Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide PUR 3000 (3A93)
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Exam October 12. Determine how and why the authors divide up each section so that you can pick an answer that fits in a scenario Chapter 5: Research Research is the: The basic groundwork of any PR program. It involves the gathering and interpretation of information. Research is used in every phase of a communications program. ● Defining research role: it’s the listening mechanism ○ Research gives context to the product and the audience ○ Listening process: validity and reliability ● Four Part Process ○ R ○ A ○ C ○ E Why Research? To... ● Determine the roblem ● Determine the kind of information that is needed ● Formulate strategy ● Define the publ and how they should be researched ○ Define audiences nd segment publics ● Define how much it w ost recommendation: between 5 and 10% of your budget should be spent on measurement. ) ● Define how th esults will be needed ○ Define how the research data will be analyzed, reported, and applied ● Achieve redibility with management ● Test messages ● Help management keep in ouch ● Prevent crises (90% of all crises could be avoided with research because these are organizational problems - If you’re monitoring social media you can view trends and be ahead of the game) ● Monitor th ompetition ● Sway public opinion ● Generate publicity off the research you do (oftentimes, research can become a press release) ● Measure success Four public relations processes: ● R search ● Action ● Communication ● Evaluation ● (S ewardship) - global awareness Research techniques: helping management do a reality check. PR does research to measure a baseline/outcome ● Qualitative research: soft research that allows researchers to gain insights into how individuals behave, think, and make decisions (whether key messages were properly communicated by the media) THINK QUALITY. ○ Content analysis - the systematic and objective counting/categorizing of info. ■ It is often used to measure the amount of media coverage and the contents of that coverage. ■ This research method ranges from relatively and formal to quite scientific in terms of random sampling and establishing specific subject categories. in this way it can help to determine whether a need exists for additional PR efforts ■ Meaningful content analysis that enables PR departments to plan responsive communications should include factors such as: ● The percentage of favorable, neutral, and negative mentions about the company or its product or service; ● The overall tone of the article or broadcast mention ● The percentage of articles that contain key message points that the organization wants to communicate ○ Interviews: takes a professional intercept interviews ■ Can be conducted in several ways ■ Intercept interview/convenience poll: interviewers intercept people in public places and ask their opinions. ■ Purposive interviewing: a more in depth approach; the interviewees are carefully selected based on their expertise, influence, or leadership in the community. ○ Focus groups - t he opinions of the 10-12 people in the room. Generally, focus groups are not great for extrapolating data. ■ A trained facilitator uses non-directive interviewing techniques that encourage group members to talk freely about a topic or give candid reactions to suggested message themes ■ It is an informal research procedure that develops qualitative information rather than hard data. ○ Copy testing Representatives of the target audience read and review the material in draft form before it is mass produced and distributed. ■ one-on-one or in a small group setting ■ readability formula is a lower reading level. ○ Ethnographic techniques: o bservation and role-playing. Secondary research: information data that has been collected by someone else (Ie: Google search) ● Begins by doing archival research: the process of reviewing an organization’s data on sales, profile of customers, and so on ● Information from library and online databases ● World wide web ● PR departments and firms use online databases to: ○ Research facts to support a proposed project or campaign that requires top management approval ○ Keep up to date with news about clients and their competitors ○ Track an organization's media campaigns and competitor’s press announcements ○ Locate a special quote or impressive statistic for a speech or report ○ Track press and business reaction to an organization's latest actions ○ Locate an expert who can provide advice on an issue or a possible strategy ○ Keep top management apprised of current business trends and issues ○ Learn about the demographics and attitudes of target publics Quantitative research: hard research that you can extract and apply to general population because there is only a 3-5% margin of error. THINK NUMBERS/QUANTITY ● Based on randomness and a large number of respondents. ● Effective polls and surveys require a random sam In statistics, this means that everyone in the targeted audience (as defined by the researcher) has an equal or known chance of being selected for the survey (A robability sampl . ○ Another common method to ensure representation is to draw a random sample that matches the statistical characteristics of the audience: quota sampling. ■ a quota sample can be drawn on any number of demographic factors depending on the purpose of the survey ● Demands scientific rigor and proper sampling procedures so that information will be representative of the general population. ● Sample size determines the margin of error in the statistical findings ● Random digit dialing (RDD): is a method for a Nationwide telephone survey. Primary research: research you put together through a scientific process and you put it through. How To reach Respondents: ● Mailed questionnaires: used less often than in the past ● Telephone surveys ● Personal interviews: most expensive ● Omnibus/piggyback surveys: An organization buys one or two questions in a national survey conducted by a national polling firm such as Gallup or Harris. (Ie: General Mills may place one or two questions in a large, professionally conducted survey that asks respondents what professional athlete they most admire, as a way to find new endorsers for its breakfast foods. ○ Omnibus means something that serves several purposes. ● Web and email surveys: Researchers use several methods to attract respondents to a website, including: ○ Banner ads announcing the survey on other web sites or online Networks ○ Sending email invitations