Exam 1 Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mariah Viles on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 100 at Missouri State University taught by Tara K Herring in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 143 views.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Exam #1 Study Guide Need to know how to do / Answer Chapter One: Know the definitions of the following terms: Inferences: Conclusions drawn from observed evidence and previous knowledge Cell: Basic unit of all living things Cell membrane: Semipermeable boundary of a cell, part of all cells (pro and eu) Cytoplasm: Gellike filling in all cells (pro and eu) Organelles: Structures (compartments) within a cell that perform specialized functions (ex: golgi body) Tissue: Group of the same specialized cells that performs a certain function (ex: muscle, nerve) Organ: Group of tissues that form a unit with a specific overall function (ex: heart, liver) Organ system: Group of organs that perform a major body activity. (ex: digestive system) Nucleus: “Brain” of the cell, contains the genetic information of the cell. Mitochondria: “Power Plant”, breaks down sugars to provide energy for cell activities Cytoskeleton: “Bones” gives the cell shape and allows movement (made of proteins) Endoplasmic reticulum: “Factory” produces a variety of cell products, especially proteins Golgi apparatus: “Shipping Center” packages a variety of cell products (using membranes) to be used inside cells and to be shipped out of the cells Cell wall: “Security Fence” protects and supports the PLANT cell Central vacuole: “Water tower” stores water and other cell products and provides cell support through water pressure (plant cell) Chloroplasts: “Solar Panel” converts sun energy into sugars for the cell to use through photosynthesis Homeostasis: Internal balance in spite of changing external conditions Involuntary: automatic adjustments (Goosebumps) Voluntary: behavior (getting a blanket) Nervous system: Controls Rapid, shortterm responses in the body (ex: reflex) Endocrine system: Controls slow, longterm responses in the body (ex: hormones) Reflex: Regulatory response to heat and other stimuli perceived as dangerous (directed by the nervous system) Hormones: Small regulatory molecules used by the endocrine system as a way to “communicate” between body systems Negative feedback: Involves a regulatory response that changes a system in a direction opposite to the stimulus. (lowers glucose levels in the blood when they get too high) Positive feedback: Involves a regulatory response that changes a system in a direction that matches that of the stimulus. (Blood clotting or contractions) Biology: Study of Life Scientific inquiry: Methodical process of asking and answering questions Hypothesis: An idea or explanation that you then test through study and experimentation Experimental and control groups, and replication: Experimental: gets real test (manipulated) Control: gets placebo Replication: doing the experiment over and over and drawing conclusions Understand that indirect observations of specific parameters can help a doctor understand the health of your body systems. Why can the human body be referred to as a system of compartments? It is distinct from the outside environment (enclosed) How does the compartmentalization of the human body contribute to its ability to maintain homeostasis? Many conditions vital to survival are different from those normally found in nature. In many cases, unmodified external conditions would make survival impossible Understand the hierarchical organization of the body (organelles > cells > tissues > organs > organ systems). Which cell parts do animal and plant cells share, and what are their functions? Nucleus= “brain” of the cell. Contains the genetic information of the cell Mitochondria= “power plant” of the cell. Breaks down sugars to provide energy for cell activities Cytoskeleton= “bones” of the cell. Gives the cell shape and allows movement (made of proteins) Endoplasmic reticulum= “factory” of the cell. Produces a variety of cell products, especially proteins Golgi apparatus= “shipping center” of the cell. Packages a variety of cell products (using membranes) to be used inside cells and shipped outside of cells Which cell parts do plant cells have that animal cells don’t possess? What are their functions? Cell wall= “security fence/backbone” of the cell, protects and supports the cell (found outside cell membrane) Central vacuole= “water tower” of the cell, stores water and other cell products and provides cell support (water pressure) Chloroplasts= “solar panel/fuel factory” of the cell, converts sun energy into sugars for cell use (through photosynthesis) Why are these structures not necessary in animal cells? Animals don’t need a cell wall/ central vacuole because they have bones and spines and do not need to store water. They don’t have chloroplasts because they do not use photosynthesis. In medical terminology, why is the word “normal” not used to describe the most commonly found condition? Normal may not be healthy , ex: Obesity Why can the loss of homeostatic balance between different body systems result in death? Because if your organs are not working correctly and homeostasis has failed that could mean, for example, your blood isn't circulating right you would die. Are your body’s adjustments to maintain homeostasis always involuntary? No, Ex. if you're thirsty you can get a drink What are the main functions of the nervous and endocrine systems, and how do they differ in the types of responses that they provide? They both are responsible for maintaining homeostasis. Nervousrapid and shortterm. Provides safety from immediate dangers. Endocrineslow and longterm. Provides