Bio Exam 2
U of L
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by jethom25 Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1543 at University of Louisville taught by James Alexander in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see DIVERSITY OF LIFE - S (Lecture) in Biology at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Page 1 1.) Name the 3 basic types of organs PLANTS have Roots Stems Leaves 2.) Plants have to obtain resources from 2 different environments Soil – provides water and minerals Air the atmosphere is the main source of CO2 d light energy. 3.) Name the two organ systems that plants have evolved (stems and leaves) Roots system Aerial shoot system 4.) True/False Plants are unlike most animals in fact that plants are typically modular. 5.) Plants are made of many copies of small number of units, that includes a) Leaves b) stems c) roots d) flowers e) all of the above 6.) Many plants consist of many different genetically identical individuals due to modularity and the fact plants can reproduce asexually, they are a) Colonial b) clonal c) both colonial & clonal 7.) Most animals are a) monetary individuals b) solitary individuals c) unitary individuals 8.) What’s the difference between plants and animals regarding growth and development? Page 2 Plants are not limited to an embryonic or juvenile period, but developmental processes occur throughout the life of the plants. 9.) True/False. At any time, a typical plant consists of embryonic organs, nondeveloping organs, immature organs *a typical plant consists of embryonic organs, developing organs, and mature organs 10.) Roots – anchor the plant in the soil. Also absorb minerals and water from the ground, and store food. 11.) True/False. Monocots generally have taproot systems. *Monocots generally have fibrous root systems 12.) Fibrous roots – are relatively shallow and the dense mat of roots increases the plant’s exposure to soil water and minerals in the uppermost section of soil, and the roots strongly anchor the plants to ground. 13.) The high surface area of fibrous roots allows these plants to a) Breath b) grow extra leaves c) rapidly take up water from rainfall d) slow down intake from rainfall 14.) True/False Fibrous roots do not store as much material as tap roots. 15.) True/ False. Many eudicots have a taproot system that consists of one large vertical root (the taproot) that typically has smaller lateral roots branching off it. Page 3 16.) The taproot – arises from the radicle, anchors the plant soil, but it also stores food to support the production of flowers and fruits later on during the reproductive season 17.) Root hairs – extension of individual epidermal cells 18.) True/False: most of the absorption of water and minerals in both root systems occurs near the root tips, where vast numbers of tiny root hairs greatly increase the surface area. 19.) True/False: Root hairs increase the surface area in root systems 20.) True/False: Water and dissolved mineral salts from the soil first enters the plant through the epidermis of chloroplast *They first enter the plant though the epidermis of roots 21.) Plants typically have a ________ concentration of solutes in their epidermis of roots than the ________, so the water moves in by _________. (higher, soil, osmosis) 22.) What’s the passage of water after the water moves in by osmosis? a) Crosses the root cortex < passes into the stele<flows up the xylem vessels to the shoot system b.) flows up xylem vessel to the shoot system<crosses root cortex<passes into the stele c.) crosses the root cortex<dies d.) none of the above 23.) Water and ______ substances from the ____ diffuse into the _________ walls of the epidermal cells and passes freely into the __________ Dissolved, soil, hydrophilic, root cortex 24.) True/False: As water and minerals move through the root, root cells in the cortex selectively extract essential minerals from the dilute soil solution and concentrate them via facilitated transport. *dilute soil solution and concentrate the via active transport Page 4 25.) Most plants form partnerships with ______ fungi for absorbing water and minerals from soil. Symbiotic 26.) True/False: Infected roots from mycorrhizae 27.) Mycorrhizae – symbiotic structures consisting of the plant’s roots and fungal hyphae in close contact. 