Phil 1000 Exam One Study Guide
Phil 1000 Exam One Study Guide PHIL 1000 - 01
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabbie Scott on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Matthew McGrath in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Review Sheet for PHIL 1000 Midterm Tu 10/11 The midterm covers all material from validity and soundness up through the lecture on contemporary ethics. In preparing for the test, please consult all handouts on Blackboard as well as my slides and reading notes. But this sheet should help, too. The test is like the quiz but longer. It will consist of approximately 30-40 questions. Many will be quick and straightforward but some will require significant thought. Basic concepts to know: 1. Validity and soundness (logic lecture) - know the definitions - be able to apply those definitions to particular arguments. - know what modus ponens and modus tollens are. 2. What is Thrasymachus’s definition of justice? What is Socrates’ definition? 3. Three kinds of good (Plato) - good in itself only - good in itself and in its results. - good only in its results. 4. What is psychological egoism? 5. What is cultural relativism? 6. The two kinds of reason (Hume) - demonstrative - what does it discover? - probabilistic – what does it discover? 7. The role of reason vs. the role of passion (Hume) 8. What is it for reason to guide passion? (Hume) 9. Hypothetical vs. categorical imperatives – what’s the difference? (Kant) 10. An action’s conforming to duty vs. the action’s being done from duty (Kant) 11. The good will is the only unconditional good – what does this mean? (Kant) 12. What is consequentialism? 13. What is utilitarianism? 14. What is strong non-consequentialism? What is weak non-consequentialism? Examples to know. Know what the point of each example is. 1. The ring of Gyges example. (Plato) 2. The Abraham Lincoln example of the pigs (Feinberg) 3. The oceanliner example (Feinberg) 4. The experience machine (Nozick) a. Know also the relevance of the Matrix and the Truman Show 5. The willful murder example (Hume) 6. The apartment example (Hume) 7. The example of the brave adversary (Hume) 8. The shopkeeper example (Kant) 9. Lucky vs. unlucky bad driver (and lucky vs. unlucky good driver) (lecture on Kant) Philosophical ideas to know: 1. Psychological egoism. Know what Glaucon and Adeimantus, Hume, and Feinberg think about this issue. 2. Do we care only about how things feel on the inside? Know Nozick on this. 3. What is the universal law formulation of the Categorical Imperative? Be able to apply it – the conception test and the willing test. (Kant) 4. What is the Humanity Principle? Be able to apply it. (Kant) 5. What does Hume mean when he says an “ought” can’t be derived from an “is”? 6. What does Hume mean when he says “reason is the slave of the passions? 7. Know what consequentialism is, and what the problems are for it. Know what the main problem is for strong non-consequentialism. (lecture this Tuesday). 8. What is utilitarianism? (lecture this Tuesday) Arguments to know and understand: 1. Know how Socrates’ refutes Cephalus’s definition of justice. (Plato) 2. Be able to complete Socrates’s arguments against Simonides’s (Polemarchus’s) definition of justice. You don’t have to memorize the definition or Socrates’s arguments against it. But have a sense of how the arguments go – be able to fill in blanks in the arguments. (Plato) 3. Know Glaucon’s argument that justice in itself isn’t better than injustice in itself. What’s the problem with it? (Plato and lecture) 4. Know Feinberg’s responses to the “objective from genesis” argument and the “pleasure” argument for psychological egoism. Feinberg argues that these arguments fail – have a sense of why. 5. Know Feinberg’s argument that in some cases one feels pleasure only because one values things other than one’s own pleasure. (You wrote a paper on this) 6. Know the three apparently problematic consequences of cultural relativism, and understand why they might be thought to be consequences of cultural relativism and why they might be thought to be problematic. Focus on understanding them, not memorizing them. (Rachels). 7. Know Hume’s argument that morality doesn’t come from reason. 8. Know Hume’s arguments that our praise of the social virtues doesn’t stem from self- love. - the example of the brave and generous adversary - the argument that we praise the means only because we value the end; we praise social virtues because they are useful, and they are useful in achieving the public good regardless of our private good, and therefore we value the public good regardless of our private good. 8. Kant’s argument that moral obligation comes from reason (lecture) Extra Credit material: any of the above plus - What is the trolley problem? Understand the point of the switch case and the bridge case. (These will be discussed in lecture Tuesday) - Think about how Kant could reply to Hume and Hume to Kant. Scott 1 Gabrielle Scott Mr. McGrath Phil 1000 September 10, 2016 Part One: What is psychological hedonism? In short, psychological hedonism is the idea that all actions are fueled selfishly to gain pleasure or for our own interest. While we may assume we are doing an act that is to help someone or something else, we are truly only doing this action for our own self-interest. We are considered to be wholly selfish despite whether our action is good or bad. The counterargument to psychological hedonism would be that the conclusion – all of our actions are committed selfishly – is falsifiable. In some cases, our intention was not intended to better ourselves or gain pleasure. Therefore, these actions were not done selfishly. In these cases, the pleasure we receive after our action is simply the after-effect from performing the said action. This reasoning was explained in the reading through the example Feinberg gives of Abraham Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln was in a discussion with another individual, Ed. In their discussion, Lincoln is explaining that all actions are committed due to selfish desires. In the middle of this discussion, Lincoln spots a sow squealing over her piglets that have gotten into a slough and are likely to drown. Lincoln stops the coach and saves the piglets. Ed says that Lincoln just did an unselfish act, but Lincoln responds that he simply did it for his own piece of mind. Thus, this ties Lincoln back to his original argument that all actions are committed for selfish desires. Scott 2 Part two: Furthermore, Feinberg gives the reader a counterargument to the idea of psychological hedonism. The reconstruction is as follows: 1. Not all actions are performed solely for self-interest; some are performed for the interest of others 2. Pleasure is only a by-product of many actions 3. Not all actions are motivated by self-interest for pleasure (1,2)
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