PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE PSYCH 1101 C
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Argueta on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1101 C at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Kristy Sorenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Psychology 1101 Sorenson Exam 2 Study Guide Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term Chapter 3: Consciousness and the Two Track Mind Stages of Sleep - Electroencephalogram (EEG ) is the gross activity of the brain across an entire night of sleep - Stage 1: Transition between wakefulness and sleep , associated with hallucinations - Stage 2: The stage of the light sleep by brief bursts of brain activity called sleep spindles - Stage 3: Delta waves (large, slow brain waves ) occur that take up 10%-50% of EEG record - Stage 4: EEG is entirely of delta waves, you fall into deep sleep in this stage - REM (rapid eye movement ); stage where eyes and brain are active and where vivid dreams occur - Other waves to keep In mind: - Beta waves: very fast and close together w/high frequency - Alpha waves: comes in w/drowsiness; slower b/c it is the transition between awake and sleep Psychoactive drives - Terminology - Tolerance: repeatedly taking a drug, you need more of that drug to get the same initial response after your very first does - Addiction: reward pathway of drug use - Withdrawal: symptoms you feel after stop using a drug - When is drug use a disorder? - Diminished control - Diminished social functioning - Hazardous use: emotional danger, such as DUI - Drug Action: experience tolerance or withdrawal symptoms - Psychoactive drugs alter percept ion, thinking and mood. They interfere w/ neurotransmitters - Depressants: reduce neural activity and slow body functions (ex: alcohol, opiates) - Stimulants: speed up body functions and excites neural activity (ex: caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, ecstasy) - Hallucinogens: distort perception and create (you guessed it) hallucinations - Neurotransmitters function within a synapse between neurons. The axon terminal of the neuron has formed a synapse with the dendrite of another neuron. - Psychoactive drugs bind to receptors and either ac tivate those receptors or prevent them from being activated by neurotransmitters - Other drugs block the reabsorption intro presynaptic membrane (reuptake inhibitors) Consciousness and Attention - Parallel processing: when your brain can do more than one thing at a time , broader than multitasking (ex: driving home w/o being conscious about it) - Inattentional blindness: something you should be paying attention to but you don ’t b/c you are focused on something else so you don’t see what you should be seeing - Selective attention: awareness on one part of the environment & ignoring other parts - Cocktail party effect : when you are paying attention to one part of the environment, but then something calls you out, such s your name, or a special interest, you switch your attention to that indirect part Biological Rhythms - Circadian: something your body undergoes In a cycle/pattern for 24 hours (ex: me nstrual cycle) - Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN ): located in the middle of the brain, part of the hypothalamus, keeps track of things - Decreased light à increases melatonin - Increased light à decrease melatonin Why do we sleep? - Protective role: avoid danger - Restore and repair (cellular) - Strengthen neural connections: knowledge takes time to take in - Promotes creative problem solving - Growth hormone Major Sleep Disorders - Sleep deprivation - Short term effect: fatigue and irritability; harms concentration, memory - Long term effect: can lead to depression, obesity, pain, and more vulnerability to accidents - Insomnia - Narcolepsy: fully awake but instantly go to sleep and you can’t control it - Sleep apnea: airways to lungs are blocked con stantly and your body jolts to unblock it - Night terrors: child wakes up screaming but don ’t remember the nightmare - Sleepwalking/talking: happens during stage 3 sleep - Some natural sleep aids: - Exercise regularly but not at night - Relax before bedtime - Sleep on a normal schedule - Hide the time - Focus your mind on non-arousing, engaging thoughts WHY DO WE DREAM: - File away memories - Wish-fulfillment - Develop & preserve neural pathways - Neural activation - Cognitive development Chapter 4: Development Piaget and Conservation: - Cognitive development: conservatio n is the logical principle that rearranging the form/appearance of objects doesn’t change the amount of objects - Stages of Development: - Sensorimotor stage: (birth – 2yrs) - Schema: framework to organize info - Assimilation: take new info and fit it into current schema - Accommodation: have info and have to change the schema to make the new info fit - Object permanence: babies unable to do this during this stage - Preoperationational stage (2yrs – 6yrs): doesn’t understand the principle of conservations - Symbolic thought: naming/representation something w/image - Limitations: egocentrism (baby can’t take another person’s point of view; they don’t have Theory of mind, which is the acceptance of difference of oneself ) and failure to conservation - Concrete operational stage (6/7yrs – 11yrs): apply logical reasoning to the concrete objects used in the conservation tasks - Formal Operational (12yrs and beyond): think abstractly and hypothetical thinking Nature & Nurture: genetic inheritance v. experiences Continuity v. stages: gradual, slow shaping process v. abrupt changes Stability v. changes: same characteristic through life v. different characteristic over time Prenatal development - Zygotes: ferndlization ofthperm and egg cell (this is the stage where babies can be lost) - Embryo: 2 week - 8 week; lots of multiplying cells that develop limbs - Fetus: looks more human, tuning up of the systems in the body th - Age of viability: when the baby no longer needs the aid of the m other (around 6 month of pregnancy) - Teratogens: things that can damage development of the baby, s uch as alcohol, drugs, caffeine, nicotine, and maternal infectious diseases - Critical period: time before/after birth when you need a chemical/experience to help improve development. If you miss this during this time you cannot regain that development Infancy & Childhood: - Preferential looking technique : baby sees a particular thing, they choose one image they’ll look into the most - Brain maturation: influences from genes and experiences - Synaptic pruning: losing synapses b/c of 1) similar noises/info are not being heard of s o our brain cut them off and 2) too many synapses can lead to mental retardation - Infant memory: infants can remember a lot than we think - Motor skills: need to learn control over neck, limbs, fingers; turn over, sit up, grab and stand in order to walk - Attachment: when an infant creates an emotional tie with a caretaker - Harlow: (1960’s) experiment where infant monkeys were separated from mothers; one group of infants were raised w/o mothers & one group w/ two artificial mothers : one cloth and one wire - Food was in the wire mother but cloth mother didn’t, the monkeys would take food from the wire but go to the cloth for comfort almost immediately (this is contact comfort - Stranger anxiety: when an infant is born, they don ’t notice who’s touching them. th Around 8 months, however, they start to notice strangers - Ainsworth (1979): secure attachment (when caretaker & child have healthy connection) v. insecure attachment (relationship is unhealthy where child doesn’t have secure attachments but is very upset when mother leaves) - Parenting styles: - Permissive: when parents have no rules at all. This creates aggressive, immature children - authoritarian very strict rules /no exception. Children tend to have very low social skills and low self esteem - Authoritative: in between, where they set rules but have exceptions. Rules are less enforced as the child grows and learns responsibility Kohlberg’s level of moral thinking: - Preconventional morality (before age 9): self-interest: obey rules to avoid punishment/gain concrete rewards - Conventional morality (early adolescence): uphold laws/rules to gain social approval or maintain social order - Postconventional morality : (adolescence and beyond): actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles Chapter 5: Sex, Gender, and Sexuality Characteristics - Biological influences ( XY is male ; XX is female) - Gender: social influences to define men and women; the product of the interplay among biological dispositions, our developmental experiences or current situations Prenatal sexual development - Sex is determined by 23 pair chromosomes: XX & XY. Y chromosome is called the Sry, which triggerththe prthuction of testosterones and gonads (testes) - Between 4 and 5 month of pregnancy: sex hormones in fetal brain support bra in wiring that tends towards male or female (internal genita l: genitals inside such as testes and ovary) à external genitalia: outside genital such as penis and labia flaps Puberty - Primary sex characteristics : body structures that make sexual reproduction possible - Secondary sex characteristics: non reproductive sexual traits ( male à voice & body hair; females à breasts and hips - Spermarche: first ejaculation, landmark for puberty for boys - Menarche: first menstrual period, landmark for puberty for girl s Sexual Development Variations - Disorders of sexual development can occur when chromosomes or anatomy are not typically male/female Gender roles & Identity - Role: expectations about social position - Gender role: our expectations about the way men and women behave - Gender identity: our personal sense of being male, female, or some combination of the two - How do we learn gender? - Social learning theory : proposes social behavior is learned by observing & imitating others’ gender-inked behavior and by being rewarded/punished - Gender schemas: acquisition of traditional masculine/feminine role - Androgyny: a blend of male & female roles feels right - Transgender: gender identity/expression