28.) Mycorrhizae creates an enormous ________ for absorption Surface area 29.) True/False: Hyphae absorb water and selected minerals, transferring much of the minerals to the host plant. 30.) Aerial Shoots consists of 3 things Stems Leaves Flowers 31.) A stem consists of an alternating arrangement of ______ and _________. Nodes and internodes 32.) Nodes point at which leaves are attached 33.) Internodes – the stem segments between leaf nodes 34.) Axillary Bud – the angle formed by each leaf and the steam 35.) True/False: axillary bud can be stimulated to form olive branch *can be stimulated to form a vegetative branch 36.) The growth of a young shoot is usually concentrated by its a.) Blade and stem b.) Leaf and tip c.) Tip or end 37.) Terminal Bud – composed of developing leave and compact series of nodes and internodes 38.) The terminal bud is partly responsible for _______ the growth of ________ by _______. Inhibiting, axillary bud, apical dominance 39.) Apical dominance – causes the plant to grow taller, instead of wide, which increases the plant’s exposure to light, especially in dense forest. Page 5 40.) In the absence of terminal buds (for example if you __________,) the _______ are no longer inhibited and they each produce a ___________ with its own terminal bud, leaves, and axillary buds. Clip it, axillary buds, vegetative branch 41.) True/False: Pruning many plants typically makes them bushier 42.) Flowers of eudicots have flower plants that are _________ Multiples of 4 or 5 43.) Monocots flower parts are in multiples of ____. 3 44.) Monocot pollen grains have the primitive trait of _________ (a single pore or _____ to the outside.) One opening, furrow 45.) Eudicot pollen have ______ (pores or furrows.) Three opening 46.) Vascular bundles, especially in the ____, are arranged in a ____, which is in ____. Stems, ring, eudicots 47.) Vascular bundles in ______ are scattered or ________ in the cross section of the stem. Monocots, complexly arranged 48.) Some modified stem types are Stolons Rhizomes Tubers Leaves 49.) Stolons – runner or above ground horizontal stems 50.) Rhizomes – horizontal underground stems 51.) Tubers – end of rhizomes 52.) Leaves – main photosynthetic organs of most plants 53.) Eudicots leaves consists of a flattened ____ and a ______. Blade and petiole Page 6 54.) Petiole – the stalk that attaches the leaf to a stem node 55.) True/False: Monocots typically have 2 petioles. *Monocots typically have no petioles 56.) What’s the reason you can cut your grass without killing it? Base of the leaf forms a sheath the envelops the stems; the base of the sheath has a meristematic tissue that elongates the blade from the bottom. 57.) Most monocots have _______ that run the length of the blade. Parallel major vein 58.) Eudicot leaves have a ______ of major veins Netlike network 59.) Plant taxonomist use these 3 things to help identify and classify plants Leaf shape Spatial arrangement of leaves Venation (vein pattern) 60.) Leaves can be modified for many functions like these 4 things Tendrils (attachment) Spines (defense against herbivores) Water storage Brightly colored leaves (that aren’t a part of flower) to attract pollinators 61.) True/False: modified leaves form the parts of the flower. 62.) Bulbs – the bases of leaves 63.) What’s an example of bulbs? a.) Cheese b.) Light bulb c.) onion 64.) Plant cells are composed of 3 basic cell types Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma 65.) Mature parenchyma cells have ____________ that are generally ____ and flexible. Most parenchyma lack __________. Page 7 Primary walls, thin, secondary walls 66.) True/False: Parenchyma cells can elongate over time. 67.) Most parenchyma are the least _________, but there are some exceptions. The highly specialized ________ member are parenchyma. Specialized, sievetube 68.) True/False: Parenchyma cells are living typically when functional 69.) Parenchyma cells can perform these 3 things Most metabolic functions of the plant Synthesizing Storing various organic products 70.) Parenchyma cells are the most __________ plant cell type metabolically active 71.) Photosynthesis occurs within the ______ of parenchyma cells in the ____. Some parenchyma cells in the stems and ____ have colorless ____ that store starch. Chloroplasts, leaf, roots, plastids 72.) True/False: the fleshy tissue of most fruit is