Mid Term Review for American Government And Politicas
Mid Term Review for American Government And Politicas POS2041 American National Government
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Artur Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POS2041 American National Government at St Petersburg College taught by ProfessorDean S. Ratty in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Politics and Government at St Petersburg College.
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Chapter 1 Class notes: The Democratic Republic Government Public Policies Legislative Power Executive Power Judicial Power Dictatorship Democracy State Sovereign Divine Right -Every state has Four basic characteristics: Population, territory, sovereignty, and a government. -Social Contract theory -Federal Government: A government in which power is divided between one central and several local governments. -Confederation: An alliance of independent states. -The President is both chief of state and head of Government. -The National Government and the states are co-equal Partners. -The US and some 25 other states have gederal forms of government. Majority Rule Compromise Citizen Free Enterprise What are the basic concepts of democracy -Recognition of the federal worth and dignity of every person. -Respect for the equality of all persons -Faith in Majority rule -Acceptance of the necessity Citizenship: Duties: -Serving on a jury -Serving as a witness -Attending School -Paying taxes -Obeying local, state, and national laws. -Draft Registration 1 -Respecting the Rights of the others Responsibilities: -Voting -Volunteering -Participating in civic Life -Understanding the working of our government. Politics Government Values Fundamental Culture and Political Socialization Liberty versus order Equality vs liberty Geographic and sectionalism Political Ideologies Socialism (Far left) Libertarianism (Far Right) Progressive: Equality, state sponsored capitalism, Regulatory and administrative state, indiscriminate is the moral imperative. Right Conservative: Justice, Humans, Independence, Culture, Religion State rights, God and Family, Free Speech Political Spectrum. Chapter 1 Key Terms In Textbook: Page 3 Politics: The process of resolving conflicts and deciding “who gets what, when, and how.” More specifically, politics is the struggle over power or influence within organizations or informal groups that can grant benefits or privileges. 3 Institution: An ongoing organization that performs certain functions for society. 3 Government: The preeminent institution within society in which decisions are made that resolve conflicts and allocate benefits and privileges. It is unique because it has the ultimate authority for making these decisions. 2 6 Order: A state of peace and security. Maintaining order by protecting members of society from violence and criminal activity is one of the oldest purposes of government. 6 Liberty: The greatest freedom of the individual that is consistent with the freedom of other individuals in the society. 6 Legitimacy: Popular acceptance of the right and power of a government or other entity to exercise authority. 7 Totalitarian Regime: A form of government that controls all aspects of the political, social, and economic life of a nation. 7 Authoritarianism: A type of regime in which only the government itself is fully controlled by the ruler. Social and economic institutions exist that are not under the government’s control. 7 Aristocracy: “Rule by the best” ; in reality, rule by members of the upper class. 7 Theocracy: “Rule by God,” or the gods; in practice, rule by religious leaders, typically self-appointed. 7 Oligarchy: “Rule by a few” 7 Anarchy: the condition of no government. 7 Democracy: A system of government in which political authority is vested in the people. The term is derived from the Greek words demos (the people) and Gratos (Authority). 7 Direct Democracy: A system of government in which political decisions are made by the people directly, rather than by the elected representatives; probably obtained most easily in small political communities. 7 Legislature: A governmental body primarily responsible for the making of laws. 8 Initiative: A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment. 8 Referendum: An electoral device whereby legislative or constitutional measures are referred by the legislature to the voters for approval or disapproval. 8 Recall: A procedure allowing the people to vote to dismiss an elected official from state office before his or her term has expired. 8 Republic: A form of government in which sovereign power rests with the people, rather than with a king or a monarch. 3 8 Popular Sovereignty: The concept that ultimate political authority is based on the will of the people. 9 Democratic Republic: A republic in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies. 9 Representative Democracy: A form of government in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies, may retain the monarchy in a ceremonial role. 9 Universal Suffrage: The right of all adults to vote for their government representatives. 