to members of the target audience ○ Telephoning individuals with an invitation to participate ○ Sending a postcard ○ The 3 major disadvantages are 1. Respondents are usually self selected 2. There is no control over the size of the sample or selection of respondents 3. Probability sampling is not achievable. ○ The 3 major advantages are 1. Large samples are generated in a short amount of time 2. They are more economical than even mailed questionnaires and phone interviews 3. Data can be used continually. Questionnaire Construction: ● Consider wording (no loaded questions!), biased questions, politically correct answers, and answer categories. ○ Wording the questions on a questionnaire is a time-consuming process and it is not unusual for a questionnaire to go through multiple drops to achieve maximum clarity ○ It's simply a matter of semantics which is a good area of study for aspiring PR professionals ○ Advocacy research: when organizations send out surveys with questions that use highly charged words to elicit an emotional reaction from the respondent. such questions are considered loaded because they are intentionally skewed to generate a predictable response. (usually with politics and public policy debate) ○ Consider timing and context ■ In a neutral contacts 2 more valid survey can be conducted about an organization's reputation, products, or services. ○ Benchmarking: The use of software programs to track and monitor a client's reputation almost on a daily basis. ○ Give a range of possible answers: it is important that the provided answer choices cover a range of opinions because answer categories can skew a questionnaire ■ Likerttype scale: ● (a) strongly agree, (b) agree, (c) undecided, (d) disagree, and (e) strongly disagree. ● Number of guidelines: deciding what you want to find out, keeping the questionnaire relatively short, defining the target audience, and selecting the appropriate sample size. Summary The Importance of Research ● Research is the basic groundwork of any public relations program. It involves the gathering and interpretation of information. Research is used in every phase of a Communications program. Secondary Research ● Secondary Research often begins by doing archival research, which reviews an organization's data on sales, profiles of customers and so on. Another source is information from library and online databases. Search engine such as Google, MSN, and Yahoo allow practically everyone to find information and statistics on the internet and the World Wide Web. Thus, the often heard expression “ let's Google it.” Qualitative Research ● The value of this technique is that it games insights into how individuals behave, think and make decisions. It's also used to ascertain whether two messages were communicated by the media. The primary techniques are: ○ content analysis ○ Interviews ○ focus groups ○ copy testing ○ ethnographic observation and role playing Quantitative Research ● This kind of research demands scientific rigor and proper sampling procedures so that information will be representative of the general population. Random sampling gives everyone in the target audience the chance to be the sample. Sample size determines the margin of error in the statistical findings. Questionnaire Construction ● There are many factors to consider when deciding a questionnaire, including wording, biased questions, politically correct answers, and answer categories. There are also a number of guidelines, such as deciding that you want to find out, keeping the questionnaire relatively short, defining the target audience, and selecting the appropriate sample size. How to Reach Respondents ● Survey respondents may be reached by mail, telephone, personal interviews, and Omnibus surveys. Increasingly surveys are being done via the web and email. Chapter 6: Program Planning: second step in the PR method The Value of planning: after research, PR plans a program/campaign to accomplish organizational objectives. ● Planning must be strategic, creative, and pay close attention to reaching key audiences. A program’s objectives can be purely informational to create awareness, or more motivational to actually increase participation ● This step was labeled “Action” in the RACE acronym because the organization starts making plans to do something about an issue or situation. Approaches to planning ● Management by objective: MBO, systematically categorizes objectives, communication strategies, audiences, and the essence of the message. PR firms often have their own planning model, which often includes market research, demographic segmentation of target audiences, and establishment of key messages. ○ Provides focus and direction for formulating strategy to achieve specific organizational objectives ○ Ensures the production of relevant messages and establishes criteria against which campaign results can be measured ○ An agency planning model: features of the Ketchum plan (Facts, Goals, Audience, and Key message) and Doubletree’s chocolate chip cookies. ○ Every objective needs to be measured. 1. Client/employer objectives 2. audience/publics 3. Audience objectives 4. Media channels 5. Media channel objectives 6. Sources and questions 7. Communication strategies: u sually based on budget 8. Essence of the message “ message drivers” 9. Nonverbal support: visuals, not just the written word, is becoming increasingly important for millennials ● A strategic planning model ○ Facts ■ Category facts: what are recent industry trends? ■ Product/service issues: hat are the significant characteristics of the product, service, or issue? ■ Competitive facts: ho are the competitors, and what are their competitive strengths, similarities, and differences? ■ Customer facts: who uses the product and why? ○ Goals ■ Business Objectives: hat are the company's business objectives? what is the time frame? ■ Role of PR: ow does public relations fit into the marketing mix? ■ Sources of new business: W hat sectors will produce growth? ○ Audience ■ Target Audiences: W ho are the target audiences? what are the top buttons? ■ Current Mindset: ow do audiences feel about the product, service, or issue? ■ Desired Mindset: ow do we want them to feel? ○ Key Message ■ Main Point: What 1 key message must be conveyed to change or reinforce mindsets? Elements of a Program Plan ● Eight basic elements: 1. Situation: what the hell’s going on ● The organization must conduct emedial program to overcome a problem or negative situation ● The organization needs to conduct a specif ne-time projec o launch a new product or service ● The organization wants to reinforce ngoing ffort to preserve its reputation and public support 2. Objectives: an objective is usually stated in terms of program outcomes rather than communication outputs such as news releases created. ● Informational objectives: facts ○ Message exposure and accurate dissemination of messages are the most important. OR -- ● Motivational objectives: measurable objectives that center around behavior and emotion 3. Audience: specific and defined audiences or publics. 