composed of collenchyma cells *composed of parenchyma cells 73.) Developing plant cells of all types are __________ before ______ in structure and function. Parenchyma cells, specializing 74.) True/False: Mature, unspecialized parenchyma cells don’t generally undergo cell division, but many can be induced to dedifferentiate and undergo mitosis 75.) An example of differentiating into other cell types under special conditions in parenchyma cells is a.) Supporting & living b.) Repair and replacement of organs after injury of plant c.) Make things thicker 76.) True/False: Collenchyma cells have thicker primary walls than parenchyma cells that are unevenly thickened 77.) True/False: Collenchyma cells lack secondary walls 78.) Collenchyma cells are grouped into ________ to help ______ young parts of the plant ____, Strands or cylinders, support, shoot Page 8 79.) Young stems and leaf ______ have a ______ of collenchyma just below their surface, which provide support without restraining _____. Petioles, cylinder, growth 80.) True/False: collenchyma cells are dead when functionally mature, and are somewhat flexible and can elongate as the organ they are in Collenchyma cells are living when functionally mature 81.) Sclerenchyma cells also function as _______ elements of plant with thick _________ strengthened by _______. Supporting, secondary walls, lignin 82.) Sclerenchyma cells are much more _____ than collenchyma cells and cannot _____ as the organ they are in elongates. Rigid, elongate 83.) What’s the reason sclerenchyma cells can’t elongate? Sclerenchyma cells typically are dead ay functional maturity. They produce their rigid secondary cell wall before the protoplast dies. 89.) In part of plant that are still elongating, the secondary walls are deposited in a ____ or ____ pattern, enabling the cell wall to ____ like a spring as the cell grows. Spiral, ring, stretch 90.) List the 4 sclerenchyma cells Vessel elements in the xylem Tracheids in the xylem Fibers Sclereids 91.) Fibers long, slander, and tapered, and usually occur in groups. Used for making roper etc. Page 9 92.) Sclereids – shorter than fibers and irregular in shape. The hard shells of nuts and seed coats, and gritty texture in pears is due to Sclereids. 93.) Plant organs are composed of 3 types Dermal Vascular Ground tissue 94.) Dermal tissue (epidermis) – composed of a single layer of tightly packed parenchyma cells that cover and protect the plant 95.) Cuticles – epidermis of leaves and most stems secretes a waxy coating, help retain water in the aerial part of plants 96.) Protoderm – meristematic tissue that produces the epidermis 97.) Vascular Tissue – involved in the transport of materials between the roots and shoots. 98.) Procambium – produces the primary vascular tissues 99.) Ground tissue – typically parenchyma cells, ground tissues are neither vascular or dermal, divided into pith and cortex in dicot stems 100.) Pith – tissues that are internal to vascular tissues 101.) Cortex – tissues external to the vascular tissues 102.) Functions of ground tissue include Photosynthesis Storage Support 103.) Manu of the parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma cells in ground tissues are produced by the ______________. Ground meristem 104.) Xylem – conveys water and dissolved minerals upward from roots into the shoots 105.) The water conducting elements of xylem, the ______ and ________, are elongated cells that are ___________. Tracheids, vessels elements, dead at functional maturity 106.) The thickened cell walls in xylem for a ______ conduit through which fluids flow Nonliving 107.) True/False: both tracheids and vessel elements have secondary walls interrupted by pits 108.) Pits – thinner regions where only primary walls are present 109.) Tracheids – long, thin cells with tapered ends, involved in support and transport. Page 10 110.) Vessel elements – generally wider, shorter, thinner walled, and less tapered. Aligned end to end, forming pipelike structure called xylem vessels 111.) T/F: Without the help of any mechanical pump, xylem sap rises against gravity to reach heights of more than 100 meters in the tallest trees. 