safety from slow “killers” Be able to recognize examples of positive and negative feedback in the body. *refer to definitions with examples* What are the main steps of the process of scientific inquiry? Observation. Asking a question. Forming a hypothesis= possible answer to the question. Making a prediction. Conducting an experiment (test) involving subjects grouped into experimental and control groups. Repeating (replicating) the experiment and drawing conclusions. Maintaining records and making more observations (and new hypotheses) Why does an experiment need experimental and control groups? To keep unbiased Why are scientific experiments replicated? Because nothing is ever proven and they could find something new Can anything ever be proven in science? Why not? No, there should always be room for more testing. You can say something is “supported” or “upheld” but not proven Chapter Two Know the definitions of the following terms: Diffusion: The process by which substances spontaneously move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower. Circulatory system: Transport system , includes heart and blood vessels Heart: Pump (muscle) that keeps blood moving, with four chambers and two large blood vessels Aorta: Large artery that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body Arteries: Vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the rest of the body Vena cava: Large vein that carries deoxygenated blood to the heart from the rest of the body Vein:, Vessels that carry blood back to the heart from the rest of the body Capillaries: Where veins and arteries become very very small Blood: Contains plasma, blood cells and platelets Plasma: Liquid part of blood Red blood cells: (Erythrocytes) doughnutshaped cells that transport oxygen by binding it to iron containing hemoglobin Hemoglobin: Binds to oxygen to red blood cells White blood cells: (Leukocytes) fight infection Platelets: help blood clot Heart attack: death of part of the heart due to loss of blood flow to heart muscles Gas exchange system: (Pulmonary System) transport air from the external environment to the lungs and vice versa Alveoli: air sacs Trachea: windpipe that carries air to the lungs Bronchi: branching structures of the trachea that lead into the lungs Gradient: Difference in concentration from one area to another Differentially (selectively) permeable: Some molecules can cross and some cannot Osmosis: the diffusion of water (high to low) Interstitial fluid: Watery substance surrounding body cells, across which diffusion from blood vessels occurs. Lymphatic system: Functions to produce and distribute white blood cells and to maintain blood volume by returning excess interstitial fluid to the blood. Edema: Swelling due to the accumulation of excess interstitial fluids Lymph: Interstitial fluid that returns to the blood stream by following the small lymph vessels back to the heart Urinary system: Adjusts the blood’s composition, removing wastes and balancing salt concentrations Urea: MEtabolic, toxic waste product of the liver and muscle cells Urine: Product of the Urinary system containing water, salts and waste products Urinary bladder: Where urine is held Nephrons: The functional units of the kidneys Prokaryotes: Singlecelled organisms without nuclei or internal compartments from about 3.5 million years ago Eukaryotes:Cells with internal organizations and compartments able to withstand greater environmental challenges Understand the main functions of the circulatory, gas exchange, lymphatic, and urinary systems. *explained in the next section* What gases is the circulatory system bringing to and from body cells? Bringing in Oxygen and taking away Carbon Dioxide Know that incoming food is processed by the digestive system before being transported by the circulatory system and that wastes are brought by the circulatory system to the urinary system before being excreted. What is the main organ of the circulatory system? What are the names of the two types of chambers found in it? Heart, Aorta: from heart to body (going out) Vena Cava: from body to heart (coming in) Understand the general circuit that blood follows as it moves away from the heart to body capillaries and from body capillaries to the heart. Why does every cell in your body need to be close to a capillary? (By what smallscale process are gases/nutrients/wastes being exchanged between the blood and body cells?) Diffusion is the process of exchanging such things. Every cell is right next to or one cell away from a capillary. This is because diffusion is a slow process that cannot travel long distances. What are the functions of the three types of solids found in blood (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets)? Red carry oxygen to cells and carbon dioxide from cells. White fight infection Platelets clot blood What compound is responsible for binding oxygen to red blood cells (and giving them their red color)? Hemoglobin How can CPR be used (in the absence of heart contractions) to help the brain survive? It pumps the heart and what little oxygen in in your breath is enough to sustain someone's brain function Why do lungs have such a large amount of surface area? You are able to take in the large amount of oxygen that you need because of the large surface area present inside of your lungs and because the exchange is rapid (over small distances) Why does oxygen move from an alveolus into a capillary (and why does carbon dioxide move into the alveolus)? Oxygen in moving to capillaries so that they may take oxygen to cells. Carbon dioxide is moving to alveolus so that it may take it outside of the body because it is waste. What are some of the mechanisms that your body uses to keep your airway clean? Coughing