Organizational Behavior Exam #1 Review
Organizational Behavior Exam #1 Review MGMT 452
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Catherine Minter on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT 452 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Jiaqing Sun in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business Management at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Midterm Summary Chapter 14, 9, 12, 13 Chapter 1 Introduction 1. What is organizational behavior (OB)? a. The systematic study and application of knowledge about how individuals and groups act within the organizations where they work. 2. Why does organizational behavior matter? a. 3. What research methods are used to study organizational behavior? a. Surveys, field studies, lab studies, case studies, and metaanalysis 4. What challenges and opportunities exist for OB? a. Lack of employee engagement, impact of technology, flattening world, the triple bottom line, aging workforce and millennial generation, and ethical challenges Chapter 2 Diversity and culture differences 1. What is diversity? (Two levels of diversity) a. Diversity is the way in which people are similar or different from each other. b. Deep level diversity: values, personality, ethics, attitudes c. Surface level diversity: gender, race, age 2. The benefits of managing diversity a. Higher creativity in decision making b. Better understanding and service of customers c. More satisfied workers d. Higher stock prices e. Lower litigation expense f. Higher company performance 3. The challenges of managing diversity a. Similarity attraction: more attracted to those that seem more similar to you b. Faultlines: Agreeance along perceived similarities and differences c. Stereotypes 4. Culture diversity (Hofstede’s culture framework) a. Individualism vs. Collectivism b. Low power distance vs. high power distance c. Low uncertainty avoidance vs. high uncertainty avoidance i. Low: individuals are comfortable in in unpredictable situations and have high tolerance for uncertainty ii. High: individuals prefer predictable situations and have low tolerance for uncertainty d. Masculinity vs. femininity i. Achievement, competitiveness, money, materialism vs. good relationships, quality of life, care for the weak 5. Understand crosscultural issues regarding diversity Chapter 3 Individual differences and perception 1. Values (different types) a. Terminal values: end states that people desire in life, prosperous life and world peace (inner harmony, self respect) b. Instrumental values: views on acceptable modes of conduct, such as honesty, ethics, and ambitiousness (broad minded, clean, forgiving, imaginative, obedient) 2. Perception and how it affects work behaviors (Social perception) a. Social perception: how individuals detect and interpret the environment b. Stereotypes c. Self fulfilling prophecy: an established stereotype causes people to act a certain way, which leads the other party to behave in a way that makes the stereotype true d. Selective perception: pay certain attention to parts of the environment while ignoring other parts 3. Attribution (Categories) a. Fundamental attribution error: putting emphasis on internal factors of a character, rather than external factors, when explaining the character’s behaviors 4. Personality (Big five personality traits and other personality traits) a. Openness to experience b. Conscientiousness c. Extraversion d. Agreeableness e. Neuroticism Chapter 4 Individual Attitudes and Behaviors 1. Attitudes (Components, attitudes and behaviors) a. Attitudes: evaluative systems about objects, people, or events either favorable or unfavorable i. Cognitive: evaluation ii. Affective: feeling iii. Behavioral: action b. Cognitive dissonance: incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more actions, or between attitudes and behaviors. 2. Job satisfaction (Theory) a. A pleasurable emotional state resulting from one’s job or job experiences b. Based on cognition (opinions of your job) and affect (emotional reactions to your job) c. Value percept theory i. Dissatisfaction= (Want – Have) x Importance d. Components of job satisfaction: pay, promotion, supervision, coworkers, and satisfaction with work itself 3. Organizational commitment (affect/continuance/normative commitment) a. The desire of an employee to remain a member of an organization i. Affective commitment: emotional attachment or involvement in the organization ii. Continuance commitment: Awareness of the costs associated with leaving iii. Normative commitment: the feeling of obligation to stay 4. Work behaviors (task performance/citizenship behavior/counterproductive behavior/withdrawal) a. Task performance: behaviors involved in transforming organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization produces b. Citizenship behavior: voluntary activities that may or may not be rewarded, but that contribute to the organization by improving the quality of the setting where work occurs i. Interpersonal citizenship behavior: helping, courtesy, sportsmanship ii. Organizational citizenship behavior: voice, civic virtue, boosterism c. Counterproductive behavior: wasting resources, theft, gossiping, incivility, harassment, abuse d. Withdrawal: a set of actions that employees perform to avoid the work situation i. Psychological vs. physical withdrawal Chapter 12 Leadership 1. Trait approach: a. Focus on leader’s personality and characteristics b. Self esteem, confidence, integrity, extraversion 2. Behavioral approach a. Focus on how well leaders perform key behaviors b. Task oriented behaviors: concerns for production c. People oriented behaviors: concern for people 3. Contingency approach (won’t appear in the exam) 4. Contemporary approaches Transactional/transformational leadership: o Transactional: employees demonstrate correct behaviors for rewards in return o Transformational: address followers’ internal needs and matches behaviors of leaders to behaviors of employees Charismatic leadership: o Leaders that seem like they are good leaders LMX o Quality of the relationship between leader and follower o High LMX: good relationship and mutual respect among leader and follower o Low LMX: bad relationship with low trust and respect servant leadership: o leaders role is to serve to the needs of others o Leaders help followers reach their goals o empowerment Chapter 13 Power and Influence 1. Power: the potential or ability to influence decisions and control resources a. Conformity (three classic studies): tendency to behave according to social norms i. Asch studies ii. Milgram studies iii. Zimbardo studies b. Dependency: Scarcity x Importance x substitutability i. The more you are depended on, the more power you have c. Base of power: i. Legitimate power: role or position ii. Reward power: the ability to grant awards iii. Coercive power: the ability to punish iv. Expert power: knowledge and skills v. Information power: special access to specific information vi. Referent power: personal traits 2. Influence: the ability to alter one’s perception of a situation a. Nine Tactics: i. Rational persuasion ii. Inspirational appeal iii. Consultation iv. Ingratiation v. Personal appeal vi. Exchange vii. Coalition tactics viii. Pressure ix. Legitimizing b. Impression Management i. Nonverbal: clothing, body language, demeanor ii. Verbal: tone of voice, rate of speech, what is said, how it is said iii. Behavioral: performance and interaction with others Chapter 9 Group and team 1. Differences between groups and teams a. Group: collection of individuals that interact with each other in order to complete common goals b. Teams: a cohesive collection of individuals working together to achieve mutual goals 2. Stages of group development a. Forming b. Storming c. Norming d. Performing e. Adjourning 3. Vertical and horizontal leadership a. Vertical: leadership resides predominantly with one person rather than a team. b. Horizontal: leadership that is broadly distributed, so that people among a team or organization can all lead each other. 4. Task interdependence a. Shared resources can be pooled, sequential, and recipricol 5. Social facilitation and social loafing a. Social facilitation: strengthening of dominant responses, whether correct or incorrect, when in the presence of others b. Social loafing: tendency for people to exert less effort when there are numerous people working towards a common goal compared to when they are individually accountable
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