History 1302 - Exam #2 Study Guide
History 1302 - Exam #2 Study Guide History 1302
Popular in History of the U.S. since 1865
Popular in History
This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Furman on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 1302 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Professor Ramirez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see History of the U.S. since 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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History 1302 – Exam #2 Study Guide AA = African American (abbreviated) Multiple Choice (Be able to answer who, what, when, where, and why in regards to the terms) Comstock Law (1873) Prohibited the distribution of pornography, birthcontrol Prohibited physicians from providinginformation on birthcontrol Believed birth control was lude and unlawful Guinn v. United States (1915) The court ruled that the grandfather clause was unconstitutional, no longer allowedto be used to disfranchise African Americans African Americans werenot allowedto vote during the Civil War period therefor it was unlawful Coxey’s Army A protest march of unemployed workers o Protested the unemployment that resulted from the panic of 1893 Led by Jacob Coxey Washington D.C. 1894 American intervention in Mexico Mexico o Intervened during the Mexican Revolution Porfirio Diaz (Profiriato, 1876-1911) o Ruled Mexico during 1876-1911 o Established himself as dictator of Mexico – his reign was call profiriato o Francisco Madero initiallyled the revolution The revolution was very blood ~10% of the Mexican population diedin this war Elected to presidency following the revolution Later overthrown by Victoriano Huerta who assassinatedMadero and established a military dictatorship in Mexico This angered Wilson and he was searching for a reasonto employ military intervention inMexico Tampico – US personnel taken and later releasedwith an apology o Was not enough for Wilson, wanted a 21 gun salute towards the American flag o A battle occurred because Huerta would not do this o Later, Huerta resigned from the presidency Objectives for Mexican government: o Constitutional government o Responsive to socialand economic needs o Responsive to Wilson’s leadership o Liberty and land reform A failure o The foreign policy failedbecause the Mexicans did not want interference from the US o Created bitterness betweenMexico and the US T. Roosevelt’sforeign policy “Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick” o He was often fond of saying this phrase o American diplomacy must be backed up withthe threat of military force Justification for Intervention o Justified for numerous reasons: Discipline nations Restore order Prevent European intervention Civilized vs. Uncivilized nations o Civilized nations = Anglo-Saxon nations, Teutonic nations o Uncivilized nations = non-white nations, Slavic nations Panama o Intervened militarily o Panama was part of Colombia, providedmilitary aid to rebels in search of independence from Colombia Margaret Sanger Leader in the birth control movement Influenced by Emma Goldman (a radicalbirth control advocate) Suffered a nervous breakdown, left her husband and children, because of this she was ridiculed by the media Arrested in 1960 for opening up a birth control clinic inNY Believed that it was a woman’s right to decide whether or not to get pregnant Varieties of Progressivism Social Cohesion o Having a focus on social justice o Individuals were concerned on the impacts of industrialization and urbanization on the working class,women, children, immigrants o Viewed society as a unity; therefore if one part of society was affected negatively, so would the others Scientific o Used scientific methods to improve society o Stressed efficiency and organization o In business, used new methods of production and organization o Conservation used scientific methods to conserve the forests Anti-Monopoly o Concerned about the concentration of wealthand industry o Wanted the government to either regulate or destroy monopolies Government intervention o Wanted the federal government to intervene in society to bring order and progress Grange Also known as the Order of the Patrons of Husbandry The Farmers’ movement between1867 and 1896 o Three movements: The grange, alliance,and populist movements Sought to counter the risingpower of corporate middlemen through cooperation and mutual aid o Set up their own banks, insurance companies, grain elevators, built political parties that ranon anti-corporate platforms Industrial Workers of the World Established 1905 by Socialists Favored the overthrow of capitalism o Believed that the workers should own industry, then industry would be run in a democratic fashion o Tactic for overthrowing capitalism Workers established inlarge unions, organize strikes, overthrow capitalism Most egalitarian of labor unions o Organized members regardless of skill o Included women, immigrants, as wellas the Japanese and Chinese o Attracted members withsongs and comic books o Many faced harassment by law enforcement IWW and Socialistparty (during WW1) o Left wing organizations o Both believed that the great war was being fought to benefit bankers and industrialists o Women very active inthe peace movement Election of 1896 The south abandoned the democratic party in support of the republicanparty For the next 15 years, republicans would gain control of the White House and both chambers of congress Moral Reform (prohibition and prostitution) Tried to eliminate evil from society The government imposing morals on the American citizens Examples of Moral reform (believedthat consumption of alcohol and prostitution were evil/socialillsand needed to be eliminated) o Temperance or Prohibition Movement Domestic violence,family breakups, alcoholism Employers favored prohibition/temperance Not showing up, or late Poor performance Liquor industry taking advantage of the people who purchased products and their vulnerability Middle class white women were veryopposed to alcohol Prohibition opposed by the working class,immigrants, Catholics (believeddrinking was a matter between the individual, the church and God), and urban residents o Prostitution Prior to the 1900s cities generally regulated prostitution Licensing and taxing of brothels Red light districts Triedto limit the spreadof disease by providingmedical examinations to prostitutes After 1900, progressives tried to eliminate prostitution believing that it was evil Conspiracies that there were crime syndicates that would drug and push women into prostitution o Harsh treatment of prostitutes, they weresent to prison, treated as criminals by social workers Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) New Freedom Wilson’s proposed progressive reform program, ~1912 Called for a reform on tariff, business, and banking: o Tariff – lowertariffs for the first time since 1857 o Business – passed the Federal Trade Act which established the FTC (federal trade commission) to investigate/put a stop to illegal and unjust business practices (Antitrust Acts) o Banking – created the federal reserve system, alsopassedthe federal farm loan act to aid farmers New Nationalism Main issue = government protection of human welfare and property rights (human welfare is more important) Government could regulate the economy to ensure social justice o Protect laboring men, women, and children from exploitation o Ex: minimum wage, workers comp, income tax, 8 hr workday, etc. Dollar Diplomacy Increased foreign investment o In Latin America o Provided justification for the US to intervene inLatin America in order to protect these foreign investments American Intervention to protect investments Nicaragua o Invested here, revolt against the pro-US government, military forces were sent to protect those who were pro-US-government and prevent it from being overthrown Also intervened: o Cuba o Mexico o Haiti o Dominican Republic o Puerto Rico o Virgin Islands o Venezuela Zimmerman Telegraph A telegraph sent by the German government to the Mexican government Message intercepted by the British Message caused outrage in the US, if war broke out between Germany and US then Mexico would side withGermany inorder to obtain land that was lost in the Mexican revolution AFL Created in 1886 Association of Craft Unions o Mainly organized skill workers (carpenters, machinists, etc.) o Unskilled workers (women, immigrants, minorities) were not organized under this group Accepted Capitalism o An economic system where the means of production and distribution are privately owned and utilized for profit Wanted material rewardsthrough strikes and collective bargaining o Higher wages o Fewer hours Not interested in reforming society Samuel Gompers (1850-1924) o Co-founder and president, Longtime leader of the AFL o Born in England, but once he moved to the US became a labor activist o Cigar makers’ Union Served in this union up until his death in1924 Labor Weaknesses o Organized a small percentage of the industrial workforce AFL was largelyorganizing skilledworkers and ignored unskilled workers (women, immigrants, and minorities) o Ethnic and racialdifferences Excluded AA from membership Divisions betweennative born Americans and immigrants o Belief in social mobility Workers could improve their economic condition (bymoving from unskilled to skilled) o Unsettled workers Moving from place to place,and jobto job Made it difficult to organize o Power of corporations Employers wereable to count on the support of the national and state governments when laborers went on strike Espionage Act of 1917 Allowed the post office to remove material that it considered to be seditious o Ex. If literature suggested the war was being fought to help big business, it was removed from circulation Still in effect today Election of 1912 Roosevelt comes out of retirement to speakabout new nationalism to protect human welfare o Argued for child labor laws,more labor rights, minimum wage for women o He then announces his candidacy for president under the republican party (went against Taft-Rep, Wilson-Dem, and Debs-Socialist) o Wilson wins with nearly 42% of the votes Sabotage and Sedition Acts of 1918 For