Test 3 Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by A Jones on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 202 at College of Charleston taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
10/6/2016 Test 3 | Evernote Web Test 3 Test 3 Quizlet: https://quizlet.com/153711741/aptest3flashcards/?new Chapter 24: Urinary System The esophagus connect the laryngopharynx to the: stomach parietal cells: HCl + intrinsic factor (vitamin B 12 absorption) chief cells: pepsinogen, converted to pepsin to begin protein digestion mucous cells: – aid in protecting from acid Where does major absorption occur?: small intestine The hormones secretin and cholecystokinin are made in the: duodenum The filtration membrane allows the following to pass through: water, ions, and glucose The urinary system functions to: regulate BP and BV, regulate NA K CL, stabilize pH blood vessel that branches into glomerulus: afferent arteriole PCT: delivers filtrate to descending loop of henle section through kidneys will show; renal cortex, renal medulla, ureter, renal pelvis Glomerular hydro static pressure: drive filtration at the glomerulus When aldosterone is release ____ is released: sodium ADH leads to: more urine production and dehydration filtrate pathway: largest % of reabsorption: PCT three parts of the filtration membrane fenestrated capillaries are in the: glomerulus inner layer of bowman’s capsule that cling to the glomerulus: podocytes filtration pushes out a LARGE amount of what is in the blood in the glomerular capillaries EXCEPT: CELLS AND LARGE PROTEINS What pushes fluids out of the glomerulus: glomerular hydrostatic pressure What opposes GHP?: capsular and blood colloid osmotic pressure (which draws fluid from Bowman’s capsule back into plasma in the glomerulus) For transport mechanisms of tubular reabsorption –many require proteins to reclaim the various molecules(facilitated diffusion), some taking them in the same directionor opposite directions(anti or countertransport). Just note this – do not memorize how each travels! Water moves by osmosis. There are hormones that influence the reabsorption at the DCT and collecting duct and hormones that get released to ensure that we keep the blood pressure JUST RIGHT IN THE KIDNEYS! . Please review the role of these https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=821f37d9026643e18cb234653109e394&ses=1&sh=5&sds=5&1/8est%25203& 10/6/2016 Test 3 | Evernote Web hormones and how they influence blood osmolality, volume and urine osmolality and volume. Aldosterone does affect 4 ions: Na, K, H and Cl. Aldosterone plays a major role in" Na reabsorption which pulls Cl with it autoregulation: uses the myogenic control which involves JG cells and macula densa cells (location of both) – to affect the diameter of the afferent arteriole and maintain GFR. Chapter 25: Fluid and Electrolytes Metabolic alkalosis can occur as a result of : prolonged vomiting The rate of of potassium ions loss levels in urine is due to all but which of the following factors? : increased sodium ion concentration in the ICF Which of the following happens with increased ADH release?: Decreased blood osmolarity The most frequent challenge to acidbase equilibrium is : respiratory acidosis the following are true of buffers in pH regulation? : release H+ when the pH increases, work to resist large changes in the pH of the blood, include proteins in cells and the blood. fastestacting system regulating blood pH is the: respiratory functions of the urinary system? : regulation of extracellular pH , regulation of the concentration of solutes in the blood , excretion What is the coneshaped structure that is found in the renal medulla? : renal pyramid What is the functional unit of the kidney? : nephron Which of the following is the correct flow of filtrate through the nephron? : renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule Which of the following surrounds the glomerulus?: Bowmans capsule Which of the following supplies the glomerulus with blood? : afferent arteriole Which of the following surrounds the distal and proximal convoluted tubules? : peritubular capillaries Which of the following is secreted by the granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus? : renin Which of the following is a normal GFR?: 125 Which of the following does NOT normally pass through the filtration membrane? : blood cells and most proteins https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=821f37d9026643e18cb234653109e394&ses=1&sh=5&sds=5&x=tes2/85203& 10/6/2016 Test 3 | Evernote Web Which of the following drives substances from the glomerular capillaries into Bowmans capsule? : osmotic pressure NFP: GCPCHP+BCOP Autoregulation of filtration pressure is achieved through the vasoconstriction and vasodilation of which of the following blood vessels? : afferent arteriole Which of the following substances is reabsorbed from the descending loop of Henle into the blood? : water Which of the following substances is reabsorbed from the ascending loop of Henle into the blood? : Na+ Which of the following substances is NOT reabsorbed from the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts into the blood? : glucose Increased levels of ADH cause which of the following to occur? : water reabsorption increases and urine volume decreases Increased levels of atrial natriuretic hormone causes which of the following to occur? : Na+ resorption decreases and decreased ADH secretion Which of the following tissues lines the urinary bladder? : transitional epithelium Which of the following stimulates micturition? : stretching of the urinary bladder wall by urine Which of the