9 Majority Rule: A basic principle of democracy asserting that the greatest number of citizens in any political unit should select officials and determine policies. 10 Limited Government: A government with powers that are limited either through a written document or through widely Shared beliefs. 10 Majoritarianism: A political theory holding that, in a democracy, the government ought to do what the majority of the people want. 10 Elite Theory: A perspective holding that society is ruled by a small number of people who hold the ultimate power to further their self-interests. 11 Pluralism: A theory that views politics as a conflict among interest groups. Political Decision making is characterized by compromise and accommodation. 11 Political Culture: A patterned set of ideas, values, and ways of thinking about 11 Political Socialization: The Process by which political beliefs and values are transmitted to new immigrants and to our children. The family and the educational system are the most important sources of the political socialization process. 12 Civil Liberties: Those personal freedoms, including freedom of religion and freedom of speech, that are protected for all individuals. Civil liberties restrain the government from taking certain actions against individuals. 12 Bill of Rights: The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution. 13 Equality: As a political value, the idea that all people are of equal worth. 14 Property: Anything that is or may be subject to ownership. As conceived by the political philosopher John Locke,the right to property is a natural right superior to human law. 4 14 Capitalism: An economic system characterized by the private ownership of wealth-creating assets, free markets, and freedom of contract. 16 Ideology: A comprehensive set of beliefs about the nature of people and about the role of an institution or government. 16 Conservatism: A set of beliefs that includes a limited role for the national government in helping individual, support for traditional ideals and life choices, and a cautious response to change. 16 Conservative Movement: An American movement in the 1950’s that provided a comprehensive ideological framework for conservative politics. 18 Liberalism: A set of beliefs that includes the advocacy of positive government action to improve the welfare of individuals, support for civil rights, and tolerance for political and social change. 18 Socialism: A political ideology based on strong support for economic and social equality. Socialists traditionally envisioned a society in which major businesses were taken over b the government or by employee cooperatives. 19 Libertarianism: A political ideology based on skepticism or opposition toward most government activities. 20 Progressive: A popular alternative to the term liberal. 22 Total Fertility Rate: A statistic that measures the average number of children that women in a given group are expected to have over the course of a lifetime. Chapter 2 Class Notes: The Constitution Mixed Government Balanced System Original Intent vs living breathing Popular Sovereignty Confederation Mayflower Compact -A constitution sets out the Principles, structures, and processes of government. -Articles of Confederation 5 Accomplishments under the Articles -States Claims to Western Land Settled -Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Weaknesses under the Articles -Congress could not demand revenues -No national court -No central authority to resolve disputes -No funding for militia -51% majority vote - The constitutional convention 1787 Working toward Final Agreement Madison model: Separation of Powers Checks and Balances, President, Supreme court congress. The Executive: Single Chief The connecticut (Great Compromise- Combined the Virginia and New Jersey Plans. Final Document: Popular Sovereignty Republican Government Limited Government Separation of Powers Federal System. -Federalists Time, Power, and Madison Hamilton, John Jay, Madison -Anti Federalists Feared overbearing central government Patrick Henry -Bill of Rights A “Bill of Limits” Madison Drafts the Bill 6 Six Basic Principles of the Constitution: -Popular Sovereignty -Limited Government -Separation of Powers -Checks and Balances -Judicial review -Federalism -Judicial Review -Federalism: The principle that political power should be divided between a central government and a number of regional governments. Judicial Review- Principal of Government. House of Representatives -Veto Bills -Reject Presidential Nominees -Impeach -The Federal Courts can rule that executive. -Checks and balances -President can Write Objections to bills (Veto), but congress can override objections. -Senate can reject presidential nominees or refuse to ratify a treaty. -House of Representatives can vote to impeach a federal official. -The federal courts