spying, sabotage, and interference with the war effort Made it illegal to criticize the government or the war effort Political prisoners – jailedsimply because they opposed the war,they remained in jail even after the war Still in effect today Marcus Garvey One of the most important leaders during the 1910s and 1920s Born in Jamaica and migrated to the US Had substantial support from poor urban African Americans He was a black nationalist Encouraged AA to take pride in their heritage and rejectedassimilation Advocated the back to Africa movement o Encouraged AA to leave the US and settle in Africa UNIA – United Negro Improvement Association o He was the creator of this organization o Created a chain of blackowned businesses o Convicted of business fraud and eventually deported Municipal and statewide reforms Municipal Reforms (city level) o Creation of the Nonpartisan Commission Individuals elected to city council on a non-partisan basis o City Manager Professionallytrained personto run the city It was expected that they would run the city on a non-partisan basis o At large elections of city representatives Individuals were electedto the city council on an at-large (city) basis, done to reduce the power of wardbosses Statewide Reforms (state level) o Initiative Allows voters to vote on legislationdirectly o Referendum Allows voters to approve or reject legislationthat was approved/passedby the legislature o Direct primary Allows voters to elect their party’s candidate o Recall Allows voters to recall electedofficials o Governor Robert Lafollette Governor of Wisconsin Leading reformer Passed laws regulating industry and utilities,enacting workman’s comp, and increased taxes on corporations RedScare Many Americans had come to the conclusion that the US about to be taken over by communists 1919-1920 Well-off Americans blamed workers for the rise in livingcosts and socialistviews of immigration terrified them The Soviet Union’s Bolshevik leadersintended to foster revolutions abroad, scaring americans and causing them to fear that there were dangerous radicals hiding in the US “Red” because of the color of the communist flags Palmer Raids 1919, a bomb detonated outside the Washington townhouse of the attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer Palmer was unharmed, but used the incident to further the fears of the Americans in regards to communism Created an antiradicalismdivisioninthe department of justice and appointed J. Edgar Hoover as his assistant to directit o This would later become the FBI Raids occurred when federal agents invaded homes and meeting halls of citizens and aliens; prisoners were denied access to legal counsel League of Nations Wilson favored the creation of this organization Responsibilities: o Enforcing these points o Resolving disputes among nations Wilson headed to France to negotiate the treaty, both France and Britainrejected most of these 14 points; they demanded reparations and punishment for Germany (because they began the war),alsowanted to keep Germany weak(to prevent the start of another war) Treaty of Versailles o Treaty that ended WW1 o 1919 o Concession from France and Britain to create the League of Nations Senators believedthe war was a mistake and we should have minded our ownbusiness Wilson failedto convince Americans to support the treaty Ratification o Senate never ratifiedthis treaty resulting inthe US not joining the League of Nations Women’s suffrage movement Granting women the right to vote One of the largest movements inAmerican History Two phases of women’s suffrage o Natural Rights prior to 1900 Made the natural rights argument that men and women wereequal, therefore women should have the right to vote Separate sphere argument: Opposition believedthat it violatedthe different roles that men and women have insociety…not necessarily inferior but separate (men work, provide,and protect the family; women stay at home, raise children, look after husbands) Also, oppositionsuggested that the bible was against equal rights because it might leadto divorce,promiscuity, dissolution of gender roles;also believedwomen would lose breastmilk, grow beards, and face violence at polls Ephesians cited where women told to submit to men Polling stations often located insaloons and bars,increased assault risk o Safer arguments after 1900 Used the separate sphere argument intheir favor Suffragists made the point that women had special talents needed inpolitics (more peaceful and literate than men) Race card: if blackmen could vote why couldn’t white women? Immigrant comparison: if immigrants could vote, why couldn’t women? Suffrage in 1920 via the 19 amendment Anti-Suffrage posters o Believed women would vote for reform candidates o Believed if given the right to vote, there would be a switch ingender roles Immigration Act of 1917 First significant barrierto Mexican immigration to the US o Established a literacytest for prospective immigrants ages 16+ (had to be literate in a language) o Established an $8 head tax ($8 per person migrating to the US), many Mexicans living in poverty couldn’t afford this tax