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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CR at Pensacola Christian College taught by Miss Aresia Watson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Origins in Science at Pensacola Christian College.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Origins Study Guide Biblical Creationism "Supernatural creation of all things in six literal days by the God of the Bible." "ex nihilo" Supernatural creation from nothing, without use of preexisting materials. Elohim "Name of God associated with majestic and omnipotent power." Bara "created" "The heavens and the earth" The universe. Creation was... 1. Sudden/Spontaneous (Psalm 33:69) 2. Involved a superficial appearance of age (not done to deceive man; God told us what He did) Hebrew word for day "Yom" The most referred to book in the Old Testament Genesis New Testament doctrine is grounded in the belief that The historical account of Genesis is historical truth. Jesus took Genesis literally Mark 10:67 Genesis is written as Narrative (not poetry). Hebrew Poetry Subject, Verb, Object Hebrew Narrative Verb, Subject, Object Gap Theory (RuinReconstruction) believes 1. "Yom" = 24 hours 2. Earth is old 3. Supernatural creation by God 2 times (bara vs. asah) 4. Gap between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2 ("was" should be became; second creation) Refuting the Gap Theory 1. There is no scriptural evidence of a gap (Ex. 20:11) 2. Death, disease, and suffering before the Fall (Gen. 3:19, Rom. 5:12; Undermines gospel) 3. Illogical (refutes evidence it is based on) 4. Word translations are correct ("bara" interchangeably with "asah"Ex. 20:11, Gen. 1:21, 25) Progressive Creationism 1. Popularized by Dr. Hugh Ross (Reasons to Believe) Beliefs of Progressive Creationism Evolution + God + Creative Acts Problems of Progressive Creationism 1. Ignores the omnipotence of God 2. Genesis 1: "yom" = 24 hours 3. Order of creation and evolution differ 4. Man is fallible, nature is cursed 5. Means God's "very good" included disease, violence, carnivory, and thorns. 6. When does man's spirit evolve? (Ross' date 40,000 years ago; PreAdamic man had no spirit; evolutionary date for Aborigines at least 60,000 years ago) 7. Flood was global Theistic Evolution 1. Evolution + God 2. Look only for naturalistic explanations 3. Genesis 111 are not literal Dr. Francis Collins 1. Has the biggest platform for Theistic Evolution. 2. Bios Logos Refuting Theistic Evolution 1. God could not have used evolution because it impugns the character of God (Deut. 32:4) 2. Arguments against fallible dating methods and mechanisms of evolution. 3. God's word describes a global flood. 4. Adam was a real person (I Cor. 15:2122) 5. Death (physical and spiritual) entered the world through man's sin (Gen. 3:19, Rom. 5:12) Age of the Earth: Creationist Model 1. Age from genealogies in the Bible and Scriptural events (universe is approximately 6,00 years old). 2.Archbishop James Ussher (created a timeline using ages through begetting, final deportation of Judah in 584 BC, and gave a specific creation date of 4004 BC). Age of the Earth: Evolution Model 1. Evidence is assumed as necessary. 2. Uniformitarianism 3. Radiometric Dating 4. Distant Starlight 5. Ages (Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago, Earth 4.5 billion years ago). Old Age of the Universe Historical Timeline 1. Young earth and global flood accepted through late 1700's. 2. Changed starting point (man's ideas). 3. Charles Lyell (established uniformitarianism, Principles of Geology) 4. Early 1900'sdiscovery of radioactive decay (age of earth jumped to 4.5 billion years) Necessities of Old Age of the Universe 1. Naturalism requires time. 2. Biological evolution requires time. Uniformitarianism 1. Present is key to the past. 2. No supernatural events. 3. Evolutionary doctrine. 4. II Peter 3:34 Problem of Uniformitarianism Evidence of dramatic changes due to catastrophic conditions abounds. Neocatastrophism "Notion that rare, high magnitude events have played an important role in landscape evolution." 1. Same catastrophes today only more intense, but dominated by uniformity. 