Intro to Mass Media Midterm Study Guide
Intro to Mass Media Midterm Study Guide MASS110
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heidi Schoettle on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MASS110 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Shane Frederik in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Mass Media in Mass Media Communication at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Mass Media Study Guide Shane Frederick Midterm: October 13, 2016 on D2L Key/Index Red: Chapter 1: Media and Culture Orange: Chapter 2: Media Effects Green: Chapter 3: Books Blue: Chapter 4: Newspapers Purple: Chapter 5: Magazines Pink: Chapter 6: Music Grey: Chapter 7: Radio Black: Chapter 8: Movies Highlight: information from movies/videos watched in class Key points from every chapter: Chapter 1: Mass Communication: information transmitted to an audience through a medium Mass Media: the means/medium of communication 4 Roles of Media: o Entertainment o Information/Education o Public Forum o Monitor Government Printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg in 15 Century Gatekeepers: those who determine what messages make it to the public Tastemakers: media or media personalities that introduce/encourage the adoption of trends Convergence: the coming together of previously distinct technologies (5 kinds) o Economic o Organic o Cultural o Global o Technological Media Literacy: the ability to decode and process media messages with a critical eye o Analyze the author, intended audience, content, and purpose Chapter 2: Propaganda: manipulation of information to influence public opinion Media Theories o Direct Effects/Hypodermic Needle: says that the audience passively accepts media messages; has been discredited o Agenda Setting: media determines the issues rather than the public; media tells us what to think about o Uses and Gratifications: consumers use media to satisfy specific needs or desires o Spiral of Silence: minority opinions are ignored which creates the illusion of general consensus o Media Logic/Cultivation Analysis: deals with how much media consumers’ perceptions of reality can be influenced by media messages Symbolic interactionism: using symbols to communicate (emojis) Procedures for carrying out research: o Content analysis o Focus groups o Participant observation o Surveys o Experiments Chapter 3: First books made of papyrus Books were expensive and rare until the invention of movable type Copyright Law: meant to protect authors from censorship; allowed them to make money from their work Early printers acted as wholesale publishers Uncle Toms’ Cabin was the most popular book in the 19 century Genre fiction became popular in the 20th century Books are descendants of the ancient Codex Hardcover, Paperback, and ebooks are all types of books Blockbuster Syndrome: when publishing industries focused only on books with best seller potential and ignored other authors/books Book superstores rose to prominence in the 1990s Digital Libraries began in 1971; Google Books is the biggest SelfPublishing has become increasingly popular Chapter 4: Newspapers first mass printed in 1609 First Penny Press was the New York Sun o Contained news of the day, advertisements, humaninterest stories, and police reports o Created by Benjamin Day The Associated Press: collaboration of newspapers created in 1846 Yellow Journalism: known for misleading stories, inaccurate information, and exaggerated detail o Sensationalism: the use of crime, sex, and scandal to attract readers The Yellow Kid: a comic that two newspapers fought over Objective Journalism: impartial, dignified, trustworthy, and unbiased o The New York Times o Focus on answering the 5 W’s Literary Journalism: combines research/reporting with the writing style of fiction o Tom Wolfe and Truman Capote Advocacy Journalism: encouraged readers to support a particular cause Consensus Journalism: encouraged social and economic harmony Conflict Journalism: focuses on views outside the social norm Watchdog Journalism: aims to inform citizens of occurrences in government or business Inverted Pyramid: style of writing that starts a story with the most important information Chapter 5: Magazines first mass circulated in the US in 1830s Time and Newsweek dominate the inthstry today New types of magazines in the 20 century o Literary, Pulp, Fan, Teen, and Celebrity Magazines contributed to a shared pop culture AARP has the highest circulation rate Women’s magazines make up a large portion of the medium Magazines offer more space for coverage than newspapers Magazines archive back issues on their websites There are about 7,300 magazines in the US today Numerous styles and genres o News, sports, entertainment, general interest, women’s, men’s, specialty, fashion Occasionally magazines would put excerpts or full novels inside to introduce authors to a wider audience Life Magazine was very popular because of its photography Magazine