Those who couldn’t meet these two requirements often entered the US without proper documentation Due to the labor shortages, many employers pleadedthe government to exempt Mexicans from this law and so they did o Exempt from the act until 1921 Rumors in Mexican communities that the migrants were about to be drafted, this led to many Mexican Americans leaving the US o This made the labor shortage even more acute William Taft Increased foreign investment o In Latin America o Provided justification for the US to intervene inLatin America in order to protect these foreign investments American Intervention to protect investments Nicaragua o Invested here, revolt against the pro-US government, military forces were sent to protect those who were pro-US-government and prevent it from being overthrown Also intervened: o Cuba o Mexico o Haiti o Dominican Republic o Puerto Rico o Virgin Islands o Venezuela Political Machines Emerged Due to Power Vacuum o City governments were dividedinefficiently so bosses took advantage of the situation to make money Bosses o Ran these urban politicalmachines o Bosses had candidates they were hoping to elect to the city council, obtained votes by giving loans, services,and food to individuals o The candidates elected were requiredto pay the bosses backfor their aid in election Produced corruption o Bosses stole licenses, acceptedbribes and kickbacks, protected gamblers as wellas places of prostitution Responsible for modernizing cities o Providing servicesto urban residents like paving roads, building sewers and city lights Factors contributing to the riseof political machines o Immigrants needed the services they provided o The rich benefited through their dealings with the bosses Populists Political party formed in the 1890s with the interests of ordinary people in mind Advocated interests of laborersand farmers, free coinage of silver,graduated income tax, and government intervention and control of monopolies New Immigrants New = came from southern and easternEurope (Italians, greeks, slavs,Russian- jews) o Had lower levelsof education and less skill Old Immigrants Old = came generally from northern Europe (English, Germans, irish, Scandinavians) o They were better educated and skilled than the “new immigrants” o Business people, farmers, and skilled workers o Irish werethe exception to this generality Sherman Antitrust Act 1890, prohibited certain business activities that federal government regulators deem to be anti-competitive; alsorequired government to investigate and pursue trusts Attempted to prevent the raising of prices by restrictionof trade or supply (through monopoly control) Interstate Commerce Act 1887 A federal law that was designed to regulate the railroadindustry and its monopolistic practices o Required railroadrates to be reasonable and just o However, it did not empower the government to fix certainrates Urban Problems Housing o Tenements Housing for the urban poor A building that concentrates as many people into the leastamount of space possible inorder to reduce overhead costs 1 in 5 childrenliving intenements would pass awaybecause of the conditions Tenement owners could make a lot of money by recruiting as many renters as possible (lacked central heating and plumbing, no public restrooms, lackof windows) Lack of housing legislationto regulate the standards and upkeep of buildings Hunger Crime o Increased in cities during the late 1800s Some crimes were violent and often blamed on immigrants Increased need for policedepartments, but officers were often corrupt and this led to police brutality o One belief was that if these people continued to live in such a deprived way (no light, air, etc.) then it was more likely that they would have a tendency towards committing crimes, becoming alcoholics, etc. Overcrowding Fires o Lack of fire codes for building and fire proof buikdings o San Francisco Fire of 1906, ledto the destruction of many parts of that city As a result, fire proof buildings developedas wellas fire departments Disease o Largely experienced due to the improper disposalof bodies o Yellow Fever epidemic inMemphis killed~5,000 individuals in 1878 o Dysentery o Influenza o Typhoid o Tuberculosis, 8000 deaths per year o High death and sickness rates Poverty o Slums built by men and women, poor people were blamed for their own condition (thought they were lazy and unmotivated) o Street Arabs Children abandoned by parents, orphans, runaways Survived because of handouts and searching the streets for food The Environment o Improper disposal of human and industrial waste often compromised the city’s drinking water, encouraged the spreadof disease o Many urban residents alsokept stock animals (cows, horses, and pigs) o Air pollution caused by factories, stoves, and furnaces (contributed to respiratory diseases) o By the early 1900s most cities had created sewer systems to address contamination and pollution in the workplace (reducing lead exposure) o Alice Hamilton A leading reformer, an investigator for the US Bureau of Labor Baseball Most popular spectator sport Origins traced to England No