2. Nothing supernatural. Radiometric Dating "Process of estimating the age of the rocks from the decay of their radiometric isotopes" 1. Measure halflife. 2. Provides a "clock." Two Types of Radiometric Dating 1. Hot rocks that cool (igneous or metamorphic rocks). Assumed to have only one parent. 2. Fossils (Carbon 14 datingradiocarbon dating). Can only give an age up to 80,000 Fossils 1. Carbon 14 dating (C14). 2. Can only give an age up to 80,000 years. 3. Half life of 5,730. 4. Ratio of C14 to C12 is measurable and changes over time. Sedimentary Rock 1. "rock made up of other bits and pieces of rocks" 2. Surrounds fossils. 3. CANNOT be radiometrically dated! Problems of Radio Metric Dating: 1. Old age is given to young rocks. 2. "Millions of years old" diamonds and fossils have C 14 in them. 3. Igneous rocks at the top of the Grand Canyon have been dated as older than the rocks at the bottom. Radio Metric Dating Age of the Earth: 1. 4.5 Billion Years 2. This date is based on the radiometric dating of the Canyon Diablo meteorite. Light Year: 1. "The distance light can travel in one year." 2. C = speed of light. 3. C = 186,000 per second. 4. Light can travel 6,000,000,000,000 miles in a year. God "stretched out the heavens" references: Isaiah 45:12 ; Psalms 104:2 ; Isaiah 42:5 ; Isaiah 44:24 ; Isaiah 51:13 ; Jeremiah 10:12 ; Zechariah 12:1 CDK The speed of light may have been grater than in the past (CDK = speed of light decay). GTD Time may have flowed more slowly on earth (GTD = Gravitational Time Dilation). ASC Instantaneous, oneway travel of light, but round trip equals the speed of light (ASC = Anisitropic Synchrony Convention). Horizon Problem Temperature of the universe is uniform but, based on evolutionary age of the universe, should be uneven. Age of the Universe 13.7 Billion Years (this date was chosen in 2003). Hubble Constant 1. This value is based on the red shift observed in light from galaxies. 2. The Hubble Constant keeps changing. Other "clocks" available for dating: 1. Existence of Spiral Galaxies. 2. Existence of Blue Stars. 3. Not enough Super Novas in stage two, none in stage three. 4. Existence of comets. 5. Not enough mud on the sea floor. 6. Lack of salt in the ocean. 7. Earth's magnetic field has a half life of 1,454. SRS Supernova Remnant Stage SRS Stage One: 200 years. SRS Stage Two: 120,000 years. SRS Stage Three: 3 Million years. Life Span of Short Period Comets: 10,000 years. All accumulation of salt in ocean: 62 Million years. HalfLife of Earth's Magnetic Field: 1,454 years. Creation: "Life created by an intelligent source (God)." Evolutionary Model of Beginning of Life: "Began by natural processes." Spontaneous Generation: 1. "Life from Nonlife." 2. The Theory: Plants, animals, and microorganisms arose suddenly from nonliving materials under certain environmental circumstances. Disproved Spontaneous Generation: Francesco Redi, Louis Pastuer. Francesco Redi: Meat and maggots experiment. Louis Pastuer: Broth and bacteria experiment. Law of Biogenesis: "Life originates only from preexisting life." Chemical Evolution: Abiogenesis. "Proof" of evolution: MillerUrey experiment. MillerUrey experiment: 1. Mixed water, methane, hydrogen, and ammonia in a reaction chamber. 2. Exposed it to a spark to discharge to simulate lightening. Amino Acids: Fundamental to the workings of a cell. Biological Evolution: "Evolution is not a modern scientific theory but an ancient philosophy." Darwin's birthday: February 12, 1809. Publication of Origins of Species: November 22, 1859. Full Title of the Origin of Species: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of the Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. Darwin's Four Postulates: 1. Variation among individuals of species. 2. Inheritance of favorable characteristics. 3. Overproduction (struggle for existence). 4. Natural Selection (survival of the fittest). Survival of the Fittest: 1. This is now described as differential reproduction. 2. "Preservation of favorable variations and the rejection of injurious variations." 3. Observable in nature. 4. Darwin had questions. Darwin's questions about Natural Selection: 1. What causes the changes in the organisms? 2. Is this change limited? 3. Where are the transitional fossils? 