following makes up twothirds of the total body fluids? : intracellular fluids Vitreous humor, CSF, synovial fluid, and sweat are considered to be which of the following? : extracellular fluids Which of the following contains a higher concentration of K+, Mg2+, PO43 and SO42? : intracellular fluids Which of the following accounts for 61% of the water that is lost from the body? : urine Which of the following causes Na+ excretion? : Which of the following causes hypercalcemia? : increased parathyroid hormone Which of the following body fluids uses the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer system to control pH? Which of the following is involved next in the regulation of the acidbase balance after the buffering system fails? : renal system If blood pH decreased, what would be the effect on the renal system? : increased bicarbonate reabsorption and increased hydrogen ion secretion. symptoms of na and k imbalances: neural and cardiac problems hypertremia hyponatremia hypokalemia. hyperkalemia. https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=821f37d9026643e18cb234653109e394&ses=1&sh=5&sds=5&x=tes3/85203& 10/6/2016 Test 3 | Evernote Web The protein buffers are located: inside and outside cells hemoglobin as an intracellular buffer from: respiratory system of 3 chemical buffer types which is used most?: bicarb/carbonic acid respiratory acidosis respiratory alkalosis metabolic acidosis metabolic alkalosis Chapter 26: Digestive System What two structures are responsible for mechanical processing in digestion? : Teeth and stomach The portion of the stomach that is funnelshaped and leads to the duodenum is the : pylorus The prominent folds in the lining of the stomach which allow for expansion are called : rugae Waves of muscular contractions that propel the digestive contents from one point to another are called : peristalsis The middle portion of the small intestine is the : jejunum Secretin: increases pancreatic secretions and inhibits parietal and chief cells Gastrin : increases gastric secretions What effect does cholecystokinin have on the pancreas and liver? : stimulates release of pancreatic juices and stimulates release of bile Chief cells secrete : pepsinogen When bile reaches the duodenum, it is active in : mechanical digestion of fats What area of the digestive tract has structural modifcations to increase surface area for more efficient digestion and absorption? : The small intestine Which of the following is the digestive tract tunic that has blood vessels, nerves, and small glands? : submucosa What is the mesentery that extends from the greater curvature of the stomach and is also called the fatty apron? : greater omentum Which of the following are the three parts of the tooth? : crown, neck, root Which of the following is NOT a salivary gland?: suboral glands Which of the following parts of the pharynx is involved in swallowing? : oropharynx What is the mass of food that is formed during chewing? : bolus Which of the following phases of swallowing involves the epiglottis covering the opening of the larynx? : pharyngeal phase https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=821f37d9026643e18cb234653109e394&ses=1&sh=5&sds=5&x=te4/825203& 10/6/2016 Test 3 | Evernote Web Which of the following is the part of the stomach that food first enters coming from the esophagus? : cardiac Which of the following is the part of the stomach that connects with the small intestine? : pyloric What substance is secreted by the parietal cells of the gastric glands? : hydrochloric acid What substance is secreted by the chief cells of the gastric glands? : pepsinogen What is the semifluid mass of food that is found in the stomach? : chyme Which function of a component of gastric juice is NOT correctly matched? : intrinsic factor helps calcium absorption in the small intestine Which phase of gastric secretion is correctly matched with what stimulates it? : cephalic phase smell and taste of food Which of the following is an accessory gland associated with the duodenum? : liver , gall bladder , pancreas What structure does chyme enter when it leaves the stomach? : duodenum Which of the following is the correct arrangement of the duodenal epithelium in the order of smallest to largest? : microvilli, villi, circular folds The following is part of the portal triad? : branches of the hepatic artery, hepatic ducts , branches of the hepatic portal vein Which of the following is a function of the liver? : detoxification of harmful substances Which of the following describes the blood in the hepatic portal vein? : oxygenpoor, nutrientrich Which of the following is the effect of the release of secretin on the liver and/or gall bladder? : liver secretes bile Enzyme produced by the pancreas: trypsin , amylase , chymotrypsin Which of the following is the effect of the release of cholecystokinin on the pancreas? : pancreas releases more enzymes in the pancreatic juice large intestine: rectum, colon, cecum Which of the following is/are needed to digest carbohydrates? : amylase and disaccharidases Which of the following is/are needed to digest lipids? : bile salts for emulsification and lipase Which of the following are the form of lipids that are absorbed into the lacteals? : chylomicrons Which of the following is/are needed to digest proteins? : pepsin, trypsin and peptidase The six main functions of the digestive system are: ingestion, motility, secretion, digestion, absorption, and elimination of wastes. Ingestion: introduction of nutrients into the oral cavity. https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=821f37d9026643e18cb234653109e394&ses=1&sh=5&sds=5&x=test%255/8& 