single person invented baseball o Rules established were put inplace to suit the owners o Varied place to place Knickerbocker baseballleague (1845) o Baseball became an organized sport at this time through this league o They documented the official rules of baseball Cincinnati Red Stockings (1869) o First professional team o Players received $1000 per year National League (1876) o Created to appeal to middle class americans by charging 50 cents, did not offer alcohol, and didnot playon sundays American Association, later the American League (1901) o Appealed to the working class by charging only 25 cents, sold alcohol, played on sundays Resembled big business o Baseball players, like factory workers, specializedin a position o There are rules, standardization, and management in baseball o Often spies,fines against players to control the players o Reserve clause Remained in effect from earlyon inbaseball until 1975 Player had to be released,traded, or sold to another team if they wanted to switchteams (this gave owners tremendous power over their players…contracts signed) Baseball’sDemocratic Appeal “The spectator at a ball game is no longer a statesman, a lawyer,broker, doctor, merchant, or artisan, but just plaineveryday man, with a heart full of fraternity and good willto all his fellow men.” Benefits of Baseball “Playing baseball“will…occupyleisure time in healthy exercise counteracting the growing tendency to visitsaloons and other places of resortwith which the city abounds, thus saving them from earlyimmorality…those who hang around the billiardsaloons and liqueur shops, constantly complaining of a lackof exercise and consequent loss of appetite, would do well to joinone of the baseball clubs, and take regular exercise with them.” – Detroit Free Press, 1859 Myths: poor men allowedto become wealthier through playing baseball (but they did not have the time, means, or space to practice or even play) Football Second most popular sport Appealed to elite Americans o Because it originated incolleges and universities o During this time, wealthy individuals were those in attendance of universities Originally resembled soccer,later on resembled rugby First game played in 1869: Princeton vs. Rutgers Walter Camp o Revolutionized the sport o Coach at Yale o Ran his team like it was a corporation instilling efficiency and teamwork o Introduced first downs, had to obtain five yards before first down NCAA (1906) o Created to write downthe rules for football in order to reduce injuries o Established in 1889 under the guidance of George Halas Boxing Appealed to the working class and immigrants because the boxers themselves were from this class Saloons, ethnic clubs Boxing remained illegal in many states until after WWI Encouraged gambling (and they would fix the bets against betters) HomesteadStrike AKA Homestead Steel Strike 1892; battle between strikers and private security agents Dispute occurred at the Homestead Steel Works in Pittsburgh between the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers and the Carnegie Steel Company Major defeat for the steelworkers’ union and a setback for the effort to unionize steelworkers Immigrant Social Mobility Upward Mobility Varied o Highest rate of upward mobility (abilityto improve one’s economic conditions) Jews Germans o Groups like the Russian Jewssettled here permanently and did not return to their native lands Immigration Restriction Great deal of hostility towardimmigrants Assimilation vs. Restriction o Assimilation encouraged these immigrants to a/ssimilate to American ways o Restriction = limiting the number of immigrants coming into the US Blamed for Social Problems o Spread of crime o Disease o Overcrowding o Labor unrest Josiah Strong, Our Country (1887) o Held a very negative view towards these immigrants o A protestant minister o Accused them of commiting crimes, immorality, furnishing recruits for socialism, and tried to convert protestants to catholicism American Productive Society (1887) o Anti-immigration organization as wellas an anti-catholic organization o Created by protestants inOhio o Catholics werebeing scapegoated for the depression Immigration Restriction League o Created in boston in 1896 o Wanted a literacy test for prospective immigrants as a condition for entry into the United States Kept out southern and eastern Europeans because their literacy rates were not very high To limit the dumping of criminals, illiterateson the US Racial theories Anglo-Saxon Complex o Believed that they were superior to all people o A “true American” was of anglo-saxon background Eugenics o A pseudoscience o Believed that there are superior people (who posess superior traits that they pass on to subsequent generations) and inferior people (who alsopass these traits along) Superior = intelligence Inferior = more prone to alcoholism, mentally ill o Primoted high birth rates among superior people, and limiting birthrates of inferior people Use of abortions and sterilizationtechniques to carrythis out Dillingham Report (1907) o Used to study immigration impacts, it was temporary o Approx.. 