4. Strategy: describes how and why campaign components will achieve objectives ● Key messages ● New frontier for strategy: embrace theories of communication as a basis for strategy recommendations 5. Tactics: the nuts and bolts part of the plan. They describe the specific activities that put each strategy into operation and help to achieve the stated objectives 6. Calendar/timetable ● The timing of a campaign ● Scheduling of tactics ● Compiling a Calendar ● Figure 6.1 on p 158 7. Budget: divided into 2 categories: a. Staff time: as much as 70% of the budget. b. Out of pocket expenses OOP like collateral material such as news releases, media kits, brochures, video news releases (VNRs), transportation, web programming, and even video production. 8. Evaluation ● Pre and post surveys ● How many times did the cash register ring? Quiz Review: ● In an organization, staff functions operate at 3 levels of influence and authority: authority, concurring authority, and compulsory advisory ● Corporate communications describes the PR department of an organization ● Secondary research is the data collected from places, such as books, magazines, and the internet ● Content analysis is a type of qualitative research technique that is used to measure the amount and nature of media coverage. ● Personal interview research needs skilled personnel ● Management by objectives is an approach to planning that ensures the production of relevant messages. ● An objective provides the logic behind planned activities. ● The difference between an objective and a strategy is that a strategy describes how and why campaign components will achieve objectives. Summary The value of planning ● After research is done, the next step in the PR process is planning a program or campaign to accomplish organizational objectives. Such planning must be strategic, creative, and pay close attention to reaching key audiences. A program's objectives can be purely informational to create awareness or more motivational to actually increase participation or sales. Approaches to planning ● 1 classic approach is the management by objective (MBO) model, which systematically categorizes objectives, communication strategies, audiences, end of the essence of the message. PR firms often have their own planning model, which often includes market research, demographic segmentation of target audiences, and establishment of key messages. Elements of a Program Plan ● A program plan is either a brief outline or an extensive document identify and what is to be done and how. PR Reviews for client approval, and there is joint consultation about budgets, strategies, and tactical communication tools. A PR plan, at minimum, should contain 8 elements: situation, objectives, audience, strategy, tactics, calendar or timeline, budget, and evaluation. *Chapter 7: Communication: where things get interesting* The goals of communication: after research and planning in the pr process is communication/ execution. it is the most visible part of PR work ● Implementing the plan: communication is the implementation of a decision the process and the means by which objectives are achieved ○ The goal of the communication process are to inform, persuade, motivate or achieve a mutual understanding. ○ To be an Effective Communicator a person must have basic knowledge of ■ What constitutes communication and help people receive messages ■ How people process information and change their perceptions ■ What kinds of media and communication tools are most appropriate for a particular message ● a PR perspective: message should be ○ Appropriate, Meaningful, Memorable, Understandable and believable to the prospective recipient 1. Message exposure - receiving the message 2. Accurate dissemination of the message - paying attention to and then understanding the message 3. Acceptance of the message - believing the message and remembering it. 4. Change in overt Behavior - acting on the message (put a condom on before you have sex) Receiving the message ● Wilbur Schramm, a Pioneer in communication Theory, first conceptualized a one-way linear model that shows the five basic elements of source, encoder, signal, decoder, end destination. ● ● The loop process also is integral to models that show the pr process of research, planning, communication, and evaluation. ● The importance of 2 way communication establishes a dialogue ○ Two-way symmetrical communication: communication balance between the sender and the receiver ■ Both sides get something out of it. ■ Most effective form of communication is 1 on 1 communication (people think social media is 1 on 1 but it’s mostly just visual not visual and auditory) ○ Motive is often asymmetrical: to convince the audience of their point of view through dialogue and engagement ○ Barriers to communication: psychological and physical distance between sender and receiver, no immediate feedback is possible sometimes, End the message could undergo Distortion as it is edited and revised by journalists and editors in traditional mass media Outlets ■ As the audience increases, so do the audiences because the more every member of the audience needs to go through the above steps. Paying attention to the message ● Some theoretical perspectives ○ Media uses and gratification theory of communication: the communication process is interactive, the communicator wants to inform and even persuade; the recipient wants to be entertained, informed, or alerted to opportunities that can fulfill individual needs. ■ You demonstrate gratification by calling in and voting on shows like American Idol. It’s interactive. ■ PR wants to move audiences to act because most are passive. ○ You receive thousands of messages per day, recall is low. Just because a person has received a message does not mean that they understand it or remember them. ■ Audiences come to messages for very different reasons. people use mass media for such purposes as: 1. surveillance of the environment to find out what is happening locally or even globally that has some