Chem 107, study guide
Chem 107, study guide Chem 107
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Popular in General Chemistry I
Popular in Chemistry
This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 107 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Daniel Rivera in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Chemistry study guide Stoichiometry o The mole is a unit is defined as the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of Carbon Represents Avogadro's number 6.02 X10 23 o The molar mass is defined as the sum of the atomic masses of all the elements in a compound o Percent composition is the specific amount of one particular element or substance within a compound Usually written as a percentage o The empirical formula is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms that maintains the composition of a compound Steps to finding empirical formula are Percent to mass Mass to moles Divide by smallest Multiply until whole o Stoichiometry: the quantitative relationship between reactants and products General steps are : mass A> moles A>moles B> mass B o Limiting reactant:defined as the substance that produces the least amount of product (limits the amount of product that can be formed) When reactants equal products is called stoichiometric ratio o Percent yield is a ratio between theoretical yield and actual yield Reactions in aqueous solutions o Solutions is a homogenous mixture containing solutes Solvent is what dissolves the solution Dilute solutions contain relatively small amount of solutes Concentrated solutions contain relatively large amount of solutes o Molarity determined by solution concentration Amount of solute/volume of solution o Diluting a solution from a solution CV=CV o Solution stoichiometry General formula Volume A> moles A> moles B> to volume B o In solutions like substances dissolve like substances o Electrolyte: solution that has a charge when dissolved in water Can be weak (weak acid) Or strong (strong acid or ionic substances) Strength determined by is the compound will completely dissociate into ions or only partially o Nonelectrolytes: do not contain a charge when dissolved in water Covalent compounds Remains as intact or large parts when dissolved in water (doesn't break down) o Temperature can have an affect on solubility Tends to increase solubility o Precipitation reactions Form a solid when mixed together Spectator ions don’t form the precipitate in this reaction A net ionic equation can be written by taking out the spectator ions o Neutralization reaction Happens between and acid and a base where a salt is formed and water is formed Acids classified as substances that will make H+ electrons in water Binary acids contain only one anion o Named by hydro (anion) ic acid Oxyacids contain polyatomic anions o Named if polyatomic ion ends in Ate use (anion) “ic: acid Ite use (anion) “ous” acid Polyprotic acids contain more than one H+ Bases form OH- when dissolved in water o In a titration : an unknown solution is slowly added to a known solution in a burette An indicator will change colors when the titration is finished and a change in acidity or alkalinity has taken place o Redox reactions Oxidation is loss of electrons Called reducing agent Reduction is gain of electrons Called oxidizing agent Oxidation Numbers can be assigned in a redox reactions to see where the transfer of electrons occurred Can also be used to see whether or not a redox reaction took place o Galvimetric analysis Uses a known substance to find an unknown substance
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