4. How do you explain the appearance of design? The primary axiom of Biological Evolution is: Mutations and Natural Selection produce new kinds of organisms. DNA: 1. Literally, "Information." 2. Tells cells how to function (proteins). 3. Offspring determined by genes inherited from parents. Information requires... An informer. Allel: "Genes that have variable ways to express themselves." Genes: "Regions of DNA that code for proteins." Mutation: "Random changes in DNA." Edward Blythe: 1. 1835, 1837 2. Natural Selection can conserve, but not create. 3. Man is a special creation. Darwin: 1. Origin: 1859. 2. No limits to variation within natural selection. 3. Man is an animal. How Natural Selection works: 1. Those with beneficial combinations of alleles can survive, while those without die. 2. Selective Pressure. 3. Survival of the Fittest (Reproductive Success). 4. May lead to a loss of genetic information. 5. Nothing new is created. 6. Removes harmful mutations. NOTE: Natural Selection can only play a role on something that already exists. Species: 1. Human classification term. 2. Group of similar organisms which interbreed freely in nature. Kind (min): 1. Genesis classification term. 2. May involve reproduction between two different species. Baraminology: The study of kinds. Microevolution: 1. "Small change." 2. Enables variation within kind. Macroevolution: 1. "Large change." 2. Change from one kind to another. Neodarwinian idea: 1. Microevolution proves macroevolution. 2. How? Extrapolation (taking the evidence beyond what you can see). 3. Macroevolution = no limits. Today's Idea: 1. Beneficial mutations can create new DNA. 2. These beneficial mutations are chosen by natural selection. 3. Over time macroevolution occurs. Where does DNA come from (Creation): 1. Nowhere. 2. God created DNA "in the beginning." 3. Nothing new has ever formed and never will. 4. The Fall and the Curse = loss of genetic complexity (DNA). Where does DNA come from (Evolution): 1. Began with small amount of DNA. 2. Beneficial mutations. 3. New DNA added over 4 Billion years. Evolutionary "proof" of Macroevolution: 1. Peppered Moths. 2. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria. 3. Insects resistant to pesticide. Man is created in the image of God: 1. Scripture. 2. Created. 3. Made in the image of God. Scripture (Man is created in the image of God): `Genesis 1:2627 ; James 3:9 Created: 1. Bara divine creation. 2. Asah to make (humanly possible). 3. Yasar to mold or shape. Made in the image of God: 1. "Capacity for selfconsciousness, speech, and moral discernment." 2. "Completely distinguishes man from the animal kingdom." 3. Able to develop a relationship with: God, other Humans, Creation (dominion) Commands given to Man: 1. "Have dominion over," "subdue" 2. "Be fruitful and multiply" Diet of Man: 1. Herbs and Greens 2. Not given permission to eat meatyet Creation of Man (Adam): 1. Man = Adam = "red ground" 2. Not "ex nihilo" 3. Not dry, pulverized earth, but a lump of clay Creation of Woman: 1. Adam names the animals (being alone is not good) 2. Supernaturally induced sleep 3. God takes rib/flesh from Adam's side and fashions the woman 4. Adam calls her "woman" (ishah) because she was taken out of "man" (ish) Role of the Man and Woman: 1. Equality of the Man and Woman 2. The headship of the Man over the Woman The equality of the Man and Woman: 1. Creative dignity (both in the image of God) 2. Native depravity (both sinful) 3. Redemptive privilege (equal opportunity for salvation) The headship of the Man over the Woman: 1. Order of creation establishes this (Adam created first; Adam named "woman") 2. The Fall establishes this (Godgiven authority; Adam named "Eve") Principles About Marriage: 1. Marriage is instituted by God 2. Not affected by cultural change Marriage is instituted by God: 1. Marriage is to be monogamous (one man, one woman) 2. Marriage is to be heterosexual (man and woman) 3. Marriage is to happen Creation Model (Two Model View): 1. Supernatural creation of man 2. Prediction: no hominid fossils Evolution Model (Two Model View): 1. Naturalistic formation of man 2. Find intermediate transitions between kinds
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