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Government and Politics class

by: toni jones

Government and Politics class 790:201:02

Marketplace > Rutgers University > Political Science > 790:201:02 > Government and Politics class
toni jones
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American National Government and Politics
Dr. Samuels
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by toni jones on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 790:201:02 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Samuels in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see American National Government and Politics in Political Science at Rutgers University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
political party: a group of potilical activist who organize to win elections operat the government  and determine public policy ­ functions the parties perform  Political party ­ a group of political activist who organize to win elections operate the government and determine public policy Factions : smaller groups trying to obtain power or benefits ­ subgroups within parties ­ No permanent organizations Political parties v interest groups Political parties ­ run government ­ Select candidates ­ under their labels  ­ accept responsibility for when something goes wrong  ­ Multiple issues ­ Tends to blur issues Interest groups ­ influences government ­ Support candidates ­ Often a. Single issue ­ Tends to sharpen issues three components of a party  ­ party­in­electorate: all of those affiliated with a party  ­ party organization  = provides the structural framework for the political party by recruiting  volunteers to become party leaders, identifying potential candidates, and organizing caucuses,  conventions, and elections campaigns for its candidate ­ the national convention, the state party organization, local party organizations  ­ party in government = consists of elected and appointed officials who identify with a political  party­ parties to organize and control government, suggest appointed individuals­ divided  government = the executive and legislative branches controlled by different parties­ ticket  splitting, rising since 1952: trust or weakness in party identification­ limits of party unity = voting  in congress rarely strictly by party line, candidate centered elections, out of line (tea party) ­  party polarization= safe seats via redistricting, election process, polarization in the american  public   Functions of political parties ­ recruit candidates for political office ­ Organize and run elections ­ Present alternative politics to electorate ­ Accept responsibility for operating government ­ Provide organized opposition to the party in power History of US political parties ­ creation of parties (1789­1816) ­ the development of the parties  ­ first resisted by washington  and jefferson  ­ One party rule (1816­1838) ­ Jackson to pre civil war (1828­1860) ­ Civil war post civil war (1860­1896) ­ Republican progressive period (1896­1932) ­ New deal period (1933­1968) ­ Modern period (1968­now) Federalist/ anti federalist (1789­1816) ­  ­ first partisan division before constitution adopted ­ Emergence of two parties ­ Federalist (adams)­ included john adams, the second president, they represented commercial  interest such as merchants and large lanters and supported a strong national government  ­ Jeffersonian republicans (Jefferson) ­ anti federalist= Thomas Jefferson led this party, which  emerged from the thought tradition of the anti­federalist and came to be the republicans . they  represented artisans and farmers and strongly supported states rights  Era of good feelings (1816­1828) ­ Era of personal politics ­ when James Monroe was president and had essentially no opposition National two party rule: Whigs and democrats ( 1828­1860) ­ Republican Party splits= election of 1824, return to two parties  with the election of JOHN  QUINCY ADAMS as president the democratic­ republican party split into two entities  ­ National republican / Whigs ­ followers if John Quincy Adams ­ the national republicans later  took this name that had traditionally been used by British liberals it was formally established in  1836 and was anti Jackson and represented a variety of regional interest. they stood for federal  spending on internal improvements such as roads  ­ Democrats ( followers of Andrew Jackson) ­ formed by the followers of Andrew Jackson who  defeated Adams in 1828. tis party favored personal liberty and opportunity for the common  white man ­ Jacksonian democrats : " common man" ­ Mass campaigns rallied parades begin the third party systems = republicans rise to power and the civil war (1860­1896) ­ slavery ­ modern republican party ­rum, romanticism and rebellion ­ the triumph of the republicans fourth party system: the progressive interlude and republican dominance  Progressive interlude (1896­1932) ­ spirit of political reform in both parties which was compunded by a fear of growing powers of  great corporations and a belief that honest impartial government could regulate the economy  effectively ­progressivism ­woodrow wilsons progressivism maked the beginning of a radical change in the democractic  polices. under wilson, the democracts became for the first time at least as receptive as the  republicans to government action in the economy  ­ Republican Party temporarily splits leading to bull moose party ­ Democrats gain power the fifth party system ­ the new deal and democratic dominance  New deal era (1932­1986)­  the great depression: president hoover in office at the start of the  depression and opposed federal relief for the unemployed and destitute. in 1932 democrat  franklin roosevelt was elected president. democrats began to make major interventions into the  economy to combat the depression. roosevelt's new deal relief programs were open to all  citizens black and white as a result, african americans began to support the democract party in  large numbers and women were also courted to join the large electoral coalition ­ changing party make up ­ democrats bring broad relief programs and attract new coalition ­ a post party system era­ between elections of 1968 and 2014 the presidency, the house of  reps and the senate were simultaneously controlled by a single party only about one third of the  itme  Era divided government (modern) ­ shifting majorities ­ 2000 presidential election ­ Red v blue states ­ Brings general distrust of electoral ­ Parties in relative balance ­ Partisanship in 2012 elections Two major parties today Democrats ­ social welfare spending ­ Supports government regulation of business ­ Government regulation of economy ­ Cultural liberalism ­ Equality Republicans ­ ethic of self reliance ­ Supports limited government ­ Free and private marketplace ­ Culturally conservative ­ Order Why has the two party system endured? ­ historical foundations ­ Political socialization and practical considerations ­ Winner take all electoral system ­ State and federal laws favor the two parties ­ Ruling parties work to remain in control ­ Congressional structure favors two party system The role of minor parties in U.S. politics ­ ideological third parties ­ Green Party ­ Libertarian party ­ Splinter parties ­ Bull moose progressive party ­ Reform party mechanisms of political change realignment : process in which substantial group of voters switches party allegiance Civil war era=1890’s Great Depression= 1960­70’s


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