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SOC 1001 Midterm Study Guide

by: Jaimee Kidd

SOC 1001 Midterm Study Guide SOC1001

Marketplace > George Washington University > Sociology > SOC1001 > SOC 1001 Midterm Study Guide
Jaimee Kidd
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Midterm 1 Readings
Introduction to Sociology
Richard Zamoff
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jaimee Kidd on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC1001 at George Washington University taught by Richard Zamoff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
Sociology 1001 Midterm Study Guide Packet of Handout Readings: Developing a Sociological Perspective Invitation to Sociology by Peter L. Berger •   Statistical date by themselves do not make sociology they may become sociology only when they are interpreted through the theoretical framework   •   Sociologist is someone who is concerned with understanding society in a disciplined way   •   As a scientist the sociologist needs to be objective to control personal preferences and prejudices   •   Professional Peeping Toms   •   It is said that the first wisdom of sociology is that things are not what they seem   Functional Analysis •   Includes manifest functions (obvious, intended, fairly easy to recognize) & latent (hidden, not so easy to recognize)   •   Also an examination of both positive and negative functions (dysfunction=negative)   The Use of Research Methods, Statistics, and Census Data National Survey on Smoking & Health •   Clearly leading questions, obviously not the correct way to go about survey data   The Concepts of Role, Culture, and Socialization You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation by Deborah Tannen •   Many men and women complain with frustration that they communicate on different “wave lengths.” Deborah Tannen, a sociologist, explains why men and women often talk past each other in a host of everyday situations   •   More men feel comfortable doing public speaking which more women feel comfortable doing private speaking ▯ report-talk vs rapport-talk   •   For most women, the language of conversation is primarily a language of rapport: a way of establishing connections & relationships   •   For most men, talk is primarily a means to preserve independence and maintain status in a hierarchical social order: report talk   Housekeeping Monthly—The Good Wife’s Guide •   Examples of quotes, “A good wife always knows her place,” “Catering for his comfort will provide you with immense personal satisfaction,” and “Remember, his topics of conversation are more important than yours.”   •   Basically examples of roles correlated to certain statuses at home   If There Were No Black People •   Story about a young boy asking what life would be like without black people, portrays him and his mother going through the day without being able to use anything because all of the items were at one point invented by black people.   Cultural Obsessions with Thinness; African American, Latina, and White Women by Becky Thompson •   In this selection, Thompson challenges the widely accepted belief that eating problems are largely limited to white, middle- and upper-class heterosexual women. Instead of assuming that women are anorexic and bulimic because we live in a “culture of thinness” she argues that eating problems may be responses to poverty, sexual abuse, racism, heterosexism, social class inequality, and acculturation.   •   Sexual abuse was the most common trigger to developing an eating disorder   •   Eliminates sexist claims that eating disorders are developed mainly because women focus so much on their appearance—shows they are triggered by other things causing the binging   Radical Differences Seen in Youths’ Views on Weight •   Survey of body weight and judgment of whether they believe they are overweight or underweight shows that girls are more likely to wrongfully believe they are overweight and white people are also more likely to wrongfully believe they are overweight compared to black people   Desire to Hear Bad News Differs by Ethnic Group •   When surveying Americans on their desire to know deathly news or undesirable medical news, European and African Americans were more likely to want to know about a life- threatening diagnosis than were Mexican and Korean Americans   •   The principle of individual autonomy and dominant north American bioethics that says people ought to take charge of their own medical decision making is not universal   •   Similarly, when asking similar things to the Navajo Indians, they said to never speak about bad news because it is the belief that these words would become reality if spoken   Practicing Sociology Readings: Chapter 1: The History of Sociological Practice •   Rodolfo Alvarez defines sociology as, “Sociological practice is the development and use of social intervention techniques to precipitate social change beneficial to specific categories of participants within specific types of social systems.” •   18th Century •   Methods of natural philosophers @ this time were those of historiography and systematic logic grounded in psychology •   Marquis de Condorcet- •   Most eloquent philosopher of progress, the father of social planning •   Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind (representation of