History Key Terms Chapter 4-7
History Key Terms Chapter 4-7 History 1301
Popular in History 1301: History of the United States to 1865
Popular in History
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Date Created: 10/06/16
HIST 1301 Exam on Monday, October 10, 2016 ONLINE STUDY RESOURCES Outlines for Chapters 4-7 http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4- brief/ch/04/outline.aspx http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4- brief/ch/05/outline.aspx http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4- brief/ch/06/outline.aspx http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4- brief/ch/07/outline.aspx Practice Quizzes for Chapters 4-7 http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4- brief/ch/04/quiz.aspx http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4- brief/ch/05/quiz.aspx http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4- brief/ch/06/quiz.aspx http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4- brief/ch/07/quiz.aspx Exam Notes: (I would advise that you study these the most) Gender is a social and cultural construct Before the European invasion of the Americas, women tended to hold more power in the Americas The Pequot War took place in New England The Glorious Revolution was fought primarily in Europe but it also affected people in North America Christopher Columbus always believed that he had discovered a route to the East Indies, even on the day he died. The main reason why European-dominated Native American peoples died in the sixteenth century was the superiority of European war technology. FALSE- this was mainly because of disease The Virginia Company sponsored the voyage from England to Jamestown. TRUE Laws governing slavery in British North America would become more repressive than the laws governing slavery in the Spanish Empire. TRUE Juan de Onate was a benevolent and kind governor who operated his colony in accordance with the rule of Spanish law. FALSE- Juan de Onate was remembered for horrific, murderous governing Encomienda was a Spanish-sanctioned system of labor operated primarily by priests and missionaries. FALSE- Encomienda said that first settlers had been granted authority over conquered Indian lands with the right to extract forced labor from the native inhabitants Esteban Dorantes was the first African in North America John Winthrop was a governor Nathaniel Bacon was a rebel leader Bartolome de Las Casas was a missionary priest Zheng He was a ship admiral Read Up on terms and people Chaco, Roger Williams, Anglicanization, matrifocal, pope, Tituba, caravel, Puritanism, Clovis, and John Houser (FOR EXAM) Textbook Notes- Chapter 4 Key Terms Atlantic Slave Trade- estimated 7.7 million Africans transported to the New World between 1492 and 1820, more than half arrived between 1700 and 1800. Spain and Portugal were the first to exploit the slave trade, the use of guns encouraged the capture of more slaves- Middle Passage- the path across the Atlantic, the second/middle leg in the triangular trading routes linking Europe, Africa, and America. Stono Rebellion- this took the lives of more than two dozen whites and as many as 200 slaves. As a whole, the resistance to slavery showed their desire for freedom, introducing many violent outbreaks in the south and even some spread to the north. Seven Years’ War- Ohio Company sought land recognition from France and this ignited the Seven Years’ War- began in 1754- helped started by George Washington- France was defeated and removed from North America, Britain gained land in the Caribbean- Peace of Paris (1763) Republicanism- promoted public life participation by being economically independent Liberalism- focused on individuals and private life- gov. should protect natural rights- protection of property (including slaves) Many women and slaves began to challenge their state based on the belief of natural rights. Freedom of the Press- newspapers often defended it as a central component to liberty, this was opposed by many elected assemblies, and both some British and colonial governments th American Enlightenment- revolution of thoughts- 18 century- focus reason and science over the authority of traditional religion- Great Awakening- a religious revival in the 1720s to the 1740s that occurred in the colonies from New England Congregationalist Jonathan Edwards (sinners in the hands of an angry god), and the English revivalist George Whitefield. New Lights (new churches)- beginning to question traditional churches and created new branches of religion/christianity Father Jun’pero Serra- founded the first California mission- 1769- converted thousands of Indians to Christianity- forced labor and disease made life difficult for these Indians in his missions “Middle Ground”- the western frontier of British North America- Ohio Valley became very important for England, France, and Natives alike- Natives such as the Iroquois played Europeans off of each other- Ohio Company sought land recognition from France and ignited the 7 years’ War- Balance of Power was forever altered in North America Acadians- local French residents in Nova Scotia, during the Seven Years’ War who were kicked out of the region by the British and had their farm and land sold to settlers from New England. Some returned to France and others left as far as Louisiana, where their descendants were then known as Cajuns. Pontiac’s Rebellion- 1763- Natives in MI, OH, IN revolted against the growth of British colonies Albany Plan of Union- drafted by Ben Franklin but never