differs from that associations w/birth sex Chapter 6: Sensation and Development Sensation & Perception - Sensation: taking in physical energy as present - Perception: organizing info and adding meaning so that you can recognize it later Sensation Perception Transduction - Sensory receptors: detect stimulation (ex: vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch) - Transduction: converts incoming energy into electrochemical energy - Thresholds: - Absolute thresholds: minimal level needed (one stimulus); this is different with each age group. - Difference thresholds : noticeable difference, need two stimuli difference - Weber’s Law: average person to perceive a difference, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (NOT a constant amount) - Sensory adaption: save the brain’s energy by ignoring the sensory systems that surrounds the body Light Energy - Frequency: how fast the wavelength goes by w/in a second - Amplitude: how high the wavelength is The Eye - Wavelength hit the cornea (protects the eye and sees the hue) - Iris: contracts/dilates pupil - Pupil: sees the brightness - Lens: bend the light a second time and send the image to the back of the eye - Fovea: center of your vision & sees every detail image (this is where you ’ll find your cones) - Blind spot: has no photo receptors - Optic nerve: sending info to the brain - Retina: sees incoming light - Photoreceptors - Cones: sensitive to detail and color, they work best in daylight - Rods: sensitive to faint light; work best in the night sight (mostly found in peripheral retina) - Parallel processing: separate the process of motion, form, depth, and color into different are. Then the brain integrates these sub -dimensions into the perceived image - Perception: - Bottom-up processing: progression from the individual elements to the whole - Top-down processing: how brain makes use of info that was already introduced to the brain by one or more of the sensory system à ex: - Form perception - Figure-ground: organization of visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground) à (similar to top down processing) - Proximity: group nearby figures together - Continuity: perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones - Closure: fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object - Depth perception: estimate an object’s distance from us Gibson’s visual cliff experiment: device to test depth perception in infants and young animals - Binocular cues: depth cues from using both eyes - Retinal disparity: difference between two images, the closer the object - Monocular cues: depth cues available to each eye separately Perceptual constancies : Perceiving objects as unchanging (having constant color/brightness), even as illumination and re tinal images change Ø Color constancy: consistent color Ø Shape constancy: actual shape of an object cannot change seems to change shape w/angle of the view Ø Size constancy: perceive objects having constant size, even while distance from that object varies Chapter 9: Thinking and Language Intelligence: mental potential to learn from experience, s olve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations - Intelligence tests measure “school smarts” - General intelligence: heart of intelligent behavior, from navigating the sea to excelling in school - Gardner’s multiple intelligences: - verbal & mathematical aptitudes, computer programmer, the poet, the street - smart adolescent, and the basketball team ’s play-making point guard show different kinds of intelligence - Sternberg’s three intelligences - Analytical intelligence: school smarts, academic problem solving - Creative intelligence: abil ity to react adaptively to new situations and generate novel ideas - Practical intelligence: street smarts, skill at handling everyday tasks which may be ill defined with multiple solutions - Emotional intelligence - Perceiving emotions: recognizing them in faces , music, and stories - Understanding emotions: predicting them and how they may change and blend - Managing emotions: knowing how to express them and how they may c hange and blend - Using emotions: enable adaptive or creative thinking Spearman’s general intelligence: basic intelligence predicts our abilities in varied academic areas -Different abilities do have some tendency to correlate -Human abilities are too diverse to be encapsulated by a sin gle general intelligence facto Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS ) - Most widely used individual intelligence test . Subtests includes - Similarities: considering the commonalit y of two objects or concepts - Vocabulary: naming pictured objec ts, or defining words - Block design: visual abstract processing - Letter-number sequencing: hearing a series of numbers and letters, repeat the numbers in ascending order, and then the letters in the alphabetical order Application with the normal curve: - - Intelligence quotient (IQ ): a person’s mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100 to get rid of the decimal point
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