112.) Water potential is measured in units of a.) psi or ᴪ b.) pie or € c.) increments or ỉ d.) none of the options 113.) T/F: Root pressure pushes xylem sap into the subterranean root system. *pushes xylem sap into the shoot system 114.) Root pressure causes a.) disasters b.) death among organisms c.) guttation d.) phloem 115.) Guttation: exudation of water droplets that can be seen in the morning on the tips of the grass blades or the leaf margins of some small, herbaceous dicots. 116.) More water enters leaves then is _______, and the excess water is forced out as ______ fluid. Transpired, guttation 117.) T/F: Root pressure is not the major mechanism driving the ascent of xylem sap. 118.) T/F: Many plants generate little if any root pressure. Root pressure can force water upwards only a few meters. 119.) For the most part, xylem sap is not pushed below by _______, but it is instead pulled ____ by processes occurring at the _____. Root pressure, upward, leaves 120.) T/F: The plant basically expends 30 ATP energy to life xylem sap up to the leaves Plant basically expends no ATP energy 121.) The movement of xylem sap is thus Page 11 a.) lightening b.) solarpowered c.) neither because absorption of sunlight has nothing to do with xylem sap 123.) T/F: The flow of water transported up through xylem replaces the water lost in transpiration and also carries minerals to the shoot system. 124.) Transpiration provides the _____, and cohesion of water due to _______ bonds transmit s the upward pulling along the entire length of the _______ to the roots. Pull, hydrogen, water column 125.) Adhesion: provides the “pulling force” that draws water out of the leaf xylem, through the mesophyll, and toward the cells and surface film boarding the air spaces in the leaves. 126.) Cohesion: interacting with other water molecules due to hydrogen bonding, makes it possible to pull a column of sap from above without the water separating. 127.) An unbroken chain of water is need for what process to occur? When the very small diameter of the tracheids and vessel elements exposes a large proportion of the water to make contact with the hydrophilic walls. 128.) Phloem: transport food made in mature levels to the roots and to nonphotosynthetic parts of the shoot system. 129.) The phloem transport the organic products of photosynthesis throughout the plant through process called a.) tubules b.) transgrateulous c.) translocation d.) transduction 130.) Sievetube members: sucrose and other organic compounds, along with some mineral ions, move through tubes formed by chains of cells lined up from end to end. 131.) List 7 things about sievetube members: Are alive at functional maturity Lack both nuclei, ribosomes, and distinct vacuoles The end walls (sieve plates) have pores that facilitate the flow of fluid between cells. A nonconducting, living, nucleated companion cell, adjacent and connected to the sieve tube member, may assist the sievetube cell in maintaining cell metabolism and function Page 12 Are arranged end to end to from long sieve tubes, which are porous crosswalls between cells along the length of the tube, which allows for unimpeded movement from one cell to the next 132.) Phloem sap: aqueous solution in which sugar, primarily the disaccharide sucrose in most plants, is the most prevalent solute. Phloem sap contains minerals, amino acids, and hormones. 133.) T/F: Phloem translocate sap from sugar sources to sugar sinks 134.) T/F: The direction that phloem sap travels is downwards. The direction that phloem travel is variable. 135.) In general, what carries food from a sugar source to a sugar sink? a.) sieve members b.) sieve tubes c.) sieve plates d.) none 136.) Sugar Source: a plant organ (especially mature leaves) in which sugar is being produced by either photosynthesis or by the breakdown of starch. 137.) Sugar Sink an organ (such as growing roots, shoots, or fruits) that is a net consumer or storage point of sugar 138.) T/F: a storage organ, such as a tuber or a bulb, may be either a source or a sink, depending on the season. 