can rule that executive and legislative acts are unconstitutional. (Judicial Review) Judicial Review -The courts can decide if a government action is constitutional -Marbury V. Madison in 1803 -Federalism Federal Powers Shared Powers State Powers To maintain an Army To enforce laws To conduct elections To declare war To establish courts To establish schools To coin Money To borrow money To Regulate Trade 7 -Amendments are proposed at the national level and ratified at the state level by legislatures or conventions. -Nation State 1)Defined Territory (Borders) 2) Self Rule (Sovereignty) 3) Some form of organized government (Constitution) 4) Population of people sharing a national identity/customs. (Language) -Formal Amendment: One of the four ways to change or add to the written language of the constitutional -Article V: The constitution describes the amendment process. -Informal Methods of Constitutional Change Congressional Legislation Presidential -The 27 Amendments -Court cases usually on 5th and 14th Amendment. -Unwritten Customs can be influential as written laws. Chapter 2 Key Terms in Textbook: Page 30 Representative Assembly: A legislature composed of individuals who represent the population. 35 Natural Rights: Rights held to be inherent in natural law, not dependent on governments. John Locke stated that natural law, being superior to human law, specifies certain rights of “life, liberty, and property.’ These rights, altered to become “Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness,” are asserted in the Declaration of Independence. 35 Social Contract: A voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules. 37 Unicameral Legislature: A legislature with only one legislative chamber, as Opposed to a bicameral legislature, such as the US Congress. 37 Confederation: A political system in which states or regional governments retain ultimate authority except for those powers they expressly delegate to a central government; a voluntary 8 association of independent states, in which the member states agree to limited restraints on their freedom of action. 37 State: A group of people occupying a specific area and organized under one government. It may either be a nation or a subunit of a nation. 41: A legislature made up of two parts, called chambers. The U.S. Congress, composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate, is a bicameral legislature. 41 Supremacy Doctrine: A doctrine that asserts the priority of national law over state laws. This principle is stated in Article VI of the Constitution, which provides that the Constitution, the laws passed by the national government under its constitutional powers, and all treaties constitute the supreme law of the land. 42 Great Compromise: The compromise between the New Jersey and Virginia Plans that created one chamber of the Congress Based on population and one chamber representing each state equally; also called the Connecticut Compromise. 43 Separation of Powers: The Principle of dividing governmental powers among different branches of government. 43 Madisonian Model: A structure of government proposed by james Madison in which the powers of the government are separated into three branches; executive, legislative, and judicial. 44 Checks and Balances 45 Electoral College: A group of persons called electors selected by the voters in each state and the District of Columbia. This group officially elects the president and vice president of the United States. 45 Federal System: A system of government in which power is divided between a central government and regional, or subdivisional, governments. Each level must have some domain in which its policies are dominant and some genuine political or constitutional guarantee of its authority. 46 Ratification: Formal Approval 46 Federalist: The name given to one who was in favor of the adoption of the U.S. Constitution and the creation of a federal union with a strong central government. 46 Anti-Federalist: An individual who opposed the ratification of the new Constitution in 1787. The Anti-Federalists were opposed to a strong central government. 9 54 Judicial Review: The power of the Supreme Court and other courts to examine and possibly declare unconstitutional federal or state laws and other acts of government. Chapter 3 Class Notes: Federalism Virtue-Legitimacy-Sovereignty -Procedural due process 14th -Equal Protection Article 4 Section 2 (Privileges and Immunities) -Bill of Rights Pg. 125 -Sultantative due process 5th Amendment Life Liberty Declaration of Independence Pursuit of Happiness Chapter 3 Key Terms in Textbook: Page 77 Unitary System: A centralized governmental system in which ultimate governmental authority rests in the hands of the national, or central, government. 77 Confederal System: A system consisting of a league of independent states, in which the central government created by the league has only limited powers over the states. 