General Biology Exam 1 Study Guide
General Biology Exam 1 Study Guide BIOL 04102-03
Northwest Missouri State University
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Morse on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 04102-03 at Northwest Missouri State University taught by Dr. Dieringer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Northwest Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1: JAVA REPORT SCIENCE IS A PROCESS I. Science is a way of knowing, a method of seeking answers to questions on the basis of observation and experiment. a. The process of using observations and experiments to draw conclusions based on evidence. II. Anecdotal evidence. a. An informal observation that has not been systematically tested. b. Peer review. i. A process in which independent scientific experts read scientific studies before they are published to ensure that the authors have appropriately designed and interpreted the study. III. Hypothesis a. A tentative explanation for a scientific observation or question. b. Not all possible explanations will be scientific hypotheses. It must be… i. Testable. 1. If it can be supported or rejected by carefully designed experiment or observational studies. ii. Falsifiable. 1. Can be ruled out by data that show that the hypothesis does not explain the observation. IV. One way to test a hypothesis is to design a controlled experiment. a. A carefully designed test, the results of which will either support or rule out a hypothesis. i. 2 groups: 1. Experimental group o The group in an experiment that experiences the experimental intervention or manipulation. 2. Control group o The group in an experiment that experiences no experimental intervention or manipulation. ii. Control group received a placebo 1. Fake treatment given to control groups to mimic experience of experimental group. iii. Independent variable. 1. The variable or factor, being deliberately changed in the experiment group. iv. Dependent variable. 1. The measured result of an experiment, analyzed in both the experiment and control groups. SIZE MATTERS I. One thing that can strengthen our confidence in the results of a scientific study is sample size. a. The number of experiment subjects or the number of times an experiment is repeated. II. The larger the sample size, the more likely the results will have statistical significance. a. A measure of confidence that the results obtained are real and not due to chance. III. The highest point of scientific knowledge is scientific theory. a. An explanation of the natural world that is supported by large body of evidence and has never been disproved. FINDING PATTERNS I. Epidemiology. a. The study of patterns of disease in populations. b. Including risk factors. II. Correlation. a. A consistent relationship between two variables b. Correlation is not causation 2 CHAPTER 2: MISSION TO MARS THE SEARCH FOR MARTIAN LIFE I. Homeostasis a. The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment. II. Energy a. The ability to do work. Living organisms obtain energy either directly from sunlight (through photosynthesis) or from food they consume. III.Metabolism a. All the chemical reactions taking place in the cells of a living organism that allow it to obtain and use energy. CURIOUS ABOUT CHEMISTRY I. Element a. A chemically pure substance that cannot be chemically broken down; each element is made up of and defined by a single type of atom. II. Matter a. Anything that takes up space and has mass. III.Atom a. The smallest unit of an element that cannot be chemically broken down into smaller units. IV. Proton a. A positively charged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom. V. Electron a. A negatively charged subatomic particle with negligible mass. VI.Neutron a. An electricity uncharged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom. VII. Nucleus a. The dense core of an atom. SAM I AM I. Covalent Bond a. A strong chemical bond resulting from the sharing of a pair of electrons, between two atoms. II. Molecule a. Atoms linked by covalent bonds. III.Organic a. Describes a molecule with a carbon-based backbone and at least one C-H Bond. IV. Inorganic a. Describes a molecule that lacks a carbon-based back bone and C-H Bond. V. Carbohydrates a. An organic molecule made up of one or more sugars. b. A one-sugar carbohydrate is called a monosaccharide; a carbohydrate with multiple linked sugars is called a polysaccharide. 