139.) When the storage organ is stockpiling _______ during the summer, it is a sugar _____. Carbohydrates, sink 140.) T/F sugar sink usually receives its sugar from the sources far away, at least 700 meters. *receives its sugar from nearest source 141.) Sugar from _________ cells other sources are loaded into _______ members. Mesophyll, sievetube 142.) T/F: In corn and many other plants, sieve tube members accumulate sucrose at concentrations 10 times less than those in mesophyll cells. Page 13 *accumulate sucrose at 2 to 3 times higher than those in mesophyll 145.) Accumulate sucrose at that concentration requires what type of transport to load the phloem a.) passive transport b.) active transport c.) osmosis transport 146.) Proton pumps generates a ______ gradient, which drives _____ across the membrane via a __________ that couples sucrose transport with the ______ of hydrogen back into the cell Hydrogen, sucrose, cotransport protein, diffusion 147.) What’s the name where phloem unloads its sucrose at the sink end of the sieve tube? a.) upward b.) leftsteam c.) rightstream d.) downstream *because the concentration of free sugar in the sink is lower than in the phloem, sugar molecules diffuse from the phloem into the sink tissue. 148.) What’s the steps of the mechanism of translocation in angiosperms? (this loading solutes cause pressure flow) Phloem sap moves by bulk flow driven by pressure, higher levels of sugar at the sucrose end of phloem cause water to flow into the tube by osmosis (generating hydrostatic pressure) Removal of sugar at the tissue located at the “sink”, by metabolism and creation of starches and other polysaccharides, causes water to flow out of the phloem by osmosis into the sink The difference in hydrostatic pressure thus drives phloem sap from source to sink Xylem then recycles the water from sink to source 149.) Meristem tissues: generate cells for new organs throughout the lifetime of a plant 150.) T/F: most plants demonstrates outermediate growth. Plants increase in size as long as the plant lives *most plants demonstrate indeterminate growth. 151.) For most animals and for certain plant organs (flowers and leaves), they undergo _______ growth. Many animals ____ growing after the reached a certain size. Determinate, stop 152.) What makes a plant capable of intermediate growth? Page 14 a.) the root tip b.) the root cap c.) it always has mitotically active meristems in growth region d.) it always has meiosis active meristems in growth region 153.) T/F: The pattern of plant growth depends on the location of meristems. 154.) Apical Meristems: located at the tips of roots and in the buds of shoot, supply cells for the plant to grow in length. It’s primary growth. 155.) Primary growth: enables root to extend through the soil and shoots to grow upwards. 156.) Secondary growth: progressive thickening of roots and shoots. Secondary growth is the product of lateral meristems. 157.) Lateral meristems: cylinders of dividing cells extending along the length of roots and shoots 158.) What’s an example of secondary growth? a.) woody plants b.) pineapples c.) pears d.) none of the options provided 159.) In primary growth in roots, the root tip is covered by thumblike _____ (secretes a lubricating slime,) which ____ the meristem as the root pushes through the abrasive ____ during primary growth. Rootcap, protects, soil 160.) Zone of division: the site of the root/shoot where mitosis is occurring 161.) Zone of elongation: further up from the tip, is where immature cells elongate 162.) Zone of maturation: location where the cells mature and become specialized 163.) List the 3 primary meristems that give rise to the three primary tissues of roots Protoderm outermost primary meristem that produces the single layer of the epidermis that cover the root Procambium Produces the stele, which is the central cylinder of vascular tissue where both the phloem and xylem are produced Ground meristem between the Protoderm and Procambium, it produces the ground tissues (there are mostly parenchyma cells that store food.) 164.) Root hairs: Enhances absorption by greatly increasing surface area Page 15 165.) What’s the reason there is no cuticle to a root? a.) would interfere with uptake of water & minerals b.) would make it grow too much c.) there is no reason 166.) Cortex: space between the stele and the epidermis (which parenchyma cells fills up the space between it) 167.) Endodermis: innermost layer of the root cortex, surrounds the stele and functions as a last checkpoint for the selective passage of minerals from cortex to vascular tissue 168.) Casparian strip: a belt of suberin (a waxy material that is impervious to water and dissolves minerals,) in the walls of each endodermal cell 169.) T/F: The endodermal, with the Casparian strip, ensures that no minerals can reach the vascular tissues of the root without crossing at least one selectively permeable membrane 170.) Symplastic route: allows from some regulation of what gets into the vascular tissue 171.) Apoplasitc: travels across the organ completely via cell walls and extracellular spaces 172.) T/F: An established root may spout lateral roots from the outermost layer of cells of the stele, the pericycle (which is inside and adjacent to the endodermis.) 