Exam 2 - Intro to Animal Science
Exam 2 - Intro to Animal Science ANS 3006C
Popular in Intro to Animal Science
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Sarah Beth Guevara
verified elite notetaker
Popular in INTRO TO ANIMAL SCIENCE
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Archer on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANS 3006C at University of Florida taught by Dr. TenBroeck in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Intro to Animal Science in INTRO TO ANIMAL SCIENCE at University of Florida.
Reviews for Exam 2 - Intro to Animal Science
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/06/16
2 - Study Guide Saturday, October 8, 2016 4:15 AM Reproduction Principles - How important is reproduction? ○ High reproduction efficiency relates to increased profitability - Definitions ○ Puberty/Influences - Age, weight, nutrition, season of year, health, developmentof secondary sex characteristics ○ Estrus - "heat," period of sexual receptivity,follicle/ovulation ○ Estrous cycle - Time from one ovulation to the next or onset of estrus to onset of estrus (heat) ○ Gestation - period of embryonicand fetal development,begins at conception,ends at birth - Types of breeders ○ Polyestrous- multiple estrous cycles (human, pig, cattle) ○ Monoestrous- 1 cycle per year (dog, wolf, fox, bear) ○ Induced ovulations - copulation induces ovulation (cats, ferrets, rabbits, camels, alpacas) ○ Seasonal polyestrous - short day breeders, fall and winter (sheep, goat) ○ Long day breeders - spring and summer (horses, 11 month prey) ○ Controlled by pineal gland - through melatonin production Give orally to sync multiple animals Reproduction - Male anatomy - Epididymis - four functions ○ Storage of sperm cells ○ Maturation of sperm cells ○ Transport of sperm cells ○ Concentrationof sperm cells - Accessoryglands ○ Ampulla, seminal vesicles,prostate, bulbourethral glands Provide nutrients and buffers to nourish and protect spermatozoa ○ Vas Deferens Reproductiveducts from the testes and epididymis to the pelvic urethra ○ Penis Organ of copulation 3 types □ Fibroelastic □ Vascular □ Os Fibroeslastic □ Sigmoid fixure S shaped, retractor muscle Controls retraction and extension of penis Vascular □ Corpera cavernosa Engorges with blood to assist with erection Engorges with blood to assist with erection Os □ Small bone to assist with erection □ Found in dogs, cats, primates Dogs - monoestrous- breed once a year ○ Litter bearing animals use a higher volume of semen Reproduction - Female anatomy - Female's role ○ Ovaries Produce ova in follicles Produce estrogen and progesterone(progesteroneproduced by CL) ○ Oviduct Site of fertilization ○ Uterus Site of embryo implementation Nutrient exchange Litter bearing species have very developeduterine horns Spots on placenta attach to caruncles - cattle Aids in sperm transport Developsprostaglandin, when not pregnant Birth contractions ○ Cervix Facilitates sperm transport Serves as a sperm reservoir Barrier to the uterus during pregnancy ○ Vagina Organ of copulation Birth canal at parturition - Reproductiveterminology ○ Estrus - "standing heat" Period when the female is receptive to male Mating occurs ○ Estrous cycle - time period extending from ovulation to ovulation ○ Follicle - structure in the ovary that contains the egg and produces estrogen ○ Corpus luteum (CL) - structure formed after follicle lyses (releases egg) Secretes progesterone Evidence of ovulation (cycling) Nutrition • Nutrition - study of how the body uses nutrients in feed to sustain life and for reproductive purposes ○ Study of how an animal consumes, digests,, absorbs, transports, metabolizes, and excretes nutrients ○ Why do we care? Cost - What else does nutrition affect? ○ General health and well being ○ Physical abilities ○ Susceptibility to disease ○ Ability to recoverfrom disease - Nutrients ○ Dietary