covers are also often controversial Chapter 6: First circulation of popular music was through sheet music Pop music: any genre of music that appeals to a wide audience/subculture The Phonograph was invented by Thomas Edison The Gramophone was invented by Emile Berliner Tin Pan Alley: area of New York where many music producers began to emerge 1920s; radio begins playing music 1930s; rise of Jazz/Blues o Jazz was primarily instrumental, a mix of African rhythms, gospel and blues o Big Band Style: jazz format that became more structured o Blues: 12 bar, musical form with call and response format between the singer and the guitar 1940s; technology progresses o Tape recorder invented o Gamophone records popular 1950s; rock and roll o Appealed to young listeners o Chuck Berry and Elvis Presley 1960s; Rock and roll branches off from R&B o British Invasion brought Beatles, Kinks, Zombies, Animals, Herman’s Hermits, and the Rolling Stones o Surf music, soul, girl group craze, and folk music o Rock and Roll became just Rock o Cassettes appeared 1970s; Glam rock/punk 1980s; HipHop o CDs appeared Analog: captures fluctuations of sound waves, stores signals on record or tape Digital: translates sound waves into binary pulses, stores information as a numerical code 1990s; New developments in hip hop, rock, and pop o Alternative rock o Grunge o MP3 players appeared 2000s; pop music strong, hip hop overtakes rock o iPod invented in 2001; iTunes in 2003 o Apple iTunes is the dominant digital music retailer today o Streaming music began Culture and music both influence each other 4 major record labels today o EMI o Sony o Universal o Warner Indie Record Labels: smaller labels that operate without financial help from major record companies PMRC: Parents Music Resource Center o Tried to get labels put on CDs that said “explicit” Chapter 7: Radio: communication through the use of radio waves Invented by Guglielmo Marconi Early radios were used on naval ships to communicate with other ships or stations In 1912 the government started to regulate the airwaves o Required licenses o Limited broadcast ranges In 1906 the first radio transmission of the human voice occurred In 1916 the first experimental radio station was set up in NYC Networks began to emerge o NBC o CBS o ABC The Golden Age of Radio: 19301950 Soap Operas emerged on the air; targeted housewives In 1934 the Federal Communications Commission was created; limited stations to 50,000 watts of power Fairness Doctrine of 1949 o Allowed for equal air time for differing views o Repealed in 1987; gave way to talk radio TV invented in 1940s; radio focused on music Different Formats: o Country o News/talk/info o Adult contemporary o Pop contemporary hits o Classic Rock o Urban contemporary o Mexican Regional o Nostalgia Radio encouraged the growth of national pop music stars Radio brought regional sounds to wider audiences Today’s Radio: o Satellite, HD, Internet, and Podcasting The Public owns the airwaves, but the government regulates them Chapter 8: The concept of Motion Picture was introduced by Thomas Edison’s Kinetoscope in 1891 The Lumiere brother invented the cinematographe in 1895 The Nickelodeon Theater was created in 1910s Technicolor emerged around 1930 Most major film studios moved to Hollywood by 1915 3D became a fad in the 50s o Making a comeback today Films arose in the 60s and 70s Blockbuster films arose in the 70s and 80s VCR arrived in the 80s In the 1990s there were improvements in Computer Animation o Independent films also became popular o DVDs replaced VCR Movies reflect cultural attitudes, trends, and concerns Filmmakers can use their movies to influence cultural attitudes toward certain social issues The MPAA rating system was established in 1968 Facts from quizzes (some are redundant): Google owns YouTube Likes, friends, and retweets are forms of social currency The First Amendment of the constitution protects the freedom of the press, speech, and religion Media is the plural form of medium Information transmitted to large audiences is called mass communication The means of communication designed to reach a large audience is called mass media The media that monitors the government is called Watchdog Journalism The media provides a public forum, entertainment, and education The movabletype printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg People or organizations who determine what messages make it to the public are called gatekeepers Agenda setting is the media theory that says that media tells us what to think about The direct effects theory is also called the Hypodermic needle People blamed the Columbine massacre on rock music, video games, and movies An example of a public forum in mass media before the internet age was letters to the editor section of newspapers The electrical telegraph was the invention that began the “contemporary” media age Media convergence is when different media technologies, such as radio and the internet, come