Psych 1101 Ch. 5,6,7 Study Guide
Psych 1101 Ch. 5,6,7 Study Guide Psyc 1101
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hanna Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psycology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Psych 1101 Ch. 5,6,7 Study Guide CH5- Learning There are 3 types of learning- o Classical Conditioning: association of two different stimuli Involuntary Repeated pairing of different stimuli o Operant Conditioning: connections made between behaviors and consequences Voluntary Repeated pairing of behaviors to their consequences o Observational Learning: watching and imitating behaviors of others Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s Experiment: o Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Unconditioned Response (UR) (Present a dog food) (Dog salivates) o Neutral Stimulus (NS) Unconditioned Response (UR) (Ticking metronome) (Dog salivates) Acquisition Phase o Unconditioned Stimulus + Neutral Stimulus Unconditioned Response Repeated pairing o Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Conditioned Response (CR) o Generalization: stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus causes a conditioned response o Discrimination: the ability to the know the difference between a conditioned stimulus and some other stimulus o Extinction: association between conditioned stimulus and conditioned response goes away o Spontaneous Recovery: reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction High Order Conditioning o Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Conditioned Stimulus + 2 Neutral Stimulus (NS2) Conditioned Response Operant Conditioning The Law of Effect o If you are rewarded for a certain behavior, you are more likely to continue to do that behavior. o Thorndike studied this law using a puzzle box for his experiments. B.F. Skinner o Radical behaviorist who was one of the most influential psychologists of all time Learning Through Operant Conditioning o Shaping: using reinforcers to form a certain, complex behavior o Successive Approximation: rewarded for doing actions that get closer to the desired behavior Reinforcement: Increase behavior o Positive Reinforcer: the addition of something good following a behavior o Negative Reinforcer: taking away something bad following a behavior o Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Reinforcement: reinforcement is given every time following a behavior Partial Reinforcement: reinforcement is given intermittently following a behavior o Partial Reinforcement Based on the number of repetitions Fixed-Ratio Schedule: behavior must be done a certain number of times before receiving reinforcement Variable-Ratio Schedule: the amount of times a behavior must be done in order to receive reinforcement changes from trial to trial Based on the amount of time Fixed-Interval Schedule: behavior is reinforced after a certain interval/amount of time Variable-Interval Schedule: behavior is reinforced after a certain interval which varies from trial to trial Categories of Reinforcers o Primary Reinforcers: innate- satisfies biological needs o Secondary Reinforcers: does not satisfy biological needs; can come from primary reinforcers Punishment: Decrease or stop a behavior o Positive Punishment: the addition of something bad following bad behavior o Negative Punishment: taking away something good following bad behavior Observational Learning Bandura found that these 4 things need to be happening in order for observational learning to occur: 1. Pay Attention 2. Remember 3. Be capable of performing 4. Be motivated TV and other media platforms can influence people’s behavior is positive or negative ways Latent Learning Learning is done without awareness No reinforcement is given May not be evident until it is needed A study was conducted where rats, which were separated into 3 groups, learned to navigate a maze 1. Group 1 received continuous reinforcement 2. Group 2 received no reinforcement 3. Group 3 received reinforcement starting on day 11- After day 11, their error rate was lower than the rats from group 1 who received continuous reinforcement. CH6- Memory Memory: information the brain receives, stores, and may retrieve for later use There are 3 processes of memory: 1. Encoding: the process where information enters the memory system 2. Storage: the process of preserving information 3. Retrieval: the process of recalling stored information; assessing info encoded and stored in memory Encephalitis: inflammation in the temporal lobe due to herpes simplex virus The Information Processing Model of Memory Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Stages of Memory Sensory Memory: information hitting sensory receptors o Retained for a fraction of a second o Large capacity o Short duration Testing Sensory Memory o Whole Report Condition: participants shown an image of a group of letters and are asked to report as many letters they can recall after the image disappears o Partial Report Condition: participants are shown an image of a group of letters. A tone is played after the image disappears to indicate which row of letters to recall People did better on this than the whole report condition Short-Term Memory: temporarily maintains and processes a limited amount of information o Some sensory memory goes to short-term memory o Capacity of 5-9 items o Duration of 15-30 seconds o Distraction can reduce the amount of time information remains o As the amount of time increases, recall decreases o Maintenance Rehearsal: repetition of info in order to remember Improving Short-Term Memory o Chunking: grouping items (numbers, letters, etc.) into something meaningful subsets Working Memory: the maintenance and manipulation of info in the memory system; processing info in short-term memory o Central Executive: directs attention, makes plans, and coordinates activities o Visuospatial Sketchpad: visual and spatial data stored and manipulated o Phonological Loop: verbal information o Episodic Buffer: brings info (visuospatial sketchpad, phonological loop, long-term memory) together to solve problems, assign meaning, and make future plans Long-Term Memory o Explicit Memory: memories you are aware of (facts and experiences) Semantic Memory: general facts that anyone can relate to (Ex: the sky is blue) Episodic Memory: memory of experiences in your life Flashbulb Memory: detailed memory of an emotional experience o Implicit Memory: unconscious memory of something you know or know how to do Ex: Classical Conditioning Procedural Memory: memory where there is no conscious control needed to carry out an activity or do a skill Priming: exposure of one stimulus influences the response to another Improving Memory Through Encoding Recall Details o Mnemonic Chunking Method of Loci: a mental journey is created to help remember information Hierarchical Structures o Information is organized into meaningful categories Automatic and Effortful Processing o Effortful Processing: conscious effort is needed