Psych 100- Midterm 2 Study Guide
Psych 100- Midterm 2 Study Guide Psychology 100
Popular in Psychology 100-Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Obioma Azie on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 100 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Megan Davis in Winter 2016 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Psychology 100-Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Psychology 100 Midterm Two Study Guide( Learning, Memory, and Thinking, Reasoning, and Language) Underlining Explained: If a term or person is underlined, they are important, and you should know them for the exam. (Source: Psychology: From Understanding to Inquiry (13th Edition)) Chapter 6Learning Classical Conditioning(CC) A great deal of learning depends on the association of one thing with another. What is classical conditioning? o A previously neutral stimulus gets paired with another stimulus, and elicits an automatic response. 19 century o A school of thinkers called the British Associationists believed that we acquire all knowledge by conditioning. Pavlov o Dogs Metronome(CS)+Meat powder(UCS)+ Salivation(CR) Factors of CC o Unconditioned Stimulus(UCS) A stimulus that elicits an automatic response o Unconditioned Response(UCR) Automatic response to a nonneutral stimulus that does not need to be learned. o Conditioned Stimulus(CS) An initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to association with a UCS o Conditioned Response(CR) Response that previously associated with a nonneutral stimulus that is elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioning Things that can happen in CC o Habituation can occur in CC. Habituation Process of responding less strongly to over time to repeated stimuli o Spontaneous Recovery The sudden reemergence of an extinct CR after there has been a delay of one’s exposure to the CS o Renewal Effect The sudden reemergence of the CR of an organism to the CS, after returning to the environment the CR was acquired in Is often adaptive May explain why people reacquire their phobias, after being put in the environment where they first acquired them. o Stimulus Generalization The process in which conditioned stimuli similar to the original CS trigger the same CR This occurs over a generalization gradient. What does this mean? It means that the more similar various stimuli are to the original CS of a CR, the stronger the CR will be to them: the stimuli that are very similar to the CS. o Stimulus Discrimination(SD) The process by which organisms display a less pronounced CR to conditioned stimuli that differ from the original CS This helps to explain why we can enjoy scary movies. SD is adaptive. o How so? It allows us to distinguish between stimuli that share some similarities, but differ in important ways. HigherOrder Conditioning What is HigherOrder Conditioning? o The development of a CR to a CS because of its association with another CS Example o SecondOrder Conditioning A new CS is paired with the original CS. Each progressive level results in weaker conditioning. Application of CC to Everyday Life Many of our physiological responses that we display in CC contribute to our survival. Latent Inhibition Latent Inhibition o Difficulty establishing CC to a CS we have repeatedly been exposed to alone, without the UCS. Fetishes Fetishes o Sexual attraction to nonliving things Disgust Reactions CC helps to keep us safe from things that would harm us. Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Conditioning) (OC) Operant Conditioning o Learning controlled by the consequences of to certain behaviors Terminology of OC Reinforcement The outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the chances that a target behavior will occur Punishment The action of doing something to decrease a target behavior Positive Punishment Procedure Presents a stimulus Effect on Behavior Decreases the target behavior Positive Reinforcement Procedure Presenting a stimulus Effect on Behavior Increases target behavior Negative Punishment Procedure Removing a stimulus Effect on Behavior Decreases target behavior Negative Reinforcement Procedure Removing a stimulus Effect on Behavior Increases target behavior Applications of OC Animal training Shaping The conditioning of a target behavior by progressively reinforcing behaviors that are close to the target behavior Overcoming procrastination Premark (1965) Found that we can positively reinforce a less frequent behavior with a more frequent behavior. This has worked very well for many people. Therapeutic applications of operant conditioning Secondary Reinforcement A neutral object that becomes associated with a primary reinforcement Primary Reinforcement Item or outcome that naturally increases the target behavior Schedules of Reinforcement Schedule of Reinforcement o Pattern of reinforcing behavior Continuous Reinforcement o Reinforcing a behavior every time it occurs. This results in faster learning, but faster extinction. Partial Reinforcement o Only reinforcing a behavior occasionally; this results in slower extinction, than if the behavior was continually reinforced. Fixed Ratio Schedule o Pattern in which reinforcement is provided after a regular number of responses Variable Ratio Schedule o Pattern in which we provide reinforcement after a specific number