1.3 million immigrants entered the US o Commission comprised of pseudoscientists and concluded that new immigrants were less likelyto assimilate than old immigrants o New immigrants were alsoinferior physically, mentally, and linguistically They wanted a requiredliteracytest for all incoming immigrants Sources of Urban Migration Rural to Urban Migration – individuals moved from the countryside into urban areas o Northeast (as a result of overpopulation and the introduction of machines into farming) Farms in the NE part of USA, livedon smaller farms Smaller farms requiredless upkeep from employees Debt caused a loss of land o West Marked the beginning of the Great Migration Blacks o 32 Cities w/ more than 10,000 Blacks (1900) o Migrated in order to escape poverty, racism, and oppression in the south and deep south o City with the largest African American population was the nation’s capital, Washington D.C. o They found very little opportunity for work inthe cities (had to find work in personal and domestic services:cook, janitors, domestic servants) Black Elite emerged: ministers, teachers, etc. o Black American culture: newspapers,churches, sporting events Immigrants = the most important source for urban growth o Why? Loss of their land in Europe Introduction of commercial farming, small farmers were unable to compete withthem and as a result lost their lands Introduction of Manufactured Goods Artisans could not compete with companies who manufactured goods Population Growth Economic Background of Immigrants Not the poorest of the poor The poor didnot migrate to the US due to the lack of funds to finance their trip Socialist Party Established 1901 o Several socialistgroups merged to form this party o Attracted support from many labor organizations IWW and Socialistparty o Left wing organizations o Both believed that the great war was being fought to benefit bankers and industrialists o Women very active inthe peace movement Eugene Debs Leading figure Believed in collectiveownership of business Ran for president on severaloccasion Criticized involvement in the first WW, was thrown in prison, and still received over a million votes for running for president while inprison o Substantial Support 1912: 900,00 for Debs ina presidential election Fourteen Points President Wilson’s plan for after the war (his global vision) o He did not want vengeance o War was an opportunity to create a better world Self-determination Open diplomacy, freedom of seas,removal of trade barriers,and arms reduction League of Nations o Wilson favored the creation of this organization o Responsibilities: Enforcing these points Resolving disputes among nations Wilson headed to France to negotiate the treaty, both France and Britainrejected most of these 14 points; they demanded reparations and punishment for Germany (because they began the war),alsowanted to keep Germany weak(to prevent the start of another war) Treaty of Versailles o Treaty that ended WW1 o 1919 o Concession from France and Britain to create the League of Nations Senators believedthe war was a mistake and we should have minded our ownbusiness Wilson failedto convince Americans to support the treaty Ratification o Senate never ratifiedthis treaty resulting inthe US not joining the League of Nations Pendleton Act (1884) Positions within the federal government should be awardedon the basis of merit rather than political affiliation o Selection of employees through merit exams o Illegal to fire or demote officials for politicalreasons Established the Civil Service Commission to determine the rules/regulations of this Act o Caused parties to no longer be able to rely on funding from businesses because they couldn’t protect their interests Buchanan v. Worley (1917) Struck down a law requiring residential segregation Movies First medium of mass entertainment Initially appealed to the working class and immigrants o Because it was a cheap and relativelyquick form of entertainment “Peep Shows” o This is what the first movies were called o Individual devices for viewing films o Projector introduced in1896, which allowedmovies to be shown on screen Nickelodeons o The first movie theaters o Introduced in Philadelphia in 1905 o Only had to pay 5 cents in order to enter the theater o Appealed to working class americans o Middle class americans avoidedthe theater o Criticized by upper class and middle classamericans who attended symphonies, art museums, and libraries Vaudeville Popular form of entertainment inthe late 1800s and early1900s A form of theater o Consisted of Variety Acts Comedy routines, dances, skits, performances Could be raunchy at times Often held discriminatory viewsand portrayed stereotypes o Sunday school circuit Outlawed the use of suggestive language Mexican Revolution Porfirio Diaz (Profiriato, 1876-1911) o Ruled Mexico during 1876-1911 o Established himself as dictator of Mexico – his reign was call profiriato o Francisco Madero initiallyled the revolution The revolution was very blood ~10% of the Mexican population diedin this war Elected to presidency following the revolution Later overthrown by Victoriano