impact on them 2. entertainment and diversion 3. reinforcement of their opinions and predispositions and 4. decision-making about buying a product or service ○ Passive audiences versus Active audiences: can sometimes be both ■ Most audiences are passive: they are passive about ads. ■ Active audiences seek out new information ○ The concept of triggering events cause people to act on their latent willingness to behave in a certain way, when you move from a passive audience to an active audience. ■ Doubletree 25th anniversary cookie campaign. ○ Other attention-grabbing Concepts ■ Motion media are the most effective and most popular modes of communication today for an audience expecting a full sensual experience, with 3D sight, sound, color, movement, and engagement. (As opposed to radio, which just relies on hearing and print which just relies on sight). ● Individuals learn through all five senses but especially site, hearing is next but cripples and comparison. ■ A variety of communication tools is needed including news releases, publicity photos, special events, YouTube videos, billboards, newsletters, radio announcements, video news releases, media interviews and news conferences. ■ Other research suggests that audience attention can be engaged if the communicator raises a need first. the idea is to hook an audience's attention by beginning the message with something that will make its members lives easier or benefit them in some way. ● Attention is the highest at the beginning of a message ○ Another technique to garner audience attention is to beginning message with a statement that reflects audience values and predispositions: call hanneling Understanding the message ● Effective use of language: words are the most common symbols. the degree to which two people understand each other is heavily dependent on their common knowledge of words symbols. ○ PR writers must write at a 9th grade reading level for maximum clarity. ● Writing for clarity: the key is to produce messages that match and content and structure that characteristics of the audiences ○ Copy tests help convince management and communicators that what they like isn't necessarily what the audience wants, needs or understands. ○ Another approach is to apply readability and comprehension formulas to materials before they are produced and disseminated. ○ Use symbols, acronyms and slogans: a concept that is part of branding (the emotional connection between you and the product) to create a shortcut for the brain: ■ A symbol should be unique, memorable, widely recognized, and appropriate ■ An acronym is a word formed from the initial letters of other words: IBM: international business machines corporation ■ Slogans help condense a concept and motivating movement ○ Avoid jargon/ systematic noise ○ Avoid clichés and hype words and overused words ( robust, flexible, world class, easy to use, cutting edge) because they can ruin the credibility and believability of your message ○ Avoid euphemisms (things like hearing impaired instead of deaf) and doublespeak b ecause they are words that can pretend to communicate but really do not. ○ Avoid discriminatory language: d ouble check every message to eliminate undesirable gender, racial, indefinite connotations ■ Evolves very rapidly. ■ Cannot say “spanish speaking” anymore now it’s hispanic/latina/latin X ○ “Don’t confuse me with the facts.” PR creates cognitive dissonance to move them towards believability ■ Obama wasn’t in the white house during 9/11 ■ In this election facts matter so little Believing the Message ● Source credibility is a problem for any organizational spokesperson because the public already has bias. ● The sleeper effect was developed by Carl hovland “ there is decreased tendency over time to reject the material presented by an untrustworthy source.” ● The context of the message: actions (performances) speak louder than a stack of news releases. ● Another barrier to the believability of messages is the audience's predispositions. ○ This problem brings to mind the old saying, “Don't confuse me with the facts, my mind's already made up.” In this case Leon Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance should be understood. ○ Dissonance can be created and at least three ways: 1. Make the public aware that circumstances have changed, 2. Give information about new developments, 3. Use an unexpected spokesperson ● Involvement is another predisposition that impacts how audience members process messages. ○ Involvement can be described in terms as simple as interest or concern for an issue or a product. emembering the Message ● Repetition is necessary because it reinforces an idea, reminds the audience, helps the audience remember the message itself, and can lead to improved learning and increase the chance of penetrating audience indifference of resistance. ○ Researchers say that repetition or redundancy also is necessary to offset the noise surrounding a message. ○ Such precautions fight entropy which means that messages continually lose information as media channels and people process the information and pass it on to others. Acting on the message (know the stages and where items fit in each stage): ● the five-stage adoption process: 1. Awareness: knowledge 2. Interest: ersuasion 3. Evaluation: decision/evaluation 4. Trial: i mplementation 5. Adoption: confirmation ● Five factors influence a person's evaluation of a product or an idea: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability ○ ● The Time Factor: Rogers research shows that people approach innovation in different ways depending on their personality traits and the risk involved there are five levels ○ Time in which a product/service is launching (the arch of it) 1. Innovators 2. Early adopters: savvy individuals to keep up with new ideas and new products often the opinion leaders for their friends and colleagues. Usually a younger cohort. 3. Early majority: individuals who take a deliberate pragmatic approach to adopting ideas. This is the overwhelming majority of consumers. 