sent to London for approval, it envisioned the creation of a Grand Council out of delegates from each colony with the power to levy taxes and deal with the Indian relations and the common defense. Chapter 5 Key Terms Virtual Representation- this held that each member represented the entire empire, not just his own district, the interests of all who lived under the British crown were supposedly taken into account. Writs of Assistance- issued by British gov. to combat smuggling (around 1760s) this allowed unlimited search warrants without cause to look for evidence of smuggling Sugar Act- (1764)- a tax on refined sugar and other New World/colonial products by the Parliament Committee of Correspondence- groups of colonists that exchanged ideas and info about resistance against British rule, communicating with other colonies to encourage opposition to the Sugar and Currency Acts. Sons of Liberty- Formed by Samuel Adams, John Hancock, and others to resist British taxes such as the Stamp Act Stamp Act- tax on anything made of paper Regulators- (1760s) they were upset about underrepresentation for western settlements in SC assembly (just like Bacon’s Rebellion) The regulators criticized the wealthy and were eventually suppressed in 1771 by the militia Townshend Acts- taxes on glass, tea, lead, and paint Boston Massacre- March 5, 1770- British soldiers fired on a colonial crowd, killing 5 Americans Boston Tea Party- the British imposed a tax on tea, resulted in a boycott to any taxed tea, even if it was cheaper- the Boston Tea Party was created as a result of hatred for taxes. Common Sense- Thomas Paine argued that it was “Common Sense” for Americans to break away from British rule. Declaration of Independence- Thomas Paine had an impact in 1775 with Common Sense’s appeal to common people. The Declaration of Independence was written primarily by Thomas Jefferson, and it provided a list of grievances against King George III, it also drew on Enlightenment ideas. Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer (John Dickinson)- Best-selling book that argued for reconciliation with Britain and that colonists should be treated as Englishmen The Battle of Saratoga- October 1777- general Burgoyne defeated the British, it was a turning point in the war – France provided aid to the colonists- in hopes to regain lost land from Seven Years War Treaty of Paris- September 1783- the treaty ending the Revolutionary War and recognizing American Independence from Britain also established a border between Canada and the United States, Fixed the western border at the Mississippi River, and ceded Florida to Spain Chapter 6 Key Terms Republics- belief where people were the ultimate authority Thoughts on Government- John Adams argue of “balanced governments” in states Balanced Government- bicameral legislature representing the wealthy and ordinary, governorship and judiciary would provide balance Suffrage- the right to vote; the American Revolution led to an expansion of suffrage- women could vote in NJ if they owned property in 1807 Wall of Separation- Thomas Jefferson wanted a “wall of separation” between church and state- states eliminated established churches- Deism- belief that god had created everything and that was all god did, the idea that god is no longer around- this also meant that deists denied Jesus Christ Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom- this banned the state from forcing individuals to adopt one or another religion- Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom- Jefferson was a forerunner to the first amendment- James Madison viewed America as an “asylum to the persecuted” Christian Republicanism- Many viewed religious values as positive for the country- instilled moral qualities- Free Labor- by 1800, there were virtually no indentured servants- North relied on “free labor”- Inflation- the politics of inflation- the prices of goods increased greatly during the revolutionary war Free Trade- this is a market system in which the gov. doesn’t regulate prices, with the idea that the economy can regulate itself- congress set up price wages- sought to promote the public good- represents the conflict between promoting public good and economic freedom The Wealth of Nations- published by Adam Smith in England in 1789, he felt that the “invisible hand” of the free market directed economic life more effectively and fairly than with gov. regulation and involvement Loyalists- those who sided with the British during the war- 20% of the American population- 60,000 loyalists left the U.S. after the war- Creation of New Brunswick in Canada General John Sullivan- led a campaign in 1779 against hostile Iroquois that resulted in the devastation of dozens of Indian towns in the Ohio Valley Joseph Brant- sided with British and wanted to create an Indian confederacy between Canada and the new United States Abolition- Social movement before the Civil War that advocated the immediate emancipation of slaves and their incorporation into American society as equals- in 1777 Vermont banned slavery- Freedom Petitions- introduced into courts by slaves to seek freedom but were mostly unsuccessful Lemuel Haynes- a black member of the Massachusetts militia and later a popular minister who in 1776, pushed for the conception of freedom to include black people Free Blacks- non-slave black people who formed free communities with their own schools, churches, and leaders, and who, in some states, could even vote. Coverture- (basically anti-women) English and American law that a married woman lost her legal identity, which became “covered” by her husband, who controlled her person and the family’s economic resources. Republican Motherhood- idea that women were expected to raise children to be “good citizens”- this allowed for increased educational opportunities but not yet the right to vote Chapter 7 Key Terms Land Ordinances of 1784 and 1785- 84 established self-gov.