Huerta who assassinatedMadero and established a military dictatorship in Mexico This angered Wilson and he was searching for a reasonto employ military intervention inMexico Tampico – US personnel taken and later releasedwith an apology o Was not enough for Wilson, wanted a 21 gun salute towards the American flag o A battle occurred because Huerta would not do this o Later, Huerta resigned from the presidency Objectives for Mexican government: o Constitutional government o Responsive to socialand economic needs o Responsive to Wilson’s leadership o Liberty and land reform A failure o The foreign policy failedbecause the Mexicans didnot want interference from the US o Created bitterness betweenMexico and the US Essays 1. Compare and contrast three groups that articulated the progressive spirit:the muckrakers, the Social Gospel adherents, and the settlement house movement. Your answer should discuss beliefs, major figures, and overallimpact on the Progressive movement. Muckrakers: Modern equivalent would be investigative journalists Exposed the middle class Americans to social,political,and economic illsof industrial America o How can the US solve these problems if the middle class is not aware of them? Ida Tarbell o Concerned with trusts and monopolies Lincoln Steffens, Shame of the Cities o Attacked corrupt politicians and urban politicalmachines o Encouraged ordinary Americans to become involved in politics Jacob Riis o Best known of Muckrakers o How the Other Half Lives (1890) Spoke about tenements and stated that the owners of tenements are motivated by greed Attacked saloons believing that they were evil institutions, alarmed at the high amount of saloons present inNYC Social Gospel: AKA Christian Socialism o A social justice movement o The individuals believedthat Christians had the social responsibilityto help out the needy o Largely a protestant movement, but didinclude some Catholics and Jews o Established charities inslums, missions, churches, gyms, and clubs o Called for social reforms to achieve a just society Enactment of child labor laws Inspection of factories Regulation of Christmas o Establishment of the Salvation Army whichcombined religionwith reform Provided both spiritual and material help o Establishment of YMCA Provided recreational and cultural activities as well as material help Washington Gladden o Supported the socialgospel movement o Wanted Christian law to govern industry o Supported the right of workers to organize Walter Rauschenbusch o Leading figure in the movement o A Baptist minister from NYC o Encouraged Americans to follow inthe footsteps of Jesus; to stand on the side of the poor Charles Sheldon, In His Steps (1898) o The book featured a young minister who left his comfortable post in order to work among the poor Pope Leo XIII’s encyclical “Of modern Things” (1893) o During the late 1800s, the catholic mindset changed towards reform movements, up until this point intime they did not participate inthese movements o Condemned capitalismif it resulted in poverty o Upheld the right of workers to joinlabor unions and socialistmovements as long as they were not anti-religious Settlement House: Middle class Americans placedthe blame for poverty on the poor themselves (lazy, lack of motivation, etc.) This settle house movement believedthat poverty emerged as a result of their environment, change the environment and change their status and uplift those individuals College Settlement 1889, establishedin NYC in a tenement o Provided them with classeson the English language, homemaking o Had health clinic and established nurseries for working women o Willing to work withAfrican Americans o Sympathetic towards the labor movement o Considered to be appropriate work for unmarried women (socialwork) Hull House 1889 o One of the best known settlement houses, inChicago (Jane Adams) 2. What impact did World War I have on the homefront? Your answer should include the social, political, and economic changes that occurred as a result of the war. WW1 impacted the government, the economy, and society in general (the American Homefront) Increased taxes on individuals and corporations to raise money to fund the war Liberty bonds o Loans by the American people o Mobilized the economy from peacetime to wartime; government established a relationship with bigbusiness and reliedon persuasion rather than coercion Big business reapedhigh profits War industries Board o Objectives Coordinate purchases of war goods Set prioritiesand production Allocated raw materials for the war effort Ordered construction and fixed prices Food Administration o Increased food production for the war effort o Encouraged the American population to conserve food Railroad administration o Directed railroadtraffic for the war effort War Labor Board o Created by the government to deal withlabor issues o An agency that pressured employers to grant concessions to workers 8 hour day Equal pay for women Right of workers to organize and bargain collectively Right to decent wages o In doing so, workers would give up the right to strike inorder to receive these