173.) The pericycle can become _______ (mitotically active) under certain conditions and produce the _________ tissues. Meristematic, lateral root 174.) Shoot apical meristem of a shoot: primary growth of shoot, is domeshaped mass of dividing cells at the terminal bud. It forms the primary meristems (Protoderm, Procambium, and ground meristem. 175.) Leaves arise as _______ on the flanks of the apical meristem Leaf primordia 176.) Axillary buds: develop from islands if meristematic cells left by apical meristems at the leaf primordia base, have potential to form branches of the shoot system originate from axillary buds, at surface of a main shoot. 177.) Vascular Bundles: strengthens the stems and roots in two different ways (monocots and dicots) Each bundle of the stem is surrounded by ground tissues. Page 16 178.) In most eudicots stems, the vascular bundles are arranged in _____, with pith on the inside and ___ outside the ring. Have ______ facing pith and their ______ facing the cortex (hollow ring approach.) Rings, cortex, xylem, phloem 179.) In the stems of most monocots, the vascular bundles are ______ throughout the ground tissue rather than arranged in a ring like _____. Scattered, eudicots 180.) Leaf epidermis: composed of cells tightly locked together like pieces of a puzzle, first line of defense against physical damage and pathogenic organisms 181.) Waxy Cuticle: a barrier to water loss from the plant 182.) T/F: About 70% of the water that a plant loses escapes through stroma, although these pores account for only 12% if the external leaf surface. *about 90% of the water that plant loses escapes 183.) Guard cells: tiny pores flanked by specialized epidermal cells, that control the diameter of the stroma by changing shape, thereby widening or narrowing the gap between the two cells 184.) The stomata allow _________ between the surrounding air and the ______ cells inside the leaf. They are major venues of __________. Gas exchange, photosynthetic, transpiration 185.) Transpiration: process of evaporative water loss from the plant 186.) What helps balance the plant’s need to conserve water with its requirements for photosynthesis? a.) controlling the size of stomata b.) shortening the branches c) shortening lateral root 187.) T/F: Within the leaf, CO enters the air spaces formed by parenchyma cells, where the internal surface may be 10 to 30 times less than external leaf surface *internal surface may be 10 to 30 times greater than external 188.) T/F: Transpiration brings in minerals and other substances from roots to shoot and leaves for photosynthesis, which is important for evaporative cooling. Page 17 189.) Evaporative Cooling: can lower the temperature of a leaf by as much as 1015 degree Celsius compared to surrounding air. 190.) T/F: when guard cells take water by osmosis, they become more turgid, due to orientation of cellulose microfibrils in the walls (the guard cell then buckle outwards) 191.) Stroma open when guard cells actively accumulate ____ from neighboring epidermal cells into the guard cells _____, which _______ water potential in guard cells leading to flow of water by osmosis. Potassium (K +), vacuoles, decreases 192) Mesophyll: the ground tissue of the leaf, which consists of mainly parenchyma cells equipped with chloroplasts and specialized for photosynthesis, is sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis 193.) Columnar palisade parenchyma: found below the upper epidermis 194.) Branches of vascular bundles in the stem pass through a.) petioles b.) into leaves c.) petioles and into leaves d.) flower 195.) T/F: Within a leaf, Veins of vascular tissue subdivide repeatedly and branch throughout mesophyll 196.) The ______ brings water and minerals to the photosynthetic tissues and the ____ carries ____ and other organic products to other parts of the plant. Xylem, phloem, sugars 197.) Vascular infrastructure: reinforces and support the shape of the leaf 198.) Secondary growth: lateral or secondary meristems add girth by producing secondary vascular tissue and periderm 199.) T/F: Most dicot stems and roots (but no most leaves) increase girth by secondary growth 200.) Vascular Cambium: cylinder of meristematic cells that forms secondary vascular tissue, that acts as a meristem for the production of secondary xylem and secondary phloem 201.) Secondary xylem: forms to the interior of the vascular cambium 202.) Secondary phloem: forms to the exterior of the vascular cambium Page 18 203.) Wood: as secondary growth continues over the years in woody plants, layer upon layer of secondary xylem accumulates producing this tissue (wood) 204: Wood consists of mainly 3 things, which (are dead at functional maturity) have thick, lignified walls that contain lignin and other compounds that give the wood hardness and strength Tracheids Fibers Vessel elements (vessels in angiosperms only) 205.) Annual plants: live for about a year, and generally show no secondary growth 206.) Perennial plants: may live for many year, and exhibits secondary growth 207.) Cork Cambium: secondary or lateral meristematic cylinder that first forms in the outer cortex of the stem and later in the secondary phloem, that acts as a meristem for a tough thick covering for stems and roots that replaces the epidermis 208.) Cork Cells: accumulate at the cambium’s exterior 209.) Periderm: a protective layer that replaces the epidermis, which forms when the cork and the cork cambium come together 210.) Bark: protects the tree from insects and disease organisms. Refers to all tissues external to the vascular cambium, including secondary phloem, cork cambium, and cork 211.) T/F: After several years of secondary growth, several distinct zones are visible in a stem 212.) Going from interior to exterior, these two zones are of secondary xylem (________ and ________), then the vascular cambium, then ______ secondary phloem, and cork cambium, and finally the _____ on the outside. Heartwood, sapwood, living, cork layers 213.) Xylem sap: sapwood function in the upward transport of water and minerals 214.) Hormones: derived from Greek verb meaning “to excite”, are chemical signals that are produced in one part of the body, transported to other parts, to bind to specific receptors and trigger response in target cells and tissues. 215.) T/F: often the response of a plant is governed by the interaction of two or more hormones 216.) Plant hormones: help coordinate growth, development, and responses to the environment by affecting division, elongation, and differentiation of cells (also mediate shortterm physiological response of plants to environmental stimuli. Page 19 217.) These are the 5 major classes of plant hormones: Auxin Cytokinins Gibberellins Abscisic Acid Ethylene hormone major functions where the hormone is produced or found in the plant Auxin cell elongation, stem elongation and apical meristems (IAA) growth, formation of adventitious roots, primarily, also found in inhibition of leaf abscission, inducement of other immature parts ethylene in fruits, inhibit lateral bud of a plant. growth, promote cell division (with cytokinin). Cytokinins stimulate cell division and differentiation root apical meristems, (with the presence of auxin), retard the embryos, fruits ageing of leaves and plant parts, promote bud formation. Gibberellin promote stem elongation and leaf growth, root and shoot tips, s fruit set, stimulate enzyme synthesis in leaves, seeds germinating seeds Abscisic generally, slows down growth of buds, leaves, fruits, seeds acid antagonizes the other hormones, inhibition (ABA) of seed germination, control of stomate closure during times of water stress. Ethylene roots, shoot apical is a gas, controls leaf, flower and fruit meristems, leaf nodes, abscission, promotes ripening of fruits, ageing flowers, programmed cell death (apoptosis) ripening fruits 218.) Eumycota (true fungi): numbers at least 200,000 species. 