82 Enumerated Powers: Powers specifically granted to the national government by the Constitution. The first seventeen clauses of Article 1, Section 8, specify most of the enumerated powers of the national government. 82 Elastic Clause, or Necessary and Proper Clause: The clause in Article 1, Section 8, That grants congress the power to do whatever is necessary to execute its specifically delegated powers. 83 Police Power 84 Concurrent Powers 84 Supremacy Clause: The constitutional provision that makes the Constitution and federal laws superior to all conflicting state and local laws. 85 Interstate Compact: An agreement between two or more states. Agreements on minor matters are made without congressional consent, but any compact the tends to increase the power of the contracting states relative to other states or relative to the national government generally requires the consent of Congress. 10 86 Commerce Clause: The section of the Constitution in which congress is given the power to regulate trade among the states and with foreign countries. 88 Dual Federalism: A model of federalism in which the states and the national government each remain supreme within their own spheres. 90 Cooperative Federalism: A model of federalism in which the states and the national government cooperate in solving problems. 90 Categorical Grant: A federal grant to a state or local government for a specific program or project. 92 Block Grant: A federal grant that provides funds to a state or local government for a general functional area, such as criminal justice or mental-health programs. 92 Fiscal: Having to do with government revenues and expenditures. 92 Fiscal Federalism: A process by which funds raised through taxation or borrowing by one level of government are spent by another level. 93 Federal Mandate: A requirement in federal legislation that forces states and municipalities to comply with certain rules. 94 Devolution: The transfer of powers from a national or central government to a state or local governments. Chapter 4 Class Notes: Civil Liberties Natural Rights are civil liberties Bill of Rights Civil Liberties: can be thought of as freedoms protected from possible government abuse. Civil Rights: Can be thought of as freedoms defended by the government. Due Process Clause Articles 1 and 3 of the constitution guarantee many key rights. Relative Rights Whose Rights -Federalism -The Bill of Rights applies to the actions of the federal government, not the state governments. -Gitley vs. New york -9th Amendment -Establishment Clause: 11 -Freedom of Religion -Separation of Church -Madison ordered Liberty -Parochial Schools -Lemon Test Three Parts To determine if state aid to parochial schools is constitutional 1)Secular Purpose 2)Neutral toward Religion 3)Disentangled from religion Freedom of Speech -Libel -Slander -Sedition -Seditious Speech -Prior Restraint -Shield Laws -Symbolic Speech Picketing -Civil Disobedience -Right of association -Probable cause -Exclusionary rule -Attempts to Ban Subversive or Advocacy Speech -The clear and present danger test -The bad tendency rule -The imminent lawless action test -Freed of Restraint: The protection of symbolic speech. -Radio and T.V. are heavily regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) -How has the Supreme Court ruled on assembly and petition cases? -Governments have the right to set rules on how, when, and where assemblies can take place, including requiring permits. -Procedural Due Process: How the government acts in terms of its methods and procedures. -Substantive Due Process: The “What” of a Law. -Right to Privacy: The Supreme Court has ruled that under the 14th Amendment’s Due Process Clause. 12 -Patriot Act: Increase government power -Supreme Court held that the Bill of Rights did not apply to state laws. -Incorporation Theory: The view that most of the protections of the Bill of Rights are incorporated into the Fourteenth Amendment’s protection -Prior Restraint: Restraining an activity before it has actually occurred. * 14th Amendment Pg125 Chapter 4 Key Terms in Textbook Page 105 Incorporation Theory: The view that most of the protections of the Bill of Rights apply to a tate governments through the fourteenth amendment’s due process clause. 107 Establishment Clause: The part of the First Amendment prohibiting the establishment of a church officially supported by the national government. 107 Free Exercise Clause: The Provision of the First Amendment guaranteeing the free exercise of religion. 111 Prior Restraint: Restraining an activity before it has actually occurred. 111 Symbolic Speech: Expression made through articles of clothing, gestures, movements, and other forms of nonverbal conduct. 112 Commercial Speech 113 Imminent Lawless Action Test: The current standard established by the supreme Court for evaluating the legality of advocacy speech. 114 Defamation of Character: wrongfully hurting a person’s good reputation. 