concessions. o Union membership increasedduring the war o After the war ended, these concessions were no longer present The war impacted African Americans as well “Great Migration” o Hundreds of thousands of AA left the countryside in the south and headed north o 1910-1920: ~1/2 millionAfrican Americans left the south Escaped poverty, disfranchisement, racism, and violence Looking for jobs Consequences of WWI o Created a labor shortage o African Americans sought jobs in other industries Heavy industry, steel plants, car factories, meat packing factories/plants o Restricted to unskilled labor that resulted in low wages o Women restricted to domestic work Military service o Stationed in the US (military reluctant to send them into combat) Fear of retribution If they fought overseas it would convey that they were equal to whites Didn’t want to encourage equal rights 1919 over 70AA were lynched in the south and many of these were returning veterans o Segregated o Commanded by white officers Racial tensions of 1919 o Racial riots, most serious occurred in Chicago in 1919 o Began when an AA teenager was swimming in lake Michigan and drifted to a white beach, they stoned him and he drowned o White mobs formed and they attacked AA homes and neighborhoods o 38 killed (13 white, 25 AA), lasted for a full week Women and the War o Labor shortage during the WW, so large numbers of women entered the labor market Increased demand for women workers Heavy industry, transportation, clericalwork Temporary advances – once the war ended these women were often dismissed/fired o Entered traditional male work 3. Discuss daily life in American cities during the late 1800s and early1900s? Housing o Tenements Housing for the urban poor A building that concentrates as many people into the leastamount of space possible inorder to reduce overhead costs 1 in 5 childrenliving intenements would pass awaybecause of the conditions Tenement owners could make a lot of money by recruiting as many renters as possible (lacked central heating and plumbing, no public restrooms, lackof windows) Lack of housing legislationto regulate the standards and upkeep of buildings Hunger Crime o Increased in cities during the late 1800s Some crimes were violent and often blamed on immigrants Increased need for policedepartments, but officers were often corrupt and this led to police brutality o One belief was that if these people continued to live insuch a deprived way (no light, air, etc.) then it was more likely that they would have a tendency towards committing crimes, becoming alcoholics, etc. Overcrowding Fires o Lack of fire codes for building and fire proof buikdings o San Francisco Fire of 1906, ledto the destruction of many parts of that city As a result, fire proof buildings developedas wellas fire departments Disease o Largely experienced due to the improper disposalof bodies o Yellow Fever epidemic inMemphis killed~5,000 individuals in1878 o Dysentery o Influenza o Typhoid o Tuberculosis, 8000 deaths per year o High death and sickness rates Poverty o Slums built by men and women, poor people were blamed for their own condition (thought they were lazy and unmotivated) o Street Arabs Children abandoned by parents, orphans, runaways Survived because of handouts and searching the streets for food The Environment o Improper disposal of human and industrial waste often compromised the city’s drinking water, encouraged the spreadof disease o Many urban residents alsokept stock animals (cows,horses, and pigs) o Air pollution caused by factories, stoves, and furnaces (contributed to respiratory diseases) o By the early 1900s most cities had created sewer systems to address contamination and pollution in the workplace (reducing lead exposure) o Alice Hamilton A leading reformer, an investigator for the US Bureau of Labor 4. Discuss American imperialism during the 1890s. You response willaddress significant figures, ideas, and events. The economic, military, and cultural influence of the US on other countries (expansion into foreign territories) American economy dependent largely on foreign trade o ¼ of our farm produce was soldoverseas Alfred Thayer Mahan, naval strategist wrote a book “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History” o National prosperity and power depended on control of the world’ssea trade o Navy replaced ships with steel vessels Ex of expansion into other areas o Samoa in 1889 o Chile in 1891 (due to the treatment of US sailors) o Britain in 1895 (territorialdispute between Venezuela and Britain) o Hawaii in 1893 (overthrow of their monarchy) Important People and their viewson imperialism o Henry Cabot Lodge – US needs to expand in order to compete (social Darwinist) o Carl Schurz – US should become a power for peace (anti-imperialism, reformer) Nation should defend its interests but promote peace as their foreign policy o Josiah Strong – US should spreadanglo-saxon civilization The duty of the US to bring freedom and Christianity to the dark places of the world o Alfred Mahan – US should become a great sea power
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