes? Why do you think the human genome  has 46 linear chromosomes, while a typical bacterial genome is a single circular  chromosome? ● What do we mean by “semi­conservative” replication of DNA? ● How do the properties of DNA polymerase make DNA replication complicated? ● What happens at the leading and lagging strands at a given DNA replication  fork? ● Draw a simple diagram that shows continuous and discontinuous DNA synthesis. ● What is an RNA primer? What are the steps necessary to prime DNA synthesis,  remove the primers, and fill in the gaps. Draw a simple diagram of this, and name the  categories of enzymes involved.  ● What is the “end problem” that results from DNA replication of a linear  chromosome? ● How does telomerase solves this problem? Draw a simple diagram to illustrate  this. ● Describe the two modifications made at the ends of mRNA transcripts. Label  them in a diagram. ● Define transcription, translation and codon.  ● What does it mean to say that the genetic code is “degenerate”? ● What is non­random about the genetic code? What impact does this have on the  effects of single­base mutations in the DNA? ● Describe the experiments using synthetic RNA that revealed the genetic code.  ● What are the five sorts of outcomes that occur for a protein when a single codon  changes in the DNA/RNA? ● How do you use a codon table to determine the sequence of amino acids in a  protein, given its mRNA sequence? ●  List which amino acids you would eliminate from proteins if you were designing  the cell from scratch and wanted a sensible, compact, non­degenerate codon table with  16 two base codons mapping into all of the amino acids. Explain your reasoning. ● What is the structure and function of a tRNA? Draw a simple diagram, label the 3' and 5' ends and the anticodon sequence. ●  What is the general structure of a ribosome? Draw a simple, labeled diagram.  ● What are the basic steps in the initiation, continuation and termination of  translation of an mRNA by the ribosome? What are the locations and roles of the major  components of this machinery? Using the figures in your text, draw a series of simple  diagrams to illustrate it.  ● What is the polysome? Draw a simple diagram of it, and explain how it increases  the efficiency of protein translation. ● What are the major lipids found in cell membranes? Identify on a diagram their  hydrophobic and hydrophilic or polar regions, and two things we have studied before: the important functional groups and key chemical bonds that they contain.  ● Explain and characterize the different kinds of lipid mobility within the bilayer. ● What is llipid “scrambling” or “flipping” between leaflets of a bilayer? Specify  where it occurs and what the result is.  ● What are the three kinds of experiments that have been done to determine the  mobility of membrane components in the plasma membrane? Draw a simple diagram of  each. ● How are alpha helices and beta sheets organized in the membrane­spanning  portions of integral membrane proteins? Draw a simple diagram of each. ●  List the different functions that integral membrane proteins carry out in cells. ●  What are the four examples of major membrane proteins? Describe them. Draw  a simple diagram of each, and explain how its structure and function are related.  ● What do we mean by a disequilibrium across membranes. How does the Na/K  ATPase contribute to three different kinds of disequilibrium with each cycle? ● What is the VM of a cell membrane? What is the VX for a particular ion X across  a membrane? Use a simple diagram to illustrate this. Which two ions are the major  contributors to VM, and on which side of the membrane are they each typically at higher  concentration? ●  List four characteristics of nerve conduction and explain why each is important  for the nervous system of a large animal.  ● What are the membrane protein complexes responsible for the axon’s resting  membrane potential? What are the nature and properties of the membrane protein  complexes responsible for the axon’s action potential? ● What are the events of the action potential and the behavior of the voltage­gated  channel? ●  Draw a simple diagram of a V vs time plot to illustrate the action potential. ●  How is an action potential propagated along the axon? Why is it unidirectional? ● Draw a simple diagram to illustrate the unidirectionality of the action potential  ● How, for an ion, can its charge disequilibrium tend to drive it across a membrane  in one direction while its concentration disequilibrium drives it in the opposite direction?  Draw a simple diagram and give an example.  ● Copy the equation for the Gibbs free energy of solute gradients. What does each  component mean? How does it allow us to consider both charge and concentration  differences across a membrane? ● Copy the Nernst equation and explain what it allows us to determine. ● Outline the four stages into which we will divide metabolism. Where (in what  compartment) in the cell does each occur, and what are its inputs and outputs?  ● What is the form in which high energy electrons are transferred in redox  reactions in the cell?  What is the nature and role of the electron carrier, NAD, in  glycolysis? ●  What are the specific inputs and outputs of glycolysis? What is the net energetic  gain to the cell? Draw a simple diagram of the pathway. ●  What is the anaerobic follow­up to glycolysis, fermentation? Describe it.  In the  absence of O2 , we can say that fermentation is necessary to allow glycolysis to  continue – what do we mean by that? ● Draw a simple diagram of a typical mitochondrion, and label the three  compartments defined by its membranes. What are the different properties of its inner  and outer membranes? ● Outline the TCA cycle and draw a simple diagram of it. What is the nature of its  reactions? What are its inputs and outputs? What is the form in which the energy of  carbohydrate oxidation harvested by the TCA cycle is “harvested”? ● What is the nature and function of NAD and FADH in the TCA cycle, and the  major functional difference between them? ● Outline the electron transport chain and draw a simple diagram of it. What is the  nature of its reactions, inputs and outputs? What is the form in which the energy of  carbohydrate oxidation harvested by the ETC is “stored”? ● Outline the functional cycle of the ATP synthase and draw a simple diagram of it.  ● What forms of energy are interconverted by this complex, and how this is  accomplished?  ● Where is most of the ATP generated by ATP synthase is needed? Explain how it  gets there. ● Draw a simple diagram of a typical mitochondrion, label the membranes, and  describe how the transport of ATP, ADP, pyruvate and Pi between the cytoplasm and  matrix are accomplished. What provides the energy for each of these forms of transport? ● Outline or describe the successive stages in bacterial evolution currently thought  to have lead to the endosymbiotic event that produced mitochondria. What conditions  prevailed at different times in the evolution of bacteria and the earth? What are the  selective pressures exerted on bacterial evolution? 


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