4. Late majority: individuals who are often skeptical and somewhat resistant but eventually bow to peer pressure 5. Laggards: individuals who are very traditional and the last group to adopt a new idea or product (generally elderly) ● How decisions are influenced: awareness stage (moving into WOM/ being aware of an issue), interest stage (go to a website), evaluation, trial, and adoption stages. ● WOM/Word of Mouth campaigns try to reach opinion leaders who are also known as influential as or catalysts ○ Popularity ○ Key factors: can be informal or formal Summary The Goals of Communication ● Communication AKA execution is the third step in the PR process ● The five possible objectives in a PR campaign are message exposure, accurate dissemination of the message, acceptance of the message, attitude change, and change an overt behavior ● Many campaigns strive to accomplish only the first two objectives: media exposure and accurate dissemination of the message. ● The six components of effective communication for audiences are 1) receiving the message, 2) paying attention to the message, 3) understanding the message, 4) believing the message, 5) remembering the message, 6) acting on the message. Receiving the Message ● Most communication models have 5 basic elements including source, encoder, signal, decoder, and destination. ● Effective communication requires the sender and the receiver to have a field of shared experience. ● Most modern models emphasize communication as a loop process that involves constant feedback and two-way communication. ● The larger the audience the greater the number of barriers to communication Pay Attention to the Message ● Because audiences have different approaches to receiving messages, communicators must tailor the message to get the recipient's attention. ● Messages for passive audience must have a style and creativity, whereas messages for an audience actively seeking information must have more informative content. ● Effective communication of a message requires the use of multiple media channels. Understanding the Message ● The most basic element of understanding between communicator and audience is a common language. ○ This is becoming a greater issue with the emphasis on multiculturalism. ● PR practitioners must consider their audiences and style their language appropriately, taking into consideration the literacy levels, clarity and simplicity of language, and avoidance of discriminatory or offensive language. Believing the Message ● Key variables and credibility include source credibility, context, the audience’s predispositions, especially their level of involvement. Remembering the Message ● Messages are often repeated extensively to reach all members of the target audience and to help them remember and enhance their learning. ○ Repetition is key. ● One way to do this is to convey information in several ways through a variety of channels. Acting on the Message ● The five steps in the acceptance of new ideas or product wareness, interest, evaluation, trial and adoption (evaluate: does it meet a specific need or want - a lot of consumers chop off here) ○ Trial: samples ● The adoption process is affected by relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability. ● The time factor is the time needed to adopt a new idea or product can be affected by the importance of the decision as well as by the personality of the person receiving the message. ● Word of Mouth (WOM) campaigns are increasingly being used to take advantage of pure influence and persuasion process. Chapter 8: Evaluation Research ctions Communications and Evaluations The Purpose of Evaluation: the systematic assessment of a program and its results. ● Valued fourth step to PR:about measuring results so that the company or product will be better. ● No shame in admitting to failure, it’s easy to skew the evaluations. Objectives: A prerequisite for Evaluation ● Determine your evaluation technique during the planning stage. You can’t write an objective without determining a way to measure it. ● Must have a business plan/objective ● 4-5% or 10% of expenditures on evaluation. ○ In reality, web analytics are very inexpensive/free, so companies are spending more time on evaluations but not necessarily more money. ● Techniques: measurement of: ○ Production ○ Message exposure ○ Audience Awareness ○ Audience Attitudes ○ Audience Actions. Current Status of Measurement and Evaluation ● PR is more art than science ● It is possible to measure PR effectiveness and it does not have to be either unbelievably expensive or laborious time-consuming. ● ● On the most basic level (where most PR firms evaluate) are compilations of message distribution and media placement. - this measures outputs, but should measure outcome. ● On a second level, which requires more sophisticated techniques, deals with the measurement of audience awareness, comprehension, and retention of the message. ○ Requires research pre and post. ● The most advanced level is the measurement of changes in attitudes, opinions and behavior. ○ Time and budget necessary, a lot of companies don’t want to take the time or money to do this depth of an evaluation. ● Variety of tools you can use: ○ Production is the way most people measure. ○ Measurement of message exposure is also important ○ Surveys, software is immensely helpful now ○ Web (Google) analytics: how people are utilizing measurement (hits, creating a database) Measurement of Production: ● Several levels ○ One elementary form of evaluation is simply to count how many news releases, feature stories, photos, guest editorials, blog postings, and the like, are produced in a given period of time. This kind of evaluation is supposed to give management an idea of a staff’s productivity and output. ■ PR professionals don’t believe this evaluation is very meaningful, because it emphasizes quantity instead of quality. ○ Media Impressions: clips, research tools, and coverage. ■ Optics nd message recall: if you appear at the upper right hand corner of a newspaper you have higher recall than the lower left hand corner of the same paper. Measurement of Message Exposure: ● Media Impressions: the potential audience reached by a periodical, a broadcast program, or a website ● Tracking Internet Visitor: hits/visits ● Advertising value equivalency (AVE): (worst way to judge or evaluate pr - not valid) the dollar-value approach to measuring publicity effectiveness. ○ Defenders of AVE: such metrics help corporate management put a value on PR. ■ Others say it helps marketing execs decide how to split resources between PR and marketing. ○ A more defensible dollar evaluation can be made for messages such as PSAs on radio or tv, which are controlled by the creator much like a paid commercial would be. ■ At the same time, equativing publicity with advertising rates for comparable space does not engender good media relations. ○ THEY’RE BAD BUT MARKETERS LOVE THEM because they want to understand the value of the story = not the value of the ad placed . ● Systematic Tracking: ○ Computer