- 85 sold land in the Old Northwest- out of 36 sections of a territory/land- the 16 square mile of a section would provide money for education Northwest Ordinance of 1787- Eventually carved into 5 states: OH, MI, IN, IL, WI- Once a territory reached 60,000 people, it could apply to become a state- Slavery was prohibited in all the North West Territory “Empire of Liberty”- The admitting of a territory’s population as equal members of the American political system, rather than ruling over the West as a colonial power Shays’s Rebellion- 1786-1787- rebellion of farmers in debt in MA led by Daniel Shay- Protested farm foreclosures and attacked court houses- this force had 1,200 compatriots Federalism- the division of power between the state and federal governments under the U.S. Constitution. Checks and Balances- feature of the U.S. Constitution (AKA the separation of powers) where power is divided into three branches of gov. (executive, legislative, and judicial) this was important to the constitution because it was a structure of gov. that tried to protect the liberties of citizens by keeping power on check between the power itself Three-Fifths Clause- this was a part of the constitution that stated only 3/5ths of a slave population would be counted in determining each state’s representation in the House of Representatives and its electoral votes for president. The Federalist- this was a publication of 85 essays that were in the New York press in 1787-1788 in support of the constitution; this was written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay Anti-Federalists- these were the group of people who opposed the constitution because they saw it as a limitation on individual states rights; their opposition led to the addition of a Bill of Rights to the document Bill of Rights- These were the First Ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1791 to guarantee individual rights against infringement by the federal government. Miami Confederation- Lead by Little Turtle- this was an alliance of Native American tribes in the Ohio Valley that wages open warfare, on American forces in the 1790’s- they were eventually defeated at the Battle of Fallen Timbers Battle of Fallen Timbers- fought by Americans v. (Miami Confederation) The Alliance of Native American tribes- this victory for Americans led to the signing of the Treaty of Greenville Treaty of Greenville- Natives lost a significant amount of land in Ohio and Indiana territory “Annuity” System- yearly grants of federal money to Indian tribes that institutionalized continuing government influence in tribal affairs and gave outsiders considerable control over Indian life Gradual Emancipation- the process of emancipation in which children or slaves born after a certain date would be freed. The North’s gradual emancipation acts assumed that former slaves would remain in the country. Letters from an American Farmer- Written by Hector St. John de Crevecoeur- wrote that American culture was similar to a melting pot- throughout most of the 19 century, the U.S. had a policy of open, unrestricted immigration. Notes on the State of Virginia- written by Thomas Jefferson in 1785, it compared whites and blacks, claiming that blacks lacked the capacity for self-control, reason, and devotion to the larger community (probably because you enslaved them bro, why would they want to be a part of that community?) SINCE THE EXAMS ARE CUMULATIVE MAKE SURE TO STUDY CHAPTERS 1-3 AGAIN AS WELL HERE ARE THE KEY TERMS AND STUDY GUIDE FOR CHAPTERS 1-3 Chapter 1-3 Notes- History SIDENOTE (first exams will test knowledge on chapters 1-3, and exam 2 will include 1-7, and exam 3 will include 1-11, and final will be on chapters 1-14) Textbook/Online Resources- Chapter Outlines- 1. http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4- brief/ch/01/outline.aspx, 2. http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4- brief/ch/02/outline.aspx, 3. http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4- brief/ch/03/outline.aspx Practice quizzes for chapters 1. http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4- brief/ch/01/quiz.aspx, 2. http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4- brief/ch/02/quiz.aspx, 3. http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4- brief/ch/03/quiz.aspx Textbook Notes- Chapter 1 Key Terms: Tenochtitlan: population of around 250,000- the capital of the Aztec empire in what is now Mexico, and was one of the world's largest cities. Cahokia: near present day St. Louis, a fortified community with between 10,000 and 30,000 people in the year 1200. Iroquois: peoples including the Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, and Onondaga, formed a Great League of Peace. "Christian Liberty": this freedom meant abandoning the life of sin to embrace the teachings of Christ, this had no connection to later ideas of religious toleration, a notion that scarcely existed anywhere on the eve of colonization. Caravels: the long distance ships used in the 15th century Reconquista: completed in 1492, the "reconquest" of Spain from the Moors (African Muslims who had occupied part of the Iberian Peninsula for