New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

exam 2 study guide: Ch. 11, 12, & 13

by: Holly Stevens

exam 2 study guide: Ch. 11, 12, & 13 BISC 205

Marketplace > University of Delaware > Biology > BISC 205 > exam 2 study guide Ch 11 12 13
Holly Stevens

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is the study guide for the exam on chapters 11 (human organization), 12 (cardiovascular system) and 13 (lymphatic and immune system)
BISC 205
Study Guide
Biology, bisc205, health, Cardiovascular, LYMPHATIC SYSTEM, immune, anatomy, anatomy immune system, body, humanbodysytems, Heart, EKG
50 ?




Popular in BISC 205

Popular in Biology

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Holly Stevens on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BISC 205 at University of Delaware taught by Reed in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see BISC 205 in Biology at University of Delaware.


Reviews for exam 2 study guide: Ch. 11, 12, & 13


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/06/16
KNOW FOR EXAM:  Chapters 11, 12, and 13  Look at questions at back of chapters Chapter 11- Organization- level of hierarchy o Different types of tissues  Epithelial  Covers surfaces and lines body cavities  Protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and filtration  Connective  Binds organs together, provides support, fills spaces, produces blood cells, stores fat  Loose fibrous- beneath skin and most epithelial layers, supports and binds organs  Adipose- cells are filled with fat  Dense fibrous- collagenous fibers tightly packed; dermis of skin, tendons, ligaments; functions in support  hyaline cartilage- cells in lacunae; occurs in the nose, walls of resp. tract, at ends of bones  compact bone- cells in concentric circles; occurs in bones of skeleton;  Muscles  Skeletal- striated cells with multiple nuclei; voluntary  Smooth- spindle shaped cells, no striations; involuntary  Cardiac- branching, striated cells; pumping of the heart; involuntary  Nerves  Contains nerve cells called neuronsconduct nerve impulses o Body systems  Integumentary  Skin- epidermis (stratified aquamous epitherlium) dermis (fibrous connective tissue)  Hair, nails, oil and sweat glands, blood vessels, nerves  Cardiovascular  Heart pumps blood and sends it under pressure to the blood vessels  Blood distributes heat, nutrients, and O2 throughout body  Lymphatic and Immune Systems  Lymphatic- lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, o Protects body from disease by purifying lymph and storing lymphocytes (white blood cells responsible for active immunity) o Vessels absorb fat from the digestive system and collect excess fluid from the cardiovascular system  Immune- all the cells in the body that protect us from disease  Digestive system  Mouth, espophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine,  Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas  Respiratory system  Lungs and the tubes that take air to and from them  Urinary system  Kidneys, urinary bladder, tubes that carry urine  Rids body of metabolic wastes  Nervous system  Brain, spinal cord, associated nerves  Musculoskeletal system  Bones hold and protect body parts  Assists in movement and posture  Endocrine system  Produces hormones, coordinates organ systems, regulates metabolism and stress responses  Reproductive system  Produces and transports gametes  Nurtures and gives birth to offspring o Homeostasis  Negative feedback  Keeps variable close to a fixed point o Ex: pancreas suspects blood glucose level is too high, secretes insulin  BSL returns to normal, pancreas is no longer stimulated  Positive feedback  Brings about greater change in same direction as stimulus o Process of blood clotting: injured tissues release chemicals that activate platelets  platelets initiate clotting process Chapter 12- Cardiovascular system o Structure and 4 chambers  Two upper, thin walled atria  Two lower, thick walled ventricles  Atrioventricular valves  Tricuspid on right side  Bicuspid on left side  Semilunar valves  Pulmonary valve- between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk  Aortic semilunar valve- between left ventricle and aorta o Blood vessels  Walls of arteries and veins have three layers:  Inner layer: endothelium with a basement membrane w elastic fibers  Middle layer: smooth muscle  Outer layer: connective tissue (collagen fibers)  Arteries: carry blood away from heart, thicker wall than veins  Veins: take blood from capillary beds to the heart; often have valves that prevent backflow of blood; larger diameter than arteries o Coronary sinus empties into right atrium as well as the superior and inferior vena cava o Pulmonary veins bring blood to left atrium (O2 rich blood) o EKG  Recording of electrical changes that occur in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle  P wave: SA node triggers impulse  atrial contraction  QRS complex: ventricles are about to contract  T wave: ventricle fibers recover o Blood clotting- prothrombin, thrombin, fibrinogen 1. Blood vessel is punctured 2. Platelets congregate and form a plug 3. Platelets and damaged tissue release prothrombin activator  initiates cascade of enzymatic reactions and converts plasma protein prothrombin to thrombin  Thrombin serves two short amino acid chains from each fibrinogen molecule, activating it 4. Fibrin threads form and trap RBCs o Blood  Blood cells- leukocytes (WBCs) and erythrocytes (RBCs)  WBCs o Neutrophils-phagocytize pathogens o Eosinophils- protect against parasitic worms o Basophils- release histamine  inflammation o Lymphocytes- B and T cells o Monocytes- phagocytic dendritic cells and macrophages  Formed elements vs plasma  Formed elements: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets  Plasma: liquid portion of blood o Mostly water o Plasma proteins- albumin, antibodies, fibrinogen  5.25 liters of blood in average body  average of 70 bpm- how many blood pumping per minute? 5250 mL of blood = 5.25 L/min (about a minute to make blood circuit) cardiac output Immune and lymphatic system o Primary and secondary lymphatic organs  Primary- red marrow, thymus  Secondary- spleen, lymph nodes (where lymphocytes become activated) o Thoracic and lymphatic duct returning the lymph to subclavian vein (return to circulatory system) o Cells of immune system  T cells  Helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells  B cells  Activated in lymph node and spleen  Activated B cells become plasma cells or memory cells  Memory b and t cells  T cells have storage vacuoles o Perforins form pores in abnormal cell membrane o Granzymes include apoptosis  Perforin and granzymes- enzymes that move through perforations o Primary defense o Mechanical and chemical defense  Mechanical- skin and mucous membranes  Chemical- oil glands on skin, stomach pH o Inflammation  Redness, heat, swelling, pain  Mast cells (release histamine), macrophages, dendritic cells (release cytokines) promote inflammatory response o Neutrophils and natural killer cells- 1 line of defense  Phagocytes- cells that migrate through walls of dilated capillaries  Engulf pathogens o ABO blood groups  O- universal donor  Ab- universal recipient  Antibodies and antigens  Type O has no antigens  both anti-A and anti-B antibodies  Type AB has both antigens  neither A nor B antibodies  In a blood transfusion, it’s the antigen of the donor and the and the antibodies of recipient that’s important  Structure of antibody  Two long polypeptide chains and two short chains  The shape of the antigen fits the shape of the binding site  Classes of antibodies MADGE Class Distribution function IgG Main antibody type Binds to pathogens IgM Largest antibody Activates complement; clumps cells IgA Secretions- saliva and Prevents pathogens from milk attaching to epithelial cells IgD Surface of immature B Readiness of B cell to cells respond to antigens IgE Eosinophils in blood and Immediate allergic mast cells in tissues response and protection against parasitic worms  RH factors  Positive and negative o Immune system diseases  Autoimmune disease/immunodeficiency disease


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.