of responses on average, with the numbers varying randomly Fixed Interval Schedule o Pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response at least one time, following a specific time interval Variable Interval Schedule o Pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response at least once during an average time interval, with the interval varying randomly OC vs CC OC o The targeted behavior is emitted voluntarily. o The reward is dependent upon the behavior. o Behavior depends mostly on skeletal muscles. CC o The targeted behavior is elicited automatically. o The reward is provided unconditionally. o Behavior depends mostly on the autonomic nervous system. The Law of Effect Law of Effect (1898) o If a stimulus is followed by a behavior results in a reward, the more likely the behavior is to occur in the future. E.L. Thorndike o Puzzle box A hungry cat was put into a box, with a tantalizing piece of fish put on the outside of the box. The cat had the task of figuring out how to get out of the box. What was the take away from this? o All learning occurs through trial and error o Crushed the idea that cats learn by insight o Laid the groundwork for research in OC. o Discovered the Law of Effect B.F. Skinner A behaviorist who developed the theory of OC Studied the operant behavior of rats, pigeons, and other animals o He mapped out their responses to rewards with a device Skinner felt that the fact that Thorndike had to stick around to set the hungry cat in the box, and attentively observe its behavior, following each trial was a limitation. He believed that this limitation made it difficult to study the buildup of associations in the ongoing operant behavior over time. o By having a device monitor animal behavior, Skinner ran the risk of missing some important behavior that the device was not meant to record. Skinner Box (Operant Chamber) o An enclosed space that contains a bar or key that an animal can press or mess with to obtain food or water. Cognitive Models of Learning Cognitive Conditioning o Phenomenon in which conditioning is more than an automatic process. Early behaviorists did not believe that thought played more of a causal role in learning. o The big transition in psychology from behaviorism to cognition Skinner (1953) was an advocate for radical behaviorism o He believed that: Observable behavior, thinking, and emotion are all governed by the same principles of learning as CC and OC Cognitive psychology invokes unobservable and ultimately meaningless concepts Humans and other intelligent animals think, and that thinking is not any different in principle from any other behavior. SOR Psychology Psychologists have been moving away from SR(StimulusReaction) Psychology, and closer to SOR(StimulusOrganismReaction) Psychology. In SOR Psychology, the organism interprets the stimulus before producing a response. o To SOR psychologists, the link between the stimulus and the response is mindless/automatic The response of the organism depends on what the stimulus means to it o SOR theorists do not deny that CC and OC occur. What these theorists believes is that these forms of learning usually depend on thinking. Latent Learning Latent Learning o Learning that is not directly observable. There is a difference between competence (what we know) and performance (showing what we know) This discrimination is important because it implies that reinforcement is not necessary for learning. Tolman demonstrated this point systematically Maze rats He found that the rats made cognitive maps. Mental representation of how physical space is organized. “Internal spatial blueprint” Observational Learning(OL) Many psychologists view OL as an important variant of latent learning, because it allows us to learn without reinforcement. Badura o Bobo doll Aggression through observation can be a learned behavior. Can contribute to the acquisition of maladaptive habits Media Violence and RealWorld Aggression Hundreds of investigators using correlational designs, longitudinal studies, and field studies have reported that children who watch many violent TV programs tend to be more aggressive than children who don’t. o Correlational studies, longitudinal studies, and field studies tend to be high in external validity, but low in internal validity. However, scientific conclusions are usually the most convincing when we base them off of findings from different research designs. o In turn, most psychological scientists today agree that media violence does indeed contribute to aggression in some circumstances, while also recognizing that aggressive behavior is multifaceted, in regards to what initiates it. Mirror Neurons and Observational Learning Mirror Neurons o Cells in the prefrontal cortex that becomes activated when an animal performs an action or observes it being performed. It is possible that lower activity of the mirror neuron system in autism is a consequence, rather than a cause of the empathy deficit, that is associated with autism. The discovery of mirror neurons may ultimately provide valuable insight information on how we learn from others. Insight Learning Wolfgang Koëhler o Founder of Gestalt Psychology o Chimps He had a chimp who reached for a bunch of bananas by combining two small sticks after failing to do so, while only using one stick. The chimp then