115 Slander 116 Libel 116 Actual Malice 117 Public Figure 118 Gag Order: An order issued by a judge restricting the publication of news about a trail or a pretrial hearing to protect the accused’s right to a fair trial. 13 125 Writ of Habeas Corpus: “You have the body.” A writ of habeas corpus is an order that requires jailers to bring a prisoner before a court or a judge and explain why the person is being held. 125 Arraignment: The first act in a criminal proceeding, in which the defendant is brought before a court to hear the charges against him or her and enter a plea of guilty or not guilty. 126 Exclusionary Rule: A judicial policy prohibiting the admission at trial of illegally obtained evidence. Chapter 5 Class Notes: Civil Rights Writ of Habeas Corpus Bill of attainder Grand Jury Presentment Parable Jeopardy Miranda Rights -Article 4 -A defendant can waive the right to a jury trial and be tried by a judge alone. Punishment: 8th Amendment: Cruel and Unusual Key Terms: Bail Capital Punishment Treason: The only crime defined in the constitution, it can only be committed during wartime. Discrimination Refugee Assimilation -Declaration of Sentiments: Demand equal, political, economic, social rights of women Segregation Jim Crow Separate but equal doctrine -14 Amendment- Civil War Amendment -Plessy V. Ferguson- Separation was legal as long as equal 14 -1954 Brown V. Board of Education Affirmative Action Quota Reverse Discrimination -Civil Rights Act of 1964 protected the voting rights of African Americans -Affirmative Action is an effort to correct the effects of past discrimination by addressing current inequalities. -1978, Regents of the university of California V. Bakke. Citizenship Citizen Naturalization -Everyone in a newly acquired territory may also be naturalized at once by congress or by treaty. -Illegal Immigration Reform -Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 Federalism -Authority divided between Government and State. -Retained state powers and establishes strong national government. Arguments against Federalism -Way for powerful states to block plans -Domination of a single group -Inequalities among states. -10th Amendment reserves to the states, all powers not given to the federal government or denied to the states. -Northwest ordinance of 1787 set the rules for admitting in new states. Interstate compact Full Faith and Credit clause Privileges and Immunities clause Extradition Full Faith and Credit Clause: It applies to the civil laws of each state. Chapter 5 Key Terms in Textbook Page 136 Civil Rights: Generally, all rights rooted in the Fourteenth Amendment's Guarantee of equal protection under the law. 15 138 Separate but Equal Doctrine 138 White Primary 138 Grandfather Clause: A device used by southern states to disenfranchise African Americans. It restricted voting to whose whose grandfathers had voted before 1867 138 Poll Tax 138 Literacy Test 140 De Jure Segregation: Racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies. 140 De Facto Segregation: Racial segregation that occurs because of past social and economic conditions and residential racial patterns. 140 Civil Disobedience 145 Strict Scrutiny: A judicial standard for assessing the constitutionality of a law or government action when the law or action threatens to interfere with a fundamental right or potentially discriminates against members of a suspect classification. 145 Suspect Classification: A classification, such as race, religion, or national origin, that triggers strict scrutiny by the courts when a law or government action potentially discriminates against members of the class. 146 Intermediate Scrutiny: The standard used by the courts to determine whether a law or government action improperly discriminates against women. 146 Rational Basis Review: The standard used by the courts to determine the constitutionality of a law or government action if neither strict scrutiny nor intermediate scrutiny applies. 146 Affirmative Action 147 Reverse Discrimination 154 Suffrage 154 Feminism 16 155 Gender Discrimination 157 Sexual Harassment 164 Civil Law: The law regulating conduct between private persons over noncriminal matters, including contracts, domestic relation, and business interactions. 164 Criminal Law: The law that defines crimes and provides punishment for violations. 164 Majority: The age at which a person is entitled by law to the right to manage her or his own affairs. 164 Common Law: Judge-made law that originated in England from decisions shaped according to prevailing customs. 165 Felony Chapter 6 Class Notes: Public Opinion and Political Socialization -Fairness Doctrine: Federal Communication Committee -Political Preferences and Voting Behavior Election Specific Preferences Name Identification Polling Public Opinion Poll Universe Sample Random Sample Quota Sample Straw Vote-Survey Randomness Crosstabs Sub Samples Poll weighted Screening criteria Poll Average Social Desirability Bias -House Effect: One Polling organizations results consistently differ from those reported by other poll takers -Polling Threshold: Intensity, Stability,Relevance -Opinion Leaders- Influencers -The Trend in Political Satisfaction in this country has fallen since around 2001. 