219.) Chytrids (Chytridiomycota): ancestral groups for fungi, similar to slime molds and water mold (fungilike protest.) Chytrids retain flagellated cells ate some stage in their life cycle 220.) Characteristics of Fungi: Page 20 Lack chlorophyll All fungi (outside of Chytrids) lack flagellae Most are multicellular (expect unicellular fungi like yeast) Heterotrophic Obtain nutrients via saprophytic nutrient acquisition and absorption 221.) Fungi secrete digestive enzymes out their _____, digesting their food _____ their bodies and then absorbing the nutrients across the ______ and the outer cell membrane. Hyphae, outside, cell walls 222.) Fungi are _______ and exists as ______ (consuming dead organic matter) or _______ (absorbing liquids from living host tissues) Heterotrophic, saprobes, symbionts 223.) Fungi can be viewed as these 3 things Parasites absorb host tissues and harm host Mutualists benefits both fungi and host, fungi absorb nutrients from host and provide materials to host Commensals neither harming nor benefitting the host to any extent 224.) Haustoria specialized hyphae in mutualistic and parasitic fungi, that penetrates through plant cell walls 225.) T/F: Fungi have cells with walls strengthened with the polysaccharide glucose *strengthened with the polysaccharide chitin, which is relatively resistant to bacterial attacks 226.) T/F: The body (thallus) of the fungus consists of mycelium (which is composed of large number of hyphae) 227.) There are two types of hyphae Aseptate (r) no cross walls between individual cells and nuclei, and thus the are coenocytic (multinucleate) Septate (I) with one or two haploid nuclei in each cell, porous cross walls (septa) separate each cell 228.) T/F: The diploid phase in fungi is long *the diploid phase in fungi is brief and unicellular Page 21 229.) Describe the phase of fungi life cycle a) Begins with plasmogamy (diffusion of the hyphae and cytoplasm of two genetically different mating strands (+/ rather than male or female) of one fungal species b) Formation of dikaryotic hyphae, which are composed of cells containing two different haploid nuclei c) Diploid phase is formed by fusion of +/ nuclei (karyogamy) which immediately followed by meiosis (rather than mitosis in plants) to give rise to meiospores (haploid spores produced) d) Process of syngamy (fertilization of two gametes then nuclei fuse) in fungi, thus divided between plasmogamy and karyogamy. e) Zygotic life cycle: the zygote is the only point in life cycle which a diploid cell or nucleus exists, meiospores are dispersed and germinate give rise to hyphae of new individuals 230.) Fungi also reproduces asexually by two types of structures that arise from mitotic divisions of hyphae and from hyphae if the same genetic composition Sporangiophores Conidiophores Page 22 231.) Zygote fungi (algallike fungi) most primitive of the true fungi, found in terrestrial habitats and both marine & fresh waters 232.) Typically, _____ is composed of ______ hyphae, septa are usually formed only at the base of _______ (gamete containers) and sporangia Mycelium, Aseptate, gametangia 233.) T/F: Dikaryotic zygosporangium are diploid *Dikaryotic zygosporangia are not diploid in the usual sense of the word “diploid” because there are two distinct haploid nuclei present 234.) Zygosporangium unicellular resting stage, that produces a thick wall that protects against desiccation and other environmental extremes. 235.) Sporocarp: Multicellular fruiting body that zygomycetes don’t form 236.) Karyogamy: fusion of two haploid nuclei of opposite mating types 237.) Rhizopus stolonifera: representative of the Zygomycetes, most commonly called “black bread mold”, this fungus grows readily on bread and other substrates rich in carbohydrates 238.) Sac Fungi (ascomycetes): found in terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats, either unicellular (yeasts) or composed of hyphae consisting of uninucleate cells with crosswalls (septa) 239.) Hyphae of two mating strains (+/) come in close contact and they from ______ called _______ and ___________, each containing multiple _____ nuclei. Gametangia, ascogonia, antheridia, haploid 240.) T/F: At the end of a dikaryotic hypha, an ascus forms (Plural: asci) 241.) Each of the ____ haploid nuclei formed by meiosis the undergoes mitosis, forming a total of ___ _______ nuclei (four of each mating strain) lined up inside the ascus. 4, 8, haploid 242.) Cell membranes and walls from around these nuclei to form 8 _______, which then are released out of the end of the ascus a.) mushrooms b.) basidiocarps c) mycelium d.) ascospores Page 23
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