3 VI.Protein a. An organic molecule made up of linked amino acid subunits. VII.Lipids a. Organic molecules that generally repel water. VIII. Nucleic Acids a. Organic molecules made up of linked nucleotide subunits; DNA and RNA are examples of nucleic acids. IX.Macromolecules a. Large organic molecules that make up living organisms; they include carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids. X. Monomer a. One chemical subunit of a polymer. XI.Polymer a. A molecule, made up of individual subunits, called monomers, linked together in a chain. XII. Monosaccharide a. The building block, or monomer, of a carbohydrate. XIII. Amino Acid a. The building block, or monomer, of a protein. XIV. Nucleotide a. The building block, or monomer, of a nucleic acid. “MY FAVORITE EATHLINGS” I. Cell a. The basic structural unit of living organisms. II. Cell Membrane a. A phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that forms the boundary of all cells. III.Phospholipid a. A type of lipid that forms the cell membrane. IV. Hydrophobic a. Water-fearing b. Hydrophobic molecules will not dissolve in water. V. Hydrophilic a. Water-loving FOLLOW THE WATER I. Polar Molecule a. A molecule in which electrons are not shared equally between atoms, causing a partial negative charge at one end and a partial positive charge at the other. b. Water. II. Hydrogen Bond a. A weak electrical attraction between a partially positive hydrogen atom and an atom with a partial negative charge. III.Cohesion a. Water molecules sticking to water molecules through hydrogen bonding. IV. Adhesion 4 a. Water molecules sticking to other surfaces through hydrogen bonding. V. Solvent a. A substance in which other substances can dissolve b. Water VI.Solute a. A dissolved substance. VII. Solution a. The mixture of solute and solvent. VIII. Ionic Bond a. A strong electrical attraction between oppositely charged ions formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another. IX.Ion a. An electrically charged atom, the charge resulting from the loss or gain of electrons. X. pH a. A measure of the concentration of H+ in a solution. XI.Acid a. A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of solutions, making them more acidic. XII. Base a. A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of solutions, making them more basic. WEIRD LIFE I. Virus a. An infectious agent made up of a protein shell that encloses genetic information. II. Prion a. A protein-only infectious agent. 5 CHAPTER 6: SUPERSIZE ME THE SIZE OF THE PROBLEM I. Body mass index a. An estimate of body fat based on height and weight. II. Overweight a. Having a BMI between 25 and 29.9. III.Obese a. Having 20% more body fat than is recommended for one’s height, as measured by a body mass index equal to or greater than 30. IV. calorie a. The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree Celsius. V. Calorie a. 1,000 calories or 1 kilocalorie (kcal) b. the capital C in Calorie indicates kilocalorie c. the Calorie is the common unit of energy used in food nutrition labels. COUNTING CALORIES I. Glycogen a. A complex animal carbohydrate, made up of linked chains of glucose molecules, that stores energy for short term use. II. Triglycerides a. A type of lipid found in fat cells that stores excess energy for long term use. PUTTING FOOD TO WORK I. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) a. The molecule that cells use to power energy requiring functions. b. The cells energy currency. II. Aerobic Respiration a. A series of reactions that occurs in the presence of oxygen and converts energy stored in food into ATP. III.Glycolysis a. A series of reactions that breaks down sugar into smaller units b. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm and is the first stage of both aerobic respiration and fermentation. IV. Citric Acid Cycle a. A set of reactions that takes place in mitochondria and helps extract energy from food b. The second stage is aerobic respiration V. NAD+ a. An electron carrier b. NAD+ can accept electrons, becoming NADH in the process 6 VI.Electron Transport Chain a. A process that takes place in mitochondria and produces the bulk of ATP during aerobic respiration b. The third stage is aerobic respiration WHEN OXYGEN IS SCARCE I. Fermentation a. A series of chemical reactions that takes place in the absence of oxygen and converts some of the energy stored in food into ATP b. Fermentation produces far less ATP than does aerobic respiration CURBING CULTURE I. Trans Fat a. A type of vegetable fat that has been hydrogenated, that is, hydrogen atoms have been added, making it solid at room temperature. II. Saturated Fat a. An animal fat, such as butter. b. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature. III.Unsaturated fat a. A plant fat, such as olive oil. b. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. 7
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