17 Chapter 6 Key Terms in Textbook: Page 172 Public Opinion: The aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs shared by some portion of the adult population. 172 Consensus 173 Divided Opinion 173 Political Socialization: The process by which people acquire political beliefs and values. 175 Peer Group: A group whose members share common social characteristics. 175 Opinion Leader: One who is able to influence the opinions of others because of position, expertise, or personality. 175 Media 175 Agenda Setting: Determining which public-policy questions will be debated or considered. 176 Fairness Doctrine: A Federal COmmunications Commission's rule enforced between 1949 and 1987 that required radio and television to present controversial issues in a manner that was honest, equitable, and balanced. 176 Generational Effect: The only lasting effect of the events of a particular time on the political opinions of those who came of political age at that time. 177 Socioeconomic Status 182 Gender Gap: The difference between the percentage of women who vote for a particular candidate and the percentage of men who vote for the candidate. 183 Opinion Poll 184 Sampling Error 185 House Effect: In public opinion polling, an effect in which one polling organizations results consistently differ from those reported by other poll takers. 191 Political Trust: The degree to which individuals express trust in the government and political institutions, usually measure through a specific series of survey question. 18 195 Framing: Establishing the context of a polling question or a media report. Framing can mean fitting events into a familiar story or activating preconceived beliefs. Chapter 7 Class Notes: Interest Groups Interest Group Lobbyist Social Movement Labor Movement Service Sector Public Policy Public Affairs Latent Interests Free Rider Problem Lobbying Lobbyist Amicus Curiae Brief Grass Roots Pressure Interest Group Fundamentals -Solidarity Incentives: Socializing -Material Incentives: Economic Benefits -Purposive Incentives: Agreement with goals of the group. -James Madison feared that interest groups would harm democracy (Federalist No.10) -Alexis de Tocqueville thought the formation of interest groups had a positive effect. Types of Interest Groups: Economic Interest Groups Business Interest Group Agricultural Interest Group Labor Interest Group -Think Tanks: Research Institutions -Interest Group Strategies Direct Technique Lobbying Common Activities The Ratings Game Building Alliances 19 Indirect Technique Climate Control Astroturf Lobbying Boycott -There are an estimated 30,000 lobbyists dealing with congress alone. -Lobbying Congress: Concentrate on influencing congressional committees. Testify before committees More Bills Provide Accurate Information -*Union membership in the United States has been declining in recent years, except in the public sector. Chapter 7 Key Terms in Textbook: 203 Interest Group: An organized group of individuals sharing common objectives who actively attempt to influence policymakers. 203 Lobbyist: An organization or individual who attempts to influence legislation and the administrative decisions of government. 204 Social movement: A movement that represents the demands of a large segment of the public for political, economic, or social change. 204 Latent Interests: Public policy interests that are not recognized or addressed by a group at a particular time. 205 Free Rider Problem: The difficulty interest groups face in recruiting members when the benefits they achieve can be gained without joining the group. 205 Solidary Incentive 205 Material Incentive 206 Purposive Incentive 208 Labor Movement: The economic and political expression of working-class interests. 209 Service Sector: The sector of the economy that provides services such as healthcare banking and education in contrast to the sector that produces goods. 212 Public Interest 20 218 Direct Technique: An interest group activity that involves personal interaction with government officials to further the group's goals. 218 Indirect Technique: A strategy employed by interest groups that uses third parties to influence government officials. 221 Climate Control: The use of public relations techniques to create favorable public opinion toward an interest group, industry, or corporation. 