combined the sticks every time he reached for the bananas, after that first successful attempt. This reflected insight, instead of trial and error Latent Learning and Observational Learning were not the only holes that were punched in behaviorist theory. Biological Influences on Learning Our biology influences the speed and nature of our learning in fascinating ways Preparedness o Evolutionary predisposition to learn some pairings of feared stimuli because of their survival value. Instinctive Drift o Tendency for animals to return to innate behaviors, following repeated reinforcement This suggests that we cannot fully understand learning without taking innate biological influences into account. Why? o Biological influences set limits on what kinds of behaviors we can train through reinforcement Conditioned Taste Aversions Sauce béarnaise o Martin Seligman (1970) Conditioned taste aversion His work contradicts the work of Pavlov How? o Conditioned taste aversions only take one trial to develop. o The delay between CS and UCS in conditioned taste aversions can be as long as 6 hours, even 8 hours o Conditioned taste aversions display little evidence of stimulus generalization, because they tend to be very specific Equipotentialiality o The claim that we classically condition all CSs equally well to all UCSs This is a belief that is held by many behaviorists CC can lead us to develop avoidance reactions to the taste of food. Conditioned taste aversion contradicts the assumption of equipotentiality. Learning Fads Sleep Assisted Learning Accelerated Learning Discovery Learning Learning Style An individual’s preferred method of taking in new information Psychology 100: Chapter 7: Memory How Memory Operates Our memories often fail us in ways we do not expect. Paradox of Memory Our memories are surprisingly good in some situations, and surprisingly poor in others. o The same mechanisms of memory that serve us well in most circumstances can sometimes cause us problems in others. Most people who have autism lack specialized memory abilities. o However, there are some exceptions. Example: Kim Peek o She exhibited phenomenal memory, despite her low overall intelligence. The case of Nadean Cool demonstrates how memory can be surprisingly malleable, and prone to error. Most memory illusions, like visual illusions are byproducts of our brain’s adaptive tendency to go beyond the information available to it. o By doing so, our brain helps us to make sense of the world This in turn can mislead us in some cases. Memory Illusion o False but subjectively compelling memory Heuristic o We simplify things to make them easier to remember The Reconstructive Nature of Memory Our memories fail us often We rarely produce exact replicas of memories o We do not passively reproduce our memories. Memories are reconstructive. Our memories may be shaped by our hunches, and cultural backgrounds. The Three Systems of Memory Memory is not a single thing. o There are three systems of memory. Sensory Memory ShortTerm Memory LongTerm Memory These three systems of memory have different functions and dimensions. o Two of the dimensions Span How much information each system can hold Duration How long each system can hold information Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Brief storage of perceptual information before being passed to shortterm memory o Tied closely to the raw material of our experiences and our perceptions of the world o Holds our perceptions for just a few seconds, or less, before passing it onto the shortterm memory system o Very brief storage of information from senses Echoic Memory Auditory sensory memory Lasts 510 seconds Iconic Memory Visual sensory memory Lasts less than 1 second ShortTerm Memory ShortTerm Memory o Brief storage of information we are currently using Lasts for no more than 20 seconds o Either goes into our longterm memory or fades away As we create new memories, our old memories slowly fade away. Decay Fading away over time Interference Getting replaced by new information Two types of interference Retroactive Interference Interference with the retention of old information that results from the acquisition of new information Proactive Interference Interference with acquisition of new information that results from the previous learning of information o Is closely related to working memory Working Memory Our ability to hold onto information we’re currently thinking about or processing Magic Number The universal limit of shortterm memory 7 plus or minus 2 The digit span of most adults is between 5 and 9(The average is 7.) LongTerm Memory LongTerm Memory A relatively enduring retention of information, experiences, facts, and skills o No one really knows how long it lasts o Often lasts for years, even decades o The mistakes made in longterm memory are different from those made in shortterm memory. Longterm memory errors tend to be semantic (Based on the meaning of the information we have received). Shortterm memory tends to be acoustic (based on the sound of the information have received) o We tend to remember stimuli that are distinctive in one way or another. o There are two types of longterm memory. Explicit Memory: Memories we recall intentionally Semantic Memory o Facts about the world Episodic Memory o Events in our lives Implicit Memory: Not deliberately