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Geol 107 Midterm 2 Review Guide Liu UIUC

by: mandera2

Geol 107 Midterm 2 Review Guide Liu UIUC GEOL 107

Marketplace > University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign > Geology > GEOL 107 > Geol 107 Midterm 2 Review Guide Liu UIUC

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This is a study guide for Midterm 2. This consolidates all lecture and book notes from Chapters 5-9 and covers what will be on the midterm: Minerals, rocks, and geologic time. If you memorize this...
Physical Geology
Liu, L
Study Guide
Geol107, geol, Geology, 107, midterm, UIUC, Liu, reviewguide, review, study, Lecture, notes
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by mandera2 on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 107 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Liu, L in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
Geol 107: Exam 2 Review Guide Minerals, Rocks, and Geologic Time Ch. 5: Minerals Mineral- a ​naturally occurring​, ​inorganic​ ​solid​ with an ​orderly crystalline structure​ and well defined composition​. -Any material that satisfies these five qualities can be called a mineral. -Examples: Quartz, Halite, Feldspar, Mica, Olivine, Calcite, Ice -Not minerals: Sugar- organic compound Coal- organic compound, no crystalline structure Obsidian/Volcanic Glass- no orderly crystalline structure Crystallization- Ions chemically bond to form an orderly internal structure. Specific processes of crystallization are: 1. Solidification from melt 2. Solidification from vapor 3. Precipitation from solution 4. Solid state diffusion 5. Biomineralization Polymorph- structural variation in minerals. A phase change occurs when a mineral changes from a polymorph to another polymorph, i.e. changing structure. Minerals are identified by these qualities: 1. Color-- this is the worst indicator of minerals/rocks as color can vary vastly 2. Crystal Shape 3. Streak 4. Cleavage 5. Strength-- hardness of a mineral and if it shows fracture There are 5 main groups of minerals you must know for this test: 1. Silicates- majority of minerals are silicates. Low density, light color(felsic comes from ​fe​ldspar and ​si​licon), and will usually combine with metal cations. Sheet silicates have 2 silicate molecules per metal atom and form sheets(mica). Framework silicates are the rest, and show crystal formation(quartz). 2. Carbonates- commonly biologically made. Will react with acid. Calcite and dolomite are examples. 3. Sulfides 4. Sulfates 5. Halides 6. Native metals- pure metal atoms. Examples are gold, copper, and iron. Rock- coherent, naturally occurring solid Ch. 6: Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks- Formed from molten material called magma(intrusive igneous) or lava(extrusive igneous). They originate from hotspots, volcanoes, and mid-ocean ridges(which is the most common origin of igneous rocks). Igneous rocks are classified by: 1. Texture- fine grained(aphanitic), which is indicative of a fast cooling rate and extrusive rocks. No crystals visible to the naked eye; coarse grained(phaneritic), which is indicative of a slow cooling rate and intrusive rocks. Large crystal formation; or porphyritic, which is indicative of two different cooling rates and is considered extrusive. Some coarse grained crystals surrounded by fine grained rock. Glassy and vesicular are indicators of extrusive volcanic rocks. 2. Composition-felsic, intermediate, mafic, or ultramafic. Felsic rocks contain a lot of silicates and come from a viscous lava. As you move towards ultramafic rocks, rock will contain less silicates, have a higher metal content(iron and magnesium), and will come from a runnier lava. Names are based on magma compositions. -Bowen’s reaction series lays out the order of igneous rocks that form from magma by temperature. Felsic rocks crystallize first, towards ultramafic rocks. -magma is formed by a decrease in pressure, increase in temperature, and/or addition of volatiles. Magma will always be more felsic than the source rock -Products of a volcano: Ash and cinders, pumice, blocks, volcanic bombs. H2O, CO2, SO2, and H2S Igneous rocks to know: Granite, Diorite, Gabbro, Basalt, Andesite, Rhyolite Ch. 7: Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks- sediments are cemented to form new rock or precipitated from solution. Nearly 75% of Earth’s surface is sedimentary rocks, but this is a very thin layer. Qualities of sedimentary rocks include bedding, ripple marks, mud cracks, and fossils. Weathering- physical breakdown(disintegration) and chemical alteration(decomposition) of rock at or near the surface. Mechanical weathering is a physical process and can be caused by frost wedging, unloading resulting in expansion, thermal expansion, and biological activity. Chemical weathering is a chemical process in the form of dissolution, oxidation, or hydrolysis. Erosion- physical removal of material by water, wind, or ice Compaction- overlying sediments squeeze sediments into denser masses. Increase in pressure of overlying material. Cementation- water percolates through sediment grains, dissolved material precipitates and cements grains together. Sedimentary rock types: 1. Detrital(clastic)- sediment was transported as solid particles (sandstone) 2. Chemical- sediment precipitated from solution (Halite/Rock Salt) 3. Organic- from plant remains(coal) Sedimentary rocks are classified by: 1. Texture- Grain size, shape(rounded or angular particles), and sorting(well sorted to not sorted) 2. Composition Ch. 8: Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rocks- change of one rock type to another resulting in increased density, change in grain size, reorientation of mineral grains(foliation), and/or formation of new minerals. The rock is never melted! Metamorphism is driven by higher temperature(contact metamorphism), higher pressure, differential stress(force is different in different directions), and/or volatile fluids. Metamorphic rocks are classified by: 1. Texture- dense, compact, interlocking crystal grains. Foliated, nonfoliated, or porphyroblastic(small number of very large crystals, common with garnet). 2. Foliation- preferred orientation of grains, perpendicular to the direction of force Important metamorphic examples: Hornfels- high temperature but low pressure, so no foliation present. Blueschist- basalt, mafic, results from high pressure and low temperature. Commonly found along oceanic subducting plates. As temperature and pressure increase: shale metamorphoses into slate into phyllite, into schist, into gneiss, into migmatite. Regional metamorphism occurs along convergent plate boundaries Geologic Time -relative dating, radiometric dating, and stratigraphic principles Uniformitarianism- processes observed today were operating in the past Original Horizontality- sedimentary rocks are nearly horizontal when formed Superposition- Sedimentary rocks on bottom are older than sedimentary rocks on top. Cross cutting relationships- intrusions are younger than the surrounding rock, inclusions are older than the surrounding rock Principle of fossil succession- fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite order Great unconformity- proterozoic-Cambrian boundary(540 Mya) Radiometric dating- dating rocks based on radioactive isotopes


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