222 Boycott: A form of pressure or protest. Chapter 8 Class Notes: Political Parties Chairman/vice County Central Committee (Political Parties): Ward (Executive Board), State Legislative District, Precinct (Congressional Districts), Conventions- Platforms, by laws Chairman/vice State Central Committee: Executive Board, State Committee man/woman, Paid Staff (notional)-Ex Dir-Comm Dir-Pol Dir- Finance Dir, Conventions platforms, by laws. Chairman/vice National Committee: Executive Board, National Committeeman/woman, paid staff, conventions, platforms(philosophy), by laws. Political Parties: To win elections. Do not run for political campaigns. Precinct: State establishes (State Law), to control Committee People Political Party: A group of persons who seek to control government by winning elections and holding public office. Single Member districts: A voting district in which only one candidate is elected to each office on the ballot. Plurality: The largest number of votes cast for an elected office; this number does not have to be a majority of all votes cast. Bipartisan: approach to policy making in which the two major parties find common ground on an issue. Consensus: General Agreement among different groups on an issue. 21 Coalition: A temporary alliance of several groups who join to form a working majority in a multiparty system. What do Political Parties: Political parties are groups of people who govern by nominating candidates, gaining public support, and winning elections. -Nominate Candidates -Inform and inspire supporters -Encourage good behavior among members -Govern once in office -Perform oversight on government actions Parties inform the public and try to shape public opinion, using all forms of media to campaign for or against opposing candidates and policy issues. Parties nominate, find, recruit, prepare, and gather public support for-qualified political candidates. Parties express the will of the people in government. They can also encourage unity by modifying conflicting views. Minor Parties: Minor Parties have publicized ke social and economic issues and occasionally played a spoiler role in presidential elections. Party Organization: Parties are decentralized, relying on party committees and chairpersons to direct activities at each level of government with considerable independence. Three Elements that make up a political Party: -Party Organization: The party professionals who run the party at all levels by contributing time, money, and skill. -Party in government: Includes the candidates and officeholders who serve at all levels of government. -Party in the electorate: The millions of voters who identify strongly with a particular party and support its policies. Two Party System: -The republican and democratic parties dominate american politics. Only the candidates from the two major parties have a chance to win most elections. The framers opposed political parties. They saw parties as factions that caused disunity and conflict. George Washington warned against the dangers of parties. Tradition Once established, parties became part of tradition. The nature of the election process supports the two-party system. Nearly all American elections take place in single-member districts--only the one candidate who wins the largest number of votes gets elected to office. This works against third-party candidates, who have little chance of finishing in the top two. 22 In Textbook; Page 249 - Policies of Selected American Third Parties Since 1864 Democrats: Coalition of labor, plus racial and ethnic minorities; urban Least educated plus well educated voters Social programs Increased government intervention in economy Supports government regulation of business Republicans: Business interests, white evangelicals; rural Supports private marketplace Ethic of self-reliance Limited government. The Federalist Party: Formed by supporters of the Constitution. -They wanted a stronger national government and policies that helped financial, commercial, and manufacturing interests. -Alexander Hamilton and John Adams were key representatives. Democratic- Republican Party (Anti-Federalist): Opposing the Federalists. -They wanted a more limited national government, with policies aimed at helping farmers, planters, labor, and small business. Key leaders such as Thomas Jefferson and James Madison favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution. Era of the Republicans -The Republican Party won 14 of 18 presidential elections from 1860 to 1932 -The civil war crippled the Democrats. ALl their powers was concentrated in the South, Which they controlled for roughly 100 years after Reconstruction ended. -The Republican dominated nationally. They had the support of farmers, laborers, business and financial interests, and freed African Americans. The Republicans benefited from years of economic prosperity. End of the Republican Era: The Republican lost the presidency in 1912 largely due to a third party candidate. Former Republican Theodore Roosevelt ran as a member of the new Progressive Party and Split the Republican vote, helping Democrat Woodrow Wilson win. The Democrats won 7 out of 9 presidential elections from 1932 to 1968. 