software and databases analyze the content of media placements by such variables as market penetration, type of publication, tone of coverage, sources quoted, and mention of key copy points. ○ Specialty measurement firms use metrics like: ■ Analysis of coverage telling how a company's news coverage compares with that of the competition, ■ Share the voice in terms of what % of overall coverage about an industry or subject focuses on the client company, ■ Tone showing whether the slant of coverage is positive or negative, ■ % of time that stories mention key messages, ■ Analysis of what 3rd party experts, consumers, and bloggers say about the organization ○ Baseline study: a measurement of audience response (awareness, understanding, or attitudes and opinions) before, during, and after a PR campaign. ■ PR people want to determine baselines before they do their campaigns. ● Requests and 800 Numbers: ○ Toll free ○ Requests for materials also can show the effectiveness of a PR program. ○ GPS is also a research tool ● Return on Investment (ROI): A method that determines cost effectiveness. ○ Cost-effectiveness is used in PR ○ Cost per Thousand (CPM): is calculated by taking the cost of the publicity program and dividing it by the total media impressions ■ Total price of this campaign was 10K we reached 152K people, we can calculate exactly how effective the promotion was. ■ Advertisers that track CPM can provide good data depending on CPM. ● These are audits. At the end of the year, it is put on a matrix and you determine what was the most efficient. ■ It is measured against a lot of different elements. ○ Increasingly, PR professionals are measuring PR in terms of ■ What sales or revenues are generated, ■ How much they have saved the company in terms of avoiding a crisis or litigation. Measurement of Audience Awareness ● The internationally recognized advocacy group, Health Literacy Missouri, conducts annual surveys of media in the state to assess awareness of the organization, but more importantly, of health literacy as a crucial factor in the health and wellbeing of everyday citizens. ● The second level of evaluation. ● Measuring audience awareness and comprehension with day-after recall offers a credible metric for evaluating the impact of a campaign component. ○ Not done so often, but done after political campaigns and PR crisis campaigns. ○ It’s a higher level of evaluation Measurement of Audience Attitudes ● Pre and post test research ● Efforts of public relations Measurement of Audience Actions: raising awareness and raising interest are the first two steps of the five-step process to ultimately motivate people to adopt an idea, vote for a candidate, use a service, or buy a product. ● The hardest phase: organizational objectives ○ You should have business objectives that line up with PR objectives. Measurement of Supplemental Activities: ● Communication Audits: The most important reasons for an audit are to help establish communication goals and objectives, to evaluate long-term programs, to identify strengths and weaknesses, and to point up nany areas which require increased activity. ○ Do a swot analysis to see what needs to happen or not happen again for a future campaign. ■ Should include: ● Analysis of all communication activities ● Informal interviews with rank-and-file employees, middle management, and top executives ● Informal interviews with community leaders, media gatekeepers, consumers distributors, and other influential persons in the industry. ● Pilot Tests and Split Messages ○ A variation of pretesting is the pilot test. ○ Is quite common in marketing public relations because it limits costs and enables the company to revamp or fine-tune the message for maximum exposure ○ In the New Media landscape with numerous controlled media such as web and social media platforms piloting also allows the company to switch channels of dissemination if the original media channels are not exposing the message to the proper audiences. ○ The split message pproach is common in direct mail and direct email campaigns ■ Two different messages and put them both out there, and you can determine which message was the most efficient. ■ Very effective technique ● Meeting and Event Attendance ○ A simple form of asking people to rate items such as location, cost, facility, and program on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being the best) other forms may ask people to rate aspects of a conference or meeting as 1) excellent 2) good 3) average 4) poor 5) very poor ○ Often provides an analysis of audience attitudes. ○ University evaluations ● Newsletter Readership. ○ Such an elevation can help ascertain: ■ Reader perceptions ■ The degree to which stories are balanced ■ The kinds of story that have high reader interest ■ Additional topics that should be covered ■ The credibility of the publication ■ The extent to which the newsletter is meeting organizational objectives ○ Content Analysis ■ Based on a representative sample of past issues, stories may be categorized under general headings such as management announcements, new product developments, new personnel and retirements, features about employees, news of departments and divisions, and job related information. ○ Readership Interest Surveys ■ The most common survey method is to simply provide a long list of generic story topics and have employees rate them each as 1) important, 2) somewhat important, or 3) not important ○ Article Recall ■ As a check on the tendency of employees to report that they have read everything, interviewers also ask them how much of each article they have read and what the articles were about. ○ Advisory boards are periodic feedback and evaluation that can be provided by organising an employee advisory board that meets several times a year to discuss the direction and contents of the publication Summary The Purpose of Evaluation ● Evaluation is the measurement of results against objectives ● One major purpose of evaluation is to do a better job of planning future programs Objectives: a prerequisite for evaluation ● Objectives should be part of any program plan ● There must be agreed upon criteria used to evaluate success in obtaining these objectives Current Status of Measurement and Evaluation ● Studies indicate that about 4 or 5% of a typical public relations budget is allocated to evaluations and measurement. ● On the most basic level, practitioners can practice message distribution and media placements. The second level is measurement of audience awareness, comprehension, and