10/6/2016 Test 3 | Evernote Web Chapter 27: Nutrition and Metabolism Four Stages of Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, Intermediate stage, Citric acid, Electron Transport System anaerobic respiration creates: lactic acid Final electron receptor: oxygen LDL: bad fat HDL: good fat acetyl CoA from ____ of fatty acids can move to ___ : beta oxidation, Citric acid cycle one molecule of (carbohydrate metabolism) glucose makes : 36 ATP glycolysis which takes place in the: cytoplasm major end product of glycolysis: pyruvic acid....which goes to the citric acid cycle if O2 is present , however if no O2 is present pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid If pyruvic acid moves into the mitochondria, it will become: 2)acetyl CoA, this will then move into the 3)citric acid cycle where it will produce additional NADH and FADH2 which go onto the 4)Electron transport chain to produce Steps of glycolysis (glucose metablolism): one glucose>fructose 1,6 bisphosphate>2 molecules of glyceraldehyde 3phosphate>2 pyruvates glycolysis: the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid. Electron transport chain takes place in: the cristae of the mitochondria NADH and FADH Both lipids and proteins can go into the citric acid cycle but have to be converted into: acetyl CoA. Beta oxidation: break down of fatty acids to produce acetyl Co A. (2 carbon clips). deamination: the removal of an amino group from an amino acid or other compound. Absorptive state: the liver forms glycogen for glucose Nutrients: most organic biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins), vitamins, and minerals In deamination, the amino group of an acid is: removed and converted to ammonia and then urea complete protein: contains all of the essential amino acids, like chicken and fish gluconeogenisis: forming glucose from lipids and amino acids Mineral that is essential for bones, muscle contraction, and nerve function: calcium Nutrient for ATP synthesis: carbohydrates In glycolysis, how many ATP are formed from glucose?: 2 What vitamin helps absorb calcium and phosphorus as well as bone and teeth formation?: Vitamin D https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=821f37d9026643e18cb234653109e394&ses=1&sh=5&sds=5&x=6/8t%25203& 10/6/2016 Test 3 | Evernote Web What must be obtained from the diet to synthesize lipid as triglycerides (essential fatty acids): linoleic acid and alphalinolenic 2 events of electron transport chain of aerobic respiration: 1. carriers in the mitochondria receive and transport high energy electrons from NADH and FADH2 2. Oxygen acts as final electron acceptor use of nutrients by the body: building blocks for other larger molecules, catalysts in chemical reactions , producing energy Which of the following has the highest amount of energy per gram? : fats What is the most common monosaccharide that carbohydrates are broken down or converted to? : glucose Which of the following is the polysaccharide that is stored in animals? : glycogen Why is glucose needed: ATP production What happens to excess glucose that is consumed in the diet? : it is converted to glycogen or fat rickets: vitamin D deficiency pernicious anemia: vitamin B12 deficiency calcium is good for: bone and teeth formation cobalt is good for: vitamin B12 and red blood cell production iron is good because it is: component of hemoglobin Catabolism is a process that : releases energy while breaking down larger molecules into smaller ones. Which of the following produces 2 pyruvic acids, 2 ATPs, and 2 NADH+? : glycolysis hydrogen carrier during glycolosis: NADH What process starts with glucose and ends with lactic acid? : anaerobic glycolysis How many ATP molecules are produced in anaerobic glycolysis? : 2 ATP How much energy is produced in aerobic respiration of one glucose molecule? : 36 ATP Before entering the citric acid cycle, pyruvic acid is converted into which of the following molecules? : acetylCoA What are the products of the citric acid cycle? : carbon dioxide Which of the following processes begins with NADH and FADH2 and forms water and ATP? : electron transport chain ketogenesis: formation of ketone bodies deaminization: conversion of amino acids into energy transamination: conversion of keto acids into essential amino acids lipogenesis: the metabolic formation of fat. glycogenesis: glucose converted into glycogen glycogenolysis: glycogen converted into glucose gluconeogenesis: amino acids and glycerol converted into glucose https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=821f37d9026643e18cb234653109e394&ses=1&sh=5&sds=5&x=test%7/803& 10/6/2016 Test 3 | Evernote Web 3 facts about postabsorptive state: (GAF) Glycogen is broken down into glucose for energy, Amino acids are converted into glucose for energy, Fats are converted into energy Which of the following is the amount of energy needed to keep the resting body functioning? : basal metabolic rate There are different categories of carbohydrates: sugars, starch, and fiber. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have two or more double bonds, these are __ ___ at room temperature: liquid _____ is the major regulatory hormone that is released during the absorptive state: insulin ____ is the major regulatory hormone that is released during the postabsorptive state: glucagon The liver is responsible for: carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport of lipids Fatty acids are broken down into: acetyl CoA for use in cholesterol synthesis. https://www.evernote.com/Home.action#n=821f37d9026643e18cb234653109e394&ses=1&sh=5&sds=5&x=test%25208/8
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