Centuries. Columbian Exchange: the transatlantic flow of goods and people is sometimes called the Columbian Exchange. Plants, animals, and cultures that had evolved independently on separate continents were now thrown together into the Americas. Mestizos: persons of mixed origin, which made up a large part of the urban population of Spanish America. Repartimento System: took the place of the encomienda system which the first settlers had been granted authority over conquered Indian lands with the right to extract forced labor from the native inhabitants. the repartimento system had Indian villages to remain legally free and entitled to wages, but were still required to perform a fixed amount of labor each year, they were not slaves, they had access to land, were paid wages, and couldn't be bought and sold. Black Legend: the image of Spain as a uniquely brutal and exploitative colonizer. This image would provide a potent justification for other European powers to challenge Spain's predominance in the New World. Pueblo Revolt: the most complete victory for Native Americans over Europeans and the only wholesale expulsion of settlers in the history of North America. Metis: children of marriages between Indian women and French traders and officials, became guides, traders, and interpreters. Chapter 2 Key Terms: Virginia Company: a private business organization whose shareholders included merchants, aristocrats, and members of Parliament. Roanoke: 1585, Sir Walter Raleigh dispatched a fleet of five ships with some 100 colonists to set up a base on Roanoke Island, off the North Carolina coast. This settlement was failed, the fate of these settlers remains a mystery, it was likely abandoned. A Discourse Concerning Western Planting: written in 1584, the Protestant minister and scholar Richard Hakluyt listed 23 reasons that Queen Elizabeth I should support the establishment of colonies. Enclosure Movement: 1620's when thousands of persons were uprooted from the land Indentured Servants: persons who voluntarily surrendered their freedom for a specified time (usually five to seven years) in exchange for passage to America. Like slaves, servants could be bought and sold, could not marry without the permission of their owner, were subject to physical punishment, and saw their obligation to labor enforced by the courts. But, unlike slaves, servants could look forward to a release from bondage. John Smith: governed the Jamestown Colony with rigorous military discipline, which had an extraordinarily high death rate- John Smith's Iron Rule "he that will not work, shall not eat" - Smith's autocratic mode of governing alienated many of the colonists. Headright System: awarded fifty acres of land to any colonist who paid for his own or another's passage, attracting many settlers. House of Burgesses: established as part of the "charter of grants and liberties" issued, in 1619, that became the first elected assembly in colonial America. Uprising of 1622: once it was clear that the English were trying to establish a permanent and constantly expanding colony, not a trading post, conflict with local natives was inevitable. A surprise attack by Opechancanough in 1622 in a single day, wiped out one quarter of Virginia's settler population of 1,200. Tobacco: introduced from the West Indies to the New World in Virginia by John Rolfe. King James I considered tobacco "harmful to the brain and dangerous to the lungs" and issued a spirited warning against its use. Increasing numbers of Europeans enjoyed smoking and believed the crop had medical benefits. Dower Rights: woman's right to claim one-third of her husband's property in the event that he died before she did. When the widow died, the property passed to the husband's male heirs. Puritanism: term coined by opponents to ridicule those not satisfied with the progress of the Protestant Reformation in England. Puritans considered religious belief a complex and demanding matter and urged believers to seek the truth by reading the Bible and listening to sermons by educated ministers, rather than devoting themselves to sacraments administered by priests and to what puritans considered formulaic prayers. John Winthrop: the first governor of the Massachusetts bay colony, distinguished sharply between two kinds of liberty, "natural liberty", or acting without restraint/ "a liberty to do evil", and "moral liberty". True freedom, Winthrop insisted, depended on "subjection to authority" Moral Liberty: "a liberty to that only which is good", it was quite compatible with severe restraints on speech, religion, and personal behavior. Pilgrims: The first puritans to emigrate to America were a group of separatists known as the Pilgrims. They had already fled to the Netherlands in 1608. A decade later, fearing that their children were being corrupted by the surrounding culture, they decided to emigrate to Virginia. Mayflower Compact: In September 1602, the Mayflower, carrying 150 settlers and crew (among them many non-puritans), embarked from England. Blown off course, they landed not in Virginia but hundreds of miles to the north, on Cape Cod. Here the 102 who survived the journey established the colony of Plymouth. Before landing, the Pilgrim leaders drew up the Mayflower Compact, in which the adult men going ashore agreed to obey "just and equal laws" enacted by representatives of their own choosing. This was the first written frame of government in what is now the United States. Great Migration: from England in 1629 to 1642, some 21,000 puritans had emigrated to