remembered memory Procedural Memory o Memory of how to of how to do things Motor skills and habits Priming o Our ability to identify a stimulus more quickly/easily after we have encountered similar stimuli Conditioning o A behavioral process where a response becomes more frequent through the administration of reinforcements Habituation o The process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli Chunking Chunking o Organizing information into meaningful groupings, allowing one to extend the span of shortterm memory Increases the duration of information in shortterm memory Experts rely on chunking to help themselves to recall complicated information. Rehearsal Rehearsal o Repeating information to extend the duration of retention in shortterm memory. Two types of rehearsal Maintenance Rehearsal Repeating stimuli in their original form to retain them in shortterm memory Elaborative Rehearsal Linking stimuli to each other in a meaningful way, to improve the retention of information in shortterm memory Takes more effort than maintenance rehearsal Usually works better than maintenance rehearsal o This demolishes the common misconception that rote memorization is typically the best way to retain information. Permastore o Type of longterm memory that appears to be permanent Study Tip o To remember complex information, it is always better to connect it to information we already know, than to just keep repeating it This finding is consistent with the levelof processing model of memory. This model identifies three levels of processing verbal, visual, and phonological information. o Levels of Processing Depth of transforming information Influences how easily we remember o Visual processing is the shallowest. o Semantic processing is the deepest. Tends to produce more enduring longterm memories The more meaning we supply a stimulus, the more likely we are to recall it later on. o “All people create their meaning of life.” Primacy and Recency Effect The Primacy Effect o The tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well The Recency Effect o The tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well The primacy effect appears to reflect the operation of longterm memory Some psychologists argue that longterm memory is not just one system. o Semantic Memory Our knowledge of facts about the world o Episodic Memory Recollection of events in our lives The Three Processes of Memory The Three Processes of Memory o Encoding o Storage o Retrieval They explain how information gets transferred into longterm memory, and gets back out when we need it Encoding o Encoding: The process of getting information into our memory banks o A lot of our memory failures are actually failures of encoding. o The role of attention in encoding To encode something, one must attend to it first. Much of our everyday experience never gets into our brain Most events we experience never end up being encoded. Even those events we encode only include some of the details of the events. Mnemonic Approaches Pegword Method o Relies on rhyming o Is often used to recall ordered lists of words o To master this method, one must first each number in a list with a word that rhymes with the number. o Researchers have found that repeated use of the pegword method enhanced students’ delayed recall of ordered lists of unfamiliar terms. This suggests that the method may be a useful study strategy for improving vocabulary. Method of Loci o Relies on imagery and places(location) Keyword Method o Depends on your ability to think of an English word that reminds you of the word you are trying to remember o People who learn foreign vocabulary benefit from the keyword method, in comparison to more traditional methods, such as that of rote memorization. o Researchers have found that this method to be very effective for third graders, including students with learning disabilities, in making new vocabulary words Music Method o Learning information put to a melody improves longterm memory retention. Storage: Filing Away Our Memories Where we store our memories depends on our interpretation and expectations. The value of schemas o Schema An organized knowledge structure or mental model that we have stored in our memory. o They can bias our memories of events o Schemas are valuable because they equip us with frames of reference for interpreting new situations. Without schemas, we’d find some information almost impossible to comprehend. o Schemas and memory mistakes Schemas can be problematic. They can lead us to remembering things that never happened. Schemas simplify They help us to make sense of the world o But they sometimes oversimplify. This is bad because it can produce memory illusions Schemas provide one key explanation for the paradox of memory Schemas enhance memory in some cases, but lead to memory errors in others. If we’re not careful, our schemas can lead us to overgeneralizing. Retrieval Retrieval o The reactivation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores To remember something, we need to fetch it from our longterm memory banks. It is the third and final process of memory. Our memories are reconstructive. o They often transform to fit out beliefs and expectations. What we retrieve from our memory often does not match what we put into it. Measuring Memory Psychologists assess people’s