humans as evolving from savagery toward civility, social virtue, and happiness) •   9 epochs of history •   Roots of sociology are embedded in the enlightenment when speculation & conceptualization about the natural philosophy of the human condition were first refined and modernized •   19th Century •   Epochs → Concrete Analysis •   e.g. Charles Darwin & his collection of bird fossils •   e.g. Henry David Thoreau & Ralph Waldo Emerson--naturalists who were convinced that an accurate perception of reality would help lead humans to a better life •   Overall: Growth in the popularity and utilization of scientific thought, coupled with very strong notions that an empirically accurate and deep understanding of society and the human condition would generate social progress. •   Auguste Comte •   Positivism, condensed Condorcet’s 9 epochs into 3, hierarchy of sciences with sociology on top •   Invented Sociology •   Post-Comteian Era •   Herbert Spencer- left untouched human society would evolve gradually toward true and complete individual liberty and responsibility •   Karl Marx- Communist Manifesto, became the model of the modern practicing sociologist, profoundly influenced the sociologists of the 20th century, and his actions in utilizing knowledge in the service of social progress are legendary •   Max Weber- critique of economic materialism in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, also theorized about political authority, organizational bureaucracy, etc. •   Emile Durkheim- bases of his thinking include social cohesion, social norms and the formation and transmission of culture overtime, greatest contributions are theories and methods of empirical analysis, Suicide is a model of comparative social analysis •   Beginning of Practice in America •   Lester Ward- treated the field as the prime foundation for all of the social sciences and as the vehicle for teaching the ways to a better society, wasn’t until his work was read that sociology became a field of science in its own right, first president of American Sociological Society •   William Graham Sumner- Brought Spencerian sociology, ethnology, and individualism to the table in sociology, virtues of laissez faire economics, individual liberty, etc. •   Charles S. Johnson- first african american student to join the Chicago school, The Negro in Chicago •   The Hull House- this was the setting and these were the sociologists who accomplished the most in American efforts to go beyond soapbox advocacy and muckraking and to link reform planning with careful surveys of the needs of the urban poor, without the genius of its first quarter-century, it is questionable if sociological practice would have emerged in America at all. (Chicago School and Hull House really shaped the progress of sociology in America) •   The New Deal response to the Great Depression brought many sociologists into work, also WW2 brought in many sociologists into military intelligence → burst its seams after WW2 •   Those studying sociology in college were finally able to make careers out of their study, subfields were appearing (criminology, mental health, etc.) Chapter 2: Notes on Theory •   there still isn’t one set domain of sociology practice •   social theory ranges from a small partial concept, all the way to concepts that encompass entire societies •   Macro-Social Theories: societal stability and dynamics, conflict and upheaval, and the rise and fall of whole civilizations •   Micro-social theories: enable us to to interpret the effects of groups on individual behavior and the process of interpersonal behavior •   Talcott Parsons: devoted nearly all of his professional energies to the development of a comprehensive theory of social systems and subsystems. is “perhaps the most influential” academic sociologist of the 1940s and 1950s •   Robert K Merton: Student of Talcott Parsons, carried on the functionalist tradition far into the 1980s •   Ralf Dahrendorf(1959) and Lewis A. Coser (1956)- most notable alternative theoretical frameworks Symbolic Interactionism •   symbolic interactionism was born in the 1920s and 30s and was revived during the major emphasis to the proposition that humans behave in response to the meanings that events and groups and significant other persons have for them- and that these meanings are more varies and complex interpretively than they are matters of conformity to role expectations •   author of the textbook advocates for a participatory research approach for methodology Five Features of The Research-based Approach 1.   strengthens the professional self-confidence and credibility of individual practicing sociologists 2.   quality of theories in sociology could potentially be improved by the approach 3.   change in society that may increase receptivity to this kind of sociological practice 4.   the dynamics of the social situation created by using this approach are conductive to producing social change 5.   exposes practitioners to the sociopolitical contexts surrounding the problems in which they are trying to intervene Professional Confidence and Credibility •   interactionist practitioner has received the academic sociological training in theory and research methods, but makes the transition into applying them with a participatory approach  


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