23 Political Parties Today: Typically newly elected Presidents has a “Coattail” effect that brings other candidates from their party to congress. In recent years, this has not been the case. Minor Parties Ideological Parties: Parties based on a particular set of social, economic, and political beliefs. Single-Issue Parties: Parties focused on only one public policy issue. Economic Protest Parties: Splinter Parties: Minor Party Influence: Minor Parties can also play a spoiler role. By winning electoral votes or even enough popular votes to affect the outcome in a key state, a minor party can affect the outcome of an election. Constitutional Provisions: -US Constitution Article 1 Sections 2, 4 Article 2 -US Constitution Amendment #10 -Provisions in various state constitutions -Provisions in various county charters -Provisions in state and county party by laws -Dual hats (legal and political) Functions Precinct Committee Persons -Have a legal statutory responsibility as provided by the state legislature. -Act as party reps to election departments during elections. -Precincts are householded -May be presidential voters. Why has the Two Party System Endured: -Historical foundation of the two party system -Political socialization and practical considerations -Winner-take-all electoral system -State and federal laws favoring two-party system Chapter 8 Key Terms in Textbook: Page 229 Independent: A voter or candidate who does not identify with a political party. 24 229 Political Party: A group of political activists who organize to win elections, operate the government, and determine public policy. 229 Policy Demanders: Individuals or interest group members who participate in political parties with the intent to see that certain policies are adopted or specific groups favored. 230 Party in the Electorate- those members of hte general public who identify with a political party or who express a preference for one party over another. 230 Party Organization: The formal structure and leadership of a political party, including election committees; local, state, and national executives. 231 Party in Government:P All of the elected and appointed officials who identify with a political party. 231 National Convention: The meeting held every four years by each major party to select presidential and vice presidential candidates, write a platform, choose a national committee, and conduct party business. 231 Party Platform: A document drawn up at each national convention, outlining the policies, positions, and principles of the party. 232 National Committee: A standing committee of a national political party established to direct and coordinate party activities between national party conventions. 232 State Central Committee: The principal organized structure of each political party within each state. This committee is responsible for carrying out policy decisions of the party’s state convention. 233 Patronage 234 Divided Government: A situation in which one major political party controls the presidency and the other controls the presidency and the other controls one or more chambers of Congress, or in which one party controls a state governorship and the other controls part or all of the state legislature. 235 Two Party System: A political system in which only two parties have a reasonable chance of winning. 236 Democratic Party 25 236 whig Party: A major party in the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century, formally established in 1836. The whig Party was anti-jackson and represented a variety of regional interests. 237 Republican Party 237 GOP: A nickname for the Republican Party; stands for “grand old party.” 243 Reverse Income Effect: A tendency for wealthier states or regions to favor the Democrats and for less wealthy states or regions to favor the Republicans. The effect appears paradoxical because it reverses traditional patterns of support. 246 Plurality: A number of votes cast for a candidate that is greater than the number of votes for any other candidate but not necessarily a majority. 247 Electoral College: A group of persons, called electors, who are selected by the voters in each state. This group officially elects the president and the vice president of the United States. 248 Third Party 251 Splinter Party: A new party formed by a dissident faction within a major political party. Often, splinter parties have emerged when a particular personality was at odds with the major party. 252 Realignment: A process in which a substantial group of voters switches party allegiance, producing a long term changing the political landscape. 253 Dealignment: A decline in party loyalties that reduces long term pary commitment. 253 Party Identification 253 Straight Ticket Voting: Voting exclusively for the candidates of one party. 253 Split Ticket Voting: Voting for candidates of two or more parties for different offices, such as voting for a Republican presidential candidate and a Democratic congressional candidate. 254 Swing Voters: Voters who frequently swing their support from one party to another. 254 Tipping: A phenomenon that occurs when a group this is becoming more numerous over time grows large enough to change the political balance in a district, state, or country. 26 27
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