memory in 3 major ways. Recall Generating previously remembered information Recognition Selecting previously remembered information Relearning Reacquiring knowledge that we had previously learned , but have largely forgotten over time Essay portions of exams depend more on recall. Recall is usually harder than recognition. o Why? Because recalling information requires 2 steps. Generating an answer Determining whether or not that answer you have generated is correct. Relearning o Relearning Reacquiring knowledge that we have previously learned, but have forgotten the most of over time o Shows that a memory of a skill still lurks in our brains o It is a more sensitive measure of memory than both recall and recognition. These do not assess memory using a relative amount. o Relearning also allows us to measure memory for procedures, such as driving a car, playing a musical instrument, and so on. TipofTheTongue(TOT)Phenomenon The experience of knowing that we know something, but not being able to access it. Encoding Specificity Introduced by Endel Tuling We are more likely to remember something when the conditions that were present when we encoded it are present at retrieval. We can see Encoding Specificity at work in: o ContextDependent Learning o StateDependent Learning Refers to the internal state of the organism, instead of the external content Sometimes depends on mood Mooddependent learning o Can create difficulties for researchers who want to draw conclusions. It can result in retrospective bias. Our current psychological state can distort our memories of out past. The Biology of Memory The biology of memory plays an important role in our daily lives. The Elusive Engram o Discovered by Karl Lashley o Engram The physical trace of each memory in the brain Memory is not located in one specific area of the brain. o Memories are different features of experiences (sight, smell, and sound). o Donald Hebb suggested that the engram is instead located in assemblies/organized groups of neurons in the brain. According to Hebb, one neuron becomes connected to another neuron, when it repeatedly activates that neuron. “Neurons fed by a rich blend of neurotransmitters, form circuits, integrate sensory information in meaningful ways, and transform our experiences of the world into lasting, perhaps even lifelong memories.” LongTerm Potentiation(LTP) o LTD A physical basis for memory Refers to a gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons by repetitive stimulation over time. o “Today, many researchers believe that our ability that our ability to store memories depends on strengthening the connections among neurons arranged in sprawling networks that extend to the far and deep recesses of the brain.” o The question of whether LTP is directly responsible for the storage of memories, or whether it affects learning indirectly by increasing arousal and attention remains unresolved. However, most scientists agree that the LTP plays a key role in learning and that the hippocampus plays an important role in forming lasting memories. o LTP enhances the release of glutamate into the synaptic cleft, resulting in enhanced learning LTP and Glutamate o Where does LTP tend to occur? LTP tends to occur at synapses where the sending neuron releases the neurotransmitter glutamate into the synaptic cleft (The space between the sending and receiving neuron) Glutamate interacts with receptors for NDMA and AMPA Where Is Memory Stored? fMRI studies reveal that learned information is not stored permanently in the hippocampus itself. o But rather, the prefrontal cortex appears to be one of the major banks from whci h we withdraw our memories. Amnesia o The best evidence that explicit and implicit memory are largely governed by the different systems of the brain can be found in the brains of individuals with severe amnesia. o Retrograde Amnesia We lose some memories of our past. o Anterograde Amnesia We lose the capacity to form new memories o Anterograde amnesia is more common amongst people with brain damage. o Recovery from amnesia tends to occur gradually. o Amnesia illustrates a dissociation between explicit and implicit memory The study of H.M.’s brain using imaging techniques to lead to the finding the large circuits connecting different parts of the limbic system, including the hippocampus and amygdala, are critical to memory. Emotional Memory o Amygdala Emotional memory Works with the hippocampus during the formation of memory, but each structure contributes different information o Hippocampus Factual memory Damage to the hippocampus impairs explicit memory, but leaves implicit memory intact. The hormones adrenaline and norepinephrine are released in the face of stress, and stimulate protein receptors on nerve cells, which solidify emotional memories. Propranolol o Blocks the effects of adrenaline on betaadrenergic receptors The Biology of Memory Deterioration The Alzheimer’s brain contains many senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. o These abnormalities contribute to the loss of synapses and the death of cells in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. These may also contribute to memory loss and intellectual decline. There is a positive correlation between the loss of synapses and intellectual status, with greater loss as Alzheimer’s