Massachusetts, after this, migration to New England virtually ceased, and in some years more colonists left the region than arrived. The Great Migration established the basis for a stable and thriving society. Captivity Narratives: since New England's leaders felt that native Americans represented both savagery and temptation, Puritans feared that Indian society might attract colonists who lacked the proper moral fiber. To counteract the attraction of Native American life, the leaders of New England also encouraged the publication of "captivity" narratives by those captured by Indians. The Sovereignty and Goodness of God: The most popular "captivity" narrative, by Mary Rowlandson, who was seized with other settlers and held for three months until ransomed during an Indian war in the 1670's. Rowlandson's book had a theme for her determination to return to Christian society. Pequot War: as the white population grew, and new towns came about, conflict with the regions Indians became unavoidable- 1637, a fur trader was killed by Pequot’s- a powerful tribe who controlled southern New England's fur trade and exacted tribute from other Indians. A force of Connecticut and Massachusetts soldiers, augmented by Narragansett allies, surrounded the main Pequot fortified village at Mystic and set it ablaze, killing those who tried to escape. Over 500 men, and women, and children lost their lives in the massacre. Half-Way Covenant: 1662, attempted to address the problem of religious purity by allowing for the baptism and subordinate ("half-way") membership for grandchildren of Puritan immigrants from the Great Migration. English Freedom: The idea that the English king was subject to the rule of law and that all free persons should enjoy security of person and property. Act Concerning Religion: 1649 (Maryland Toleration Act) all Christians were guaranteed the "free exercise" of religion, it brought some political stability to Maryland, and this law was also a milestone in the history of religious freedom in colonial America Chapter 3 Key Terms: Metacom: The Wampanoag leader known to colonists as King Philip; the leader 1675 Indian uprising in southern New England. King Philip's War: Began in 1675 with an Indian uprising against white colonists; lasted years, by the end, freedoms for white New Englanders grew. Mercantilism: Policy of Great Britain and other imperial powers of regulating the economies of colonies to benefit the mother country. Navigation Acts: Passed by the English Parliament to control colonial trade and bolster the mercantile system, 1650–1775; enforcement of the acts led to growing resentment by colonists. Covenant Chain: Alliance between the Iroquois Confederacy of upstate New York and the English colonists; initiated in the mid-1670s by Edmund Andros, the 4th Colonial Governor of New York. Society of Friends (Quakers): Religious group in England and America whose members believed all persons possessed the "inner light" or spirit of God; they were early proponents of the abolition of slavery and equal rights for women. Sugar: In the seventeenth century, huge sugar plantations led to the massive importation of slaves from Africa. Bacon's Rebellion: Unsuccessful 1676 revolt led by the planter Nathaniel Bacon against Virginia governor William Berkeley's administration because of governmental corruption and because Berkeley had failed to protect settlers from Indian raids and did not allow them to occupy Indian lands. Slave Code of 1705: Enacted by the House of Burgesses, the code categorized slaves as property that could be bought and sold, fought over in court, and inherited. Glorious Revolution: A coup in 1688 engineered by a small group of aristocrats that led to William of Orange taking the British throne in place of James II. English Bill of Rights: Enacted by Parliament in 1689, the bill listed parliamentary powers such as control over taxation as well as rights of individuals, including trial by jury. Lords of Trade: Group established in 1675 by England to oversee colonial affairs. Dominion of New England: Consolidation into a single colony of the New England colonies—and later New York and New Jersey—by Edmund Andros, at the time the Governor of the Dominion of New England, in 1686; dominion reverted to individual colonial governments three years later. English Toleration Act: Enacted in 1690, the act allowed all Protestants to worship freely. Salem Witch Trials: A crisis of trials and executions in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692 that resulted from anxiety over witchcraft. Redemptioners: Indentured families who could receive free passage in exchange for a promise to work off their debt in America. Walking Purchasers: An arrangement in which the Lenni Lenape Indians agreed to cede to Pennsylvanian colonists a tract of land bounded by the distance a man could walk in thirty-six hours; a team of swift runners who were hired to mark out the area far exceeded the amount that the Indians had anticipated. Backcountry: An area stretching from central Pennsylvania southward through the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and into upland North and South Carolina. Artisans: Skilled workers who were socially distinct from common laborers; their skill gave them far more economic freedom, and they profited from the expanding consumer market in the colonies. "Cousinocracy": In Virginia, the upper class was so tight-knit and intermarried that the colony was said to be governed by a "cousinocracy."
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