to encode and store info o Automatic Processing: little or no conscious effort is required to encode info Make Connections o Elaborative Practice: connecting new info to knowledge from long-term memory Give Yourself Time o Distributed Practice: spread out study sessions over time; split study time into segments Get Sleep o The brain needs rest in order to consolidate info o Awake rest: doing mindless tasks so that your brain can consolidate information Retrieval and Forgetting Recall: the process of retrieving info from long-term memory without needing retrieval cues Recognition: the process of matching new info to info stored in your long-term memory; gives you retrieval cues Serial Position Effect: the ability to recall items from a lest depends on where on the list they were located at Primary Effect: the tendency to remember items in the beginning of a list Recency Effect: the tendency to remember items at the end of a list Encoding Specificity Retrieval Cues: stimuli that help retrieve stored info that is difficult to access; relies on context o Context Dependent Memory: memories are easier to access when encoding and retrieval occur in the same context Encoding Specificity Principle: it is easier to recall info when the context and cues during encoding are similar to those during retrieval State-Dependent Memory It is easier to remember information when moods and emotions are similar during encoding and retrieval Memory Failures Can be due to: o Encoding failure, storage failure, memory decay, proactive and retroactive interference The Reliability of Memory: Misinformation Misinformation Effect: memories can change in response to new information (Ex of retroactive interference) Interference Proactive: old information interferes with newly learned information Retroactive: new information interferes with old information Tracking Memory in the Brain Prefrontal Cortex: working memory essential for retrieval Cerebral Cortex: memory storage is distributed throughout Auditory Cortex: auditory memory storage Temporal Lobes: spatial memory storage Visual Cortex: visual memory storage Hippocampus: memory consolidation; explicit memory formation Amygdala: implicit memory formation; emotional memory formation Cerebellum: implicit memory formation Consolidation Moves memory from the hippocampus to other parts of the brain In the hippocampus during consolidation. Hippocampus is not needed after consolidation. The Biology of Memory Retrograde Amnesia: can’t retrieve old memories, but can form new memories Anterograde Amnesia: can retrieve old memories, but can’t form new memories Long-Term Potentiation “Neurons that fire together, wire together” -Hebb Pathways between neurons are created through repeated simultaneous activation Alzheimer’s Disease Most common type of dementia Treatments may slow but not stop Alzheimer’s Prevalence o 2.5 million in the US (2000) o Projected 8-13 million by 2050 Risk Factors o Diabetes, Obesity, Smoking, and High Cholesterol Survival o Average: 7 years after diagnosis Symptoms o Early: Simple Forgetfulness, Events from long past aren’t effected, Personality changes, Memory problems exacerbated by interruptions, Awareness of memory problems- Compensation o Later: Changes are more noticeable, Can no longer compensate, Confusion, Do not recognize people, Lack of insight- do not realize they have memory problems, Antisocial behavior, Delusions, Hallucinations Diagnosis o Definitive diagnosis can only be determined post-mortem CH7- Cognition The process of thinking Mental Activities: o Obtaining, Converting, Using Knowledge Cognition Involves: o Perception, Attention, Memory, Representation of Knowledge, Language, Problem- Solving, Reasoning and Decision-Making An Introduction to Cognition and Thinking Early psychologists used introspection (observation of one’s own mental process) Rise of behaviorism focused on behavior Cognitive Revolution focused on cognition and thinking o Three main influences: 1. Research on human performance (WWII) 2. Computer Science: Artificial Intelligence (AI) 3. Linguistics: study of the structure of language (done of Noam Chomsky) Knowledge Concept: mental representation Categorization: process by which items are placed into groups Why Categories Are Useful They help us understand new individual cases Provide general information about a (new) item Gives basic background information to help us understand new or never before seen objects/concepts A Hierarchical Organization Superordinate Level (General) Midlevel (Basic) Subordinate Level (Specific) You must consider: o The properties of objects o The experience and knowledge of perceivers Formal Concepts (Definitional Approach) Mental representation of categories based off of rigid and logical rules or features Natural Concepts (Prototypes and Exemplars) Prototype: “typical” example or abstract representation of a category Prototypes and Exemplars Typicality Effect: people respond faster to typical members (relatedness)/prototypical objects Exemplar Theory: the way people categorize objects and ideas Mental Images Descriptions of images from the “mind’s eye” Problem-Solving The variety of ways that can be used to achieve a goal Steps to solving a problem: 1. Understand the problem 2. Choose an approach 3. Evaluate Approached to Problem-Solving Trial and Error: finding a solution through a series of attempts, eliminating those that do not work Algorithms: use of a formula or set of rules to ensure a solution Heuristics: problem-solving approaches that include a broad application of a strategy o Means-Ends Analysis: heuristic used to determine how to decrease the distance between a goal (the means) and the current status, which leads to the solution (the ends) Insight: understanding that occurs in a sudden moment of clarity o “aha” moment Barriers to Problem-Solving Functional Fixedness: occurs when familiar objects can only be imagined to function in their normal way Mind Sets: the tendency to do solutions strategies always used, if even they have not worked out well, to solve a problem Decision Making The cognitive process of choosing from alternatives that could be used to reach a goal Predicting the Future o Single Feature: basing your decision of a single feature or aspects of a situation o Additive Model: rating possible choices based off of their features Heuristics and Confirmation Bias Availability Heuristic: a decision-making strategy that predicts the likelihood of something happening based off how easy it is to recall a similar event from the past Representativeness Heuristic: a decision-making strategy used to determine whether primary characteristics of a person or situation is similar to the prototype of the person or situation Confirmation Bias: the tendency to look for information that supports beliefs but to look over information that goes against the beliefs The Framing Effect Occurs when wording or context influences an outcome of a decision
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