nonessentials - animal can already synthesize these Dietary essentials - water, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals ○ Dietary essentials - water, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals ○ Any chemicalelement or compound in the diet that supports normal reproduction, growth, lactation, maintenance of life processes - Livestockneed to consume ○ Water ○ Carbohydrates ○ Protein ○ Minerals ○ Vitamins - Water ○ Most important nutrient ○ Provide ad libitum (free choice) ○ Clean and cool in summer or warm in winter encourages consumption ○ Failure to drink is one of the first signs of illness - Macronutrientsvs micronutrients ○ Macro - needed in abundance ○ Micro - needed in small amounts - Carbohydrates ○ Made of C, H, O ○ Primary function - energy ○ Account for the largest single percent of nutrient content in most commonlyfed feedstuffs - Types of carbs ○ Simple sugars (glucose) ○ Starch Alpha linkages of several glucose molecules Major componentof diet for all species ○ Cellulose Beta linkages of several glucose molecules □ Requires microbial digestion Primary user of cellulose - the ruminant - Protein ○ Composedof long chains of amino acids (AA) All amino acids are needed by the animal Componentsof lean tissue, enzymes, hormones,and body metabolites Excess proteins used for energy ○ AA requirement depends on the age and use of the particular animal ○ Essential AA cannot be synthesized Must be supplied by diet ○ Non-essential - can synthesize, and gets from diet - Essential amino acids (PVT TIM HALL) ○ Phenylalanine ○ Valine ○ Threonine ○ Tryptophan ○ Isoleucine ○ Methionine ○ Histidine ○ A ○ Leucine ○ Lysine - Protein ○ Crude protein CP analysis is conducting my assigning for N CP analysis is conducting my assigning for N Around 16% N = 100% protein %N * 6.25 = % crude protein Example: □ Feed analyzed to contain 3% N □ 3 * 6.25 = 18.75 % CP ○ True protein Actual amount of protein in diet - Why is this important? ○ Other species must be fed to meet specific AA requirements ○ Ruminants do not need a dietary supply of specific amino acids Microbes Break down feed protein Microbes synthesize bacterial CP from the dietary N Ruminant then digest the end products of the microbes to utilize the work of microbial digestion - Fats and lipids ○ Energy dense ○ Functions Dietary energy supply Source of essential fatty acids □ Cell structure □ Precursor of hormones(prostoglandins) Tallow, lard, poultry fat, veg oils - Vitamins ○ 13 known vitamins ○ Organic nutrient needed in small amounts ○ 2 classifications of vitamins Fat soluble □ Vision, blood clotting, tissue maintenance, bone development Water - soluble □ Body metabolicfunctions ○ In ruminants, microbessynthesize Water - soluble vitamins Vitamin K ○ For most non-ruminants All vitamins should be supplied in the diet Commercialmixes - Minerals ○ Inorganic compounds (no carbon) Digestion Terminology - Digestion ○ Preparation of nutrients for absorption ○ Reduction in food particle size Mechanical - chewing Chemical - HCl, Bile Enzymatic - lipase (small intestine) Microbial - Basic Componentsof all digestive systems ○ Mouth Prehension Particle size reduction by mastication (chewing) Particle size reduction by mastication (chewing) □ Vertical and lateral action of jaw Differences in chewing □ Horses rotationally grind food Prehension ○ Salivary glands Three main types □ Parotid □ Submaxillary (mandibular) □ Sublingual Functions □ Lubrication □ Buffer ○ Esophagus Deglutition Mouth forms bolus and pushes food back Peristalsis Cardiac valve ○ Types of digestive systems Monogastric - simple stomach □ Human Monogastricwith functional cecum □ Horses, elephants Ruminant - polygastric, 4 compartments □ Cattle ○ Small intestine Duodenum, jejunum, ileum Bile - neutralizes stomach acids, helps digest lipids Pancreatic juices - neutralize stomach acids, proteases ○ Large intestine Cecum, colon, rectum Varying degrees of bacterial digestion Digestive System - Monogastric(simple stomach) ○ Human, swine, poultry ○ Omnivore ○ Mouth Grinds feed and mixes with saliva (pH 7.4) □ Salivary amylase- breaks down starch Horses don't have much ○ Stomach (2 gal) Storage compartment(24 hours to empty) Physical breakdown of food Chemical digestion (HCl, pepsin) □ Acidic, pH=2 ○ Small intestine Chief site of food digestion and nutrient absorption 60 feet in length, 2.5 gallons Three parts □ Duodenum - location of bile and pancreatic secretions and main site of food breakdown (chemical and enzymatic) ○ Large intestine 16 feet in length, 2.5 gallon capacity 16 feet in length, 2.5 gallon capacity □ Cecum and colon □ Terminateswith rectum and anus ○ Feeding monogastrics Well understood nutrient requirements Limiting amino acids Limited ability to digest roughage Concerns - N and P excretion ○ Feeding management Corn and soybean - base of most diets Supplement synthetic AAs □ Lysine, methionine, tryptophan, threonine Vitamin and mineral premixes Split sex feeding - differences in composition □ Market gilts - higher protein diet Phase feeding - change diet everytwo weeks □ Due to continual changes in body composition - Ruminant - "pre-gastric fermentation" ○ Cattle, sheep, goats ○ Mouth - functions to reduce particle size Initial mastication(chewing) ○ Reticulum ○ Rumination Regurgitation Remastication Reinsalivation Redeglutition ○ Rumen "Paunch" Storage - 50 gallon capacity Physical mixing Fermentationchamber ○ Ruminant digestive system symbioticrelationship VFA (Volatile fatty acids) □ Acetate, butyrate, propionate □ Absorbed through rumen wall □ Serve as an energy source for the animal ○ Omasum ○ Abomasum ○ Small and large intestine ○ Feeding management Considerations □ No limiting AAs Diets formulated on metabolic protein basis ◊ Combination of undigested protein plus microbial protein □ Large capacity to digest forage and byproducts □ Well understood nutrient requirements To a lesser degree than monogastric Feedstuffs □ 83% of feed used in the production of beef is from non-grain sources □ Forages - fresh or dry hay, silage, crop residue □ Grains (energy concentrations) □ By product concentrates Nutrient requirements - cows □ Lowest - dry period, highest - lactation □ Lowest - dry period, highest - lactation Body condition scoring □ Scores: 1 - 9 □ 1 = emaciated □ 5 = moderate □ 9 = obese Monitorsthe adequacy of your nutritional program ○ Normal consumption = 2-3% of BW in DM ○ Cow herd Forage based diet and supplement as needed Feed to maintain weight and moderatecondition ○ Calves Dam's milk is usually adequate May "creep feed" □ High energy, palatable feed offered to calves only ○ Stockers Pasture - native range, winter, wheat ○ Feedlot Feed for max gains and efficiency 80-90%grain/byproduct - Monogastricwith a functional cecum ○ Horses,, elephants, rabbits ○ Nonrumminant herbivore Simple stomach,yet able to digest forage ○ Organs the same function except Mouth - grinds feed and mixes with saliva (logical/day) Large intestine (60%) GI tract □ Divided into cecum, large colon, small colon, rectum Cecum - site of microbial fermentationin horse □ Synthesis of B vitamins by the microbes □ Production of microbial protein ○ Feeding considerations Protein □ Diets formulated to have 50 g CP mega calorie of digestible energy □ Forage is the foundation Pasture programs ◊ Quality vhanges throughout the season ◊ Beware poisonous plants Hemlock,oleander, pokeweed Quality hay - green and leafy; free of mold, dust Legumes (alfalfa clovers- protein, energy) ◊ ◊ Cool season grass (timothy) ◊ Warm season grass (coastal bermudagrass) □ Grain Feed small portions several times per day Twice minimum □ Carbs, fats, protein fates? Digested and absorbed in small intestine
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'