progresses. The Development of Memory: Acquiring a Personal History Habituation o A decrease in attention to familiar stimuli Is a form of implicit memory. To interpret a stimulus as familiar, we need to be able to recall that we have experienced it before. Memory over time o Over time, children’s memories become more sophisticated. Why? Acquisition of better strategies, such as that of rehearsal o This is important because our ability to chunk related o information and store memories depends on our knowledge of the world. Children develop enhanced metamemory skills/ o MetaMemory Skills Knowledge about their abilities and limitations These skills help children to identify when they need to use strategies to improve their memories, as well as which strategies work the best. False Memories We are often far more confident of out recollection of memory than we should be. Phantom Flashbulb Memory o Captures the idea that many seemingly flashbulb memories are false o Just like other memories, these memories change over time. o They are not another class of memories. They are just like any other memories, just more intense. SourceMonitoring o We try to identify the origins of our memories by seeking out cues abut how we encode them. Refers to our efforts to identify the origins of a memory o “Whenever we try to figure out whether a memory really reflects something that happened, or whether we merely imagined it, we’re engaging in source monitoring. o Helps us not to confuse our memories with fantasies. o Cryptomnesia A memory error that reflects confusion in sourcemonitoring Implanting False Memories in the Lab Suggestive Memory Techniques o Often create recollections of hat were never present to begin with The Misinformation Effect o Older adults are particularly prone to misinformation effects, particularly because of difficulties with source monitoring Event Plausibility o It is easier to implant a memory of something that’s more plausible than something that is not. Generalizing from the Lab to the Real World Research on false memories raises the possibility that memory errors carry important implications for realworld situations, like eyewitness identifications. o Eyewitness misidentification Is the most common cause of wrongful convictions o Eyewitness accuracy is often impaired by weapon focus. Weapon Focus When a crime involves a weapon, people tend to focus more on the weapon than on the perpetrator’s appearance. Learning Tips Distributed vs Massed Study o Spread out our study time Testing Effect o Test yourself frequently on the material Elaborative Rehearsal o Connect new knowledge with existing knowledge Levels of Processing o Work to process ideas deeply and meaningfully Avoid taking notes on every word from lecture slides Mnemonic Devices o The more reminder or cues you can connect from your knowledge base to new material, the more likely you are to recall new material. Chapter 8Thinking, Reasoning, and Language Thinking Thinking o Any mental activity or processing information Behaviorists tried to explain mental activity in terms of stimulus and response, and reinforcement and punishment. Our minds often go beyond the information that is available to us. Cognitive Economy We are cognitive misers. Our brains have adapted in ways that allow us to streamline the process of thinking. We economize mentally in a variety of ways that reduce our mental effort. o Enable us to get things right most of the time. Cognitive economy can occasionally get us in trouble, especially when it leads us not to simplify, but to over simplify. Heuristics o Mental shortcuts to increase our thinking efficiency. o In many cases, the heuristics we use are more valid than an exhaustive analysis of all potential factors. Heuristics and Biases Cognitive Bias o Systematic error in thinking Representative Heuristic o Heuristic that involves judging the probability of an event based off of its superficial similarity to a prototype. We are poor at taking base rate into consideration. o Base Rate Hoe common a characteristic or behavior is in the general population Availability Heuristic o A heuristic that involves estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our minds Hindsight Bias o Our tendency to overestimate how well we could have predicted something after it has already happened. TopDown and BottomDown Processing TopDown Processing o Conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and experiences BottomDown Processing o Processing in which a whole is constructed from parts Concept o Our knowledge and ideas about a set of objects, actions, and characteristics that share core properties. Decision Making We tend to do the most difficult thinking when we solve problems and make decisions. Decision Making o The process of selecting among a set of possible alternatives Problem Solving o Generating a cognitive strategy to achieve a goal Framing o The way a question is formulated to influence the decisions people make Algorithm o Stepbystep learned procedure used to solve a problem Mental Set o Phenomenon of becoming stuck in a specific problemsolving strategy, inhibiting our ability to generate alternatives Functional Fixedness o Difficulty conceptualizing that an object typically used for one purpose can be used for another
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