retention. The most advanced level is the measurement of changes in attitudes, opinions, and behaviors. Measurement of Production ● The most elementary form of measurement is a tabulation of how many news releases, brochures, annual reports, and so on, are distributed in a single year. ● Measurement of production gives management an idea of a staff’s productivity and output Measurement of Message Exposure ● Several criteria can be used to measure message exposure, including the compilation of media placements in print, broadcast, and internet media. ● One common method of calculating media impressions which the potential audience reached with a message. Advertising Value Equivalency commonly called AVE, is calculated by converting news stories to the cost of a comparable amount of page space. ● More sophisticated methods include systematic tracking using software and databases to find out such information as tone of coverage, percentage of key messages used, and percentage of coverage related to that of the competition. ● Sometimes exposure is evaluated by determining how much it cost to read each member of the target audience. Measure of Audience Awareness ● The next level of evaluation is whether the audience became aware of and understood the message. ● Audience awareness can be measured through survey research, which by having the audience engage in unaided recall, can determine whether the audience understood and remembered the message. Measurement of Audience Attitudes ● Changes in audience attitudes can be evaluated through a baseline or benchmark study which measures awareness and opinions before, during, and after a PR campaign. Measurements of Audience Action ● Ultimately, PR campaigns are evaluated based on how they help an organization to achieve its objectives through changing audience behavior, whether that involves sales, fundraising, or the election of a candidate. Measurement of Supplemental Activities ● A yearly communication audit helps ensure that all publics are receiving appropriate messages. Several techniques such as pilot tests or split messages can be used to protest a PR effort. ■ Exert considerable influence on their peers by being highly informed, articulate, and credible on particular issues. ● Life Cycle of Public Opinion: 1. Definition of the issue: agenda stimuli. 2. Involvement of opinion leaders: discuss the issue and perhaps see it as being symbolic of broader environmental issues. 3. Public awareness: Public discussion. 4. Government/regulatory involvement: demand grows for government to act. 5. Resolution: draft legislation. ● Influentials are characterized by (1) being active in the community, (2) having a college degree, (3) earning a relatively high income, (4) regularly reading newspapers and magazines, (5) actively participating in recreational activities, and (6) showing environmental concern by recycling. ● Flow of Opinion: ○ The mass media have minimal influence on electoral choices, but what voters do rely on person-to-person communication with formal and informal opinion leaders. ○ Two-step flow theory of communication, a model that remains central to public relations strategy. It states that public opinion is formed by the views of people who have taken the time to sift information, evaluate it, and form an opinion that they express to others. ○ Multiple-step flow model starts with opinion makers, who derive large amounts of information from the mass media and other sources and then share that information with the “attentive public.” Some members of the inattentive public eventually will become interested in or at least aware of the issue. ■ The attentive public are interested in the issue but rely on opinion leaders to provide synthesized information and interpretation. ■ The “inattentive public” is unaware of or uninterested in the issue and remains outside the opinion-formation process. ○ N-step theory: individuals are seldom influenced by only one opinion leader but interact with different leaders around one issue. ■ For example, patients can seek information from their primary-care physician but may also turn to family members when making a medical decision. The Role of Mass Media ● The term mass media, AKA “traditional media” when contrasted with online media, implies that info from a public relations source can be efficiently and rapidly disseminated to millions of people. ● To better understand how PR people inform the public and shape public opinion via the mass media, it is necessary to review briefly several theories about mass media effects: ○ Yes–yes. Start with points with which the audience agrees to develop a pattern of “yes” answers. Getting agreement to a basic premise often means that the receiver will agree to the logically developed conclusion. ○ Offer structured choice Give choices that force the audience to choose between A and B. ○ Seek partial commitment. Get a commitment for some action on the part of the receiver. ○ Ask for more, settle for less: Submit a complete public relations program to management, but be prepared to compromise by dropping certain parts of the program. ○ Persuasive speech can be one-sided or offer several sides of an issue, depending on the audience. ■ One-sided speeches are most effective with persons already favorable to the message ■ Two-sided speeches are most effective with audiences that might be opposed to the message ● Findings from Persuasion Research ○ Positive appeals are generally more effective than negative appeals for retention of the message and actual compliance. ○ Radio and TV messages tend to be more persuasive than print but if the message is complex better comprehension is achieved through print media. ○ Strong emotional appeals and fear arousal are most effective when the audience has minimal concern about or interest in the topic ○ High fear appeals are effective only when they readily available action can be taken to eliminate the threat. ○ Logical Appeals, using facts and figures, are better for highly educated sophisticated audiences than strong emotional appeals. ○ Altruistic need like self-interest can be a strong motivator. ■ Men are more willing to get a physical check-up to protect their families than to protect themselves. ○ A celebrity or an attractive model is most effective when the audience has low involvement, the theme is simple, and broadcast channels are used. ■ And exciting spokesperson attracts attention to a message when it would otherwise be ignored. Factors in Persuasive Communication ● Audience analysis: Knowledge of