together. Researchers use Focus Groups, Content Analysis, and Depth Interviews to study media effects Ed Sullivan, Rotten Tomatoes, and Tyler Oakley are all considered tastemakers Freedom of the Press is guaranteed for everyone in the US Celebrities and companies strategically plan out social media posts Freedom of Speech does not allow someone to shout “fire” in a crowded theater Propaganda is not always bad News and entertainment do not accurately portray how violent our society is Media influences culture and culture influences media Politicians use Media research to support their views on sex and violence Michael Moore was the director and star of “Bowling for Columbine” Some news stories, such as killer bees and the Y2K bug, scared audiences Marilyn Manson claims that the media sells us fear and consumption The creator of “Cops” was most worried about ratings The first newspapers began appearing in America in 1609 The New York Sun was the first Penny Press The penny press appealed to mass audiences because of humaninterest stories, police reports, and advertising The invention of the telegraph led to a collaboration of newspapers called the Associated Press The comic that the New York World and New York Journal fought over was called the Yellow Kid The motto of the New York Times is “All the news that’s fit to print” The New York Times is an example of Objective Journalism The inverted pyramid is a style of media writing Literary journalism is a form that uses techniques and styles used in fiction Newspapers rely on subscriptions, advertising, and newsstand sales to make money Invention of the radio, TV, and internet have led to the decline of newspaper readership Craigslist and apps have hurt the revenue from classified ads in newspapers The investigative journalist who wrote about time spent in an asylum was Nellie Bly Readers, writers, and editors benefit from the inverted pyramid writing style In media, the murder coverage has increased while the murder rate has decreased The Sedition Act of 1798 did not ensure freedom of the press Puzzles, games, comics, and advice columns are all important parts of a newspaper Interpretive journalism can help people better understand objective stories The 5 W’s: Who, What, Where, Why, When. The five questions that should be answered in an objective news story. Julian Assange is the founder of WikiLeaks. This website releases secret documents and videos. The secret documents about the Vietnam war that were given to the New York Times in 1971 were called the Pentagon Papers David Carr was the media columnist featured in “Page One” The New York Times broke the Watergate scandal A paywall is a paid subscription that allows users to see and read content According to “page one”, at 4 pm editors decide what stories will go on the front page Some newspapers and other organizations stopped traveling with the president to cut budgets and save money Aggregated Content is content found on websites that are gathered from other sources Before the internet age, a story would appear in the New York Times first, then in other newspapers and on TV news the next day. This was called the New York Times Effect. The New York Times and WikiLeaks have decided to join forces The first books were written on Papyrus The invention of the printing press allowed books to be mass produced In the US, a copyright lasts 70 years after the author’s death Blockbuster syndrome is when the publishing industries focus on just a few bestselling authors while giving less support and money to other writers. Google Books is the largest online library Hardcover, Paperback, and EBooks are all major types of book formats Cheap, sensational books about sex and violence were known as Pulp Uncle Tom’s Cabin was the biggest selling book of the 1800s Works that are not covered by copyright are part of the public domain Magazines formed a middle ground between news and pleasure reading The first successful masscirculation magazine was The Saturday Evening Post Norman Rockwell’s work appeared regularly in TSEP Henry Luce was the founder of Time magazine The first magazines began appearing in the 1800s Life’s popularity exploded because of its photography Cosmopolitan magazine has been around since the 1880s Magazines have never tried to avoid controversy with their covers Magazines sometimes published full novels before they appeared in book form Magazines were responsible for creating some of the fist pop culture and national trends Approximately 7,300 magazines are circulated in the US today Runner’s World is an example of a Specialty Magazine AARP has the highest circulation in the US “New” journalism was also known as Literary Journalism Time magazine darkened the skin of OJ Simpson on its cover Advertisers can reach their target audiences more efficiently through specialty magazines Magazines give journalism more space to cover important stories
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