audience characteristics is an essential part of persuasion ○ Census: very factual data. ○ Psychographics: Attempt to classify people by lifestyle, attitudes, and beliefs. ○ Channeling: suitably tailored messages in the appropriate media outlets. ● Source of Credibility: ○ The concept of ethos ○ UGC: User-Generated Content ○ The 3 factors: expertise, sincerity, and charisma. ■ Transfer is a technique that is used to associate a celebrity's popularity with a product. ○ Problems with celebrities: ■ Overexposure of a celebrity ■ Too many celebrity endorsements ■ Endorser’s actions undercut a product or service - Tiger Woods ● Appeal to self interest ○ But altruism is not dead. ○ Appeal to your sense of belonging or your self esteem. ○ People are motivated by 8 basic Appeals: ■ Power, respect, well being, affection, wealth, skill, enlightenment, physical and mental vitality. ● Clarity of message ○ Many messages fail because the audience finds the message unnecessarily complex in content or language. ■ Simple is better. But Mickie is a “more is more” person. ● Timing and Context ○ Play an important role in achieving publicity in the mass media. ● Audience Participation ○ Practitioners have known for decades that a change in attitude or reinforcement of beliefs is enhanced by audience involvement and participation. ○ Self persuasion. ● Suggestions for Action must be clear ○ Tell a problem and then how to solve it. ● Content and Structure of Messages ○ Expert communicators continue to use a number of devices including: ■ Drama: humanizing a situation or issue. a more mundane use of drama is the application story sent to the trade press. this is sometimes called the case study technique in which a manufacturer prepares an article on how an individual or a company is successfully using the product ■ Statistics ■ Surveys and polls ■ Examples ■ Endorsements/Testimonials ■ Emotional Appeals ● Fear arousal Limits of Persuasion: we can influence behavior but changing attitudes is the hardest part. ● Framing Theory describes how both journalists and public relations personnel promote a particular aspect of an issue or controversy. ● Journalist often look for a conflict in a story; public relations people strive for accommodation and conflict resolution. The dominant view of public relations ● The dominant view of public relations is of persuasive communications on behalf of clients. ● Persuasion can be used to change or neutralize hostile opinions, crystallize latent opinions and positive attitudes, and conserve favorable opinions. ● Research studies have established many basic concepts of persuasive communication. Factors in persuasive communication ● Factors involved in persuasion include audience analysis, source credibility, appeal to self interest, message clarity, timing and context, audience participation, suggestions for action, contents and structure of messages, and persuasive speaking. The limits of persuasion ● Limitations on effective persuasion include lack of message penetration, competing messages, self selection, and self-perception. The ethics of persuasion ● Publics will automatically have a level of suspicion because they know the communicator is promoting a client or organization. ● The interests of that client or organization will not be well-served by false or misleading communications Quiz Results: 1. Word of Mouth Campaigns are campaigns that will only work if they are based on a platform of ethics 2. When an audience member makes a commitment verbally or mentally to change his or her behavior because of a message, the end result is called attitude change. 3. An active type of audience enthusiastically searches for information. 4. The goal of any public relations effor o achieve organizational objectives. 5. The pilot test is the type of test that is most common in marketing public relations because it limits costs and enables a company to renovate its message for maximum exposure. Chapter 11: Reaching Diverse Audiences There’s more to diversity and to inclusiveness than just racial ethnicity (religion, age, demographics, etc) ■ They have a longer history in the US than hispanics. ● Asian Americans ○ The most educated population: they will move mountains to educate their children ■ Most responsive to PR in education. ○ Just as diverse as Hispanics. ○ The Asian American Press because of language diversity in culture is fairly numerous but highly concentrated. ● Native Americans (was not discussed in class) ● Understanding Ethnic Values ○ A strong community relations program is one way to effectively reach ethnic audiences. ○ General guidelines include a deep family network with a strong mother or father figure, music, food, religion and strong bonds between friends and family. ○ Five basic concepts that should be considered when developing a communications campaign for multicultural consumers: 1. Organize a team with an inherited her standing of the customs and values of the various demographic groups you're trying to reach, 2. Understand that consumers of diverse cultural backgrounds respond better to messages that are culturally relevant, 3. Remember that consumers of diverse cultural backgrounds are extremely loyal and once your products and services become part of their lives there is a very good chance you will keep them, 4. Use the primary language of the audience. A large portion of your target audience prefers to communicate and their primary language even if they do have strong English skills, 5. Use spokespersons that represent the audience. The spokesperson must also be able to be a good communicator and be sensitive to the issues that are important to the audience. Reaching Diverse Age Groups ● The Millennial Generation/E-generation ○ 23 years of their life will be spent online ○ 80% want brands to entertain them. ○ 65% like to compare prices against different sides before buying something online. ○ 62% recycle ○ 40% agree that a celebrity endorsement helps ○ 46% will buy from a brand that supports a charity. ○ 53% agree that Social Media sites are important places to learn information. ○ 44% get news via the internet, 23% read a newspaper ○ Monitoring media constantly ● Generation Z (1996 and forward) ○ Equal amount of time online versus in person with their friends. ○ More time online than interaction with parents by 10 fold. ■ More reserved in social skills: more shy and less vocal. ■ More skeptical about who is online in chats: about personas rather than who they really are. ○ Intolera
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