or gagging How does the Second Law of Thermodynamics (the concept of entropy) explain the concept of diffusion? (everything leads to disorder) sugar will disperse through water because it does not want to be in a neat pile all together. It will disperse itself to equalize concentration Be able to predict which way solutes will diffuse if you are given a hypothetical situation. More sugar on outside water will diffuse out more sugar on inside water will diffuse in. Everything will move to where there is less of it to equalize concentration Do small molecules or large molecules move more quickly across a cell membrane? Smaller Be able to predict which way water will move (via osmosis) if you are given a hypothetical situation. *explained above* Why is the circulatory system needed if diffusion is always occurring? (How quickly does diffusion occur?) Diffusion takes too long Understand the sequence of regulatory steps that your body performs during heavy exercise. When you exercise your mitochondria break down sugars faster because you need the energy. When you break down sugars that releases carbon dioxide. When more CO2 than normal enters the blood stream the Ph lowers (becomes acidic). This tells your body that you need more oxygen, causing you to breath faster. (Why does your blood become acidic? How does the body detect this? What does your body do to counteract this situation? Why can’t you hold your breath until you die?) There gets too much carbon dioxide in the blood stream so it becomes more acidic. The endocrine system realizes this and tells your body you need more oxygen(breath heavier). Breathing is an involuntary response Know that interstitial fluid “cycled” by contact between the interstitial fluid and capillaries Why is this “cycling” important? (What is taken away from cells in this way?) cell wastes and toxins Know that “breakdown” of this fluid cycling causing edema Know that there is there always more fluid leaving the bloodstream than reentering it What are the main organs of the urinary system? Kidneys to ureters to bladder to urethra Why is it important to remove urea from the body? Urea is full of toxic waste from your body How can the kidneys help your body respond to dehydration? When you are dehydrated the kidneys conserve water. (do not give any to bladder) What is the functional unit of the kidney (the unit that actually filters wastes from incoming blood)?Nephrons Why is urine usually so highly concentrated? Because our body conserves most of the water we take in instead of releasing it through urine. What major advantage do multicellular organisms have over singlecelled organisms? Reproduction is easier in singlecelled organisms, but they don’t have our capacity for surviving under extreme environmental conditions (including terrestrial environments) What characteristics differentiate prokaryotes from eukaryotes? Pro Eu Multicellular Single celled Nucleus No nucleus Organelles May not have organelles 1.4 years old 3.5 years old Can withstand different environments (has homeostasis) Cannot withstand different environments (no homeostasis) Chapter Three Know the definitions of the following terms: Neurons: Specialized nerve cells that help organisms to respond to stimuli Nervous system:Controls and coordinates the body’s responses to stimuli and integrates the activities of other organ systems Central nervous system: Major information processing center of the body (brain+spinal cord) Peripheral nervous system: All nerve tissue found outside of the brain and spinal cord Cell body: Contains the cell nucleus and has extensions to conduct nerve impulses Dendrites: Extensions that bring information to the cell body Axons: extensions that carry impulses away from the cell body Nerves: bundles of axons Glial cells: protect, support and insulate neurons Brain: control center of the nervous system Nerve impulse: The propagation of an action potential along the length of a neuron Synapse: Junction of two neurons or a neuron and a muscle Synaptic cleft: Small space between two nerve endings Neurotransmitters: Chemicals that transmit neurological info from one neuron (presynaptic) to another (postsynaptic) Excitatory: Describes neurotransmitters that make a postsynaptic neuron more likely to initiate a nerve impulse (ex: nicotine) Inhibitory: Describes neurotransmitters that make a postsynaptic neuron less likely to initiate a nerve impulse (ex: alcohol) Hormones: Small signaling molecules secreted by endocrine system glands Endocrine system: Collection of glands, cells and special neurons that produce hormones distributed by the bloodstream Cellular receptors: Proteins that have a binding site complementary in shape to a specific hormone. Steroid hormones: Diffuse through cell membranes to the nucleus of a cell, where they will bind to receptors and alter cell activities Peptide hormones: Bind to receptors on cell membranes, activating cell membrane proteins Immune system: Provides protection against infections and toxins Nonspecific defenses: Protect you from infections in a general fashion Pathogens: potentially harmful microorganisms Macrophages: Cells that engulf invaders and digest them with enzymes Specific defenses: Cellmediated or Antibodymediated responses ? Cellmediated response: relies upon certain immune cells to directly kill pathogens or pathogen infected cells Antibodymediated response:relies upon molecules that attach to pathogens and indirectly cause their death Lymphocytes: specialized white blood cells Tcells: produced from Lymphocytes that matured in the thymus gland Bcells: produced from Lymphocytes that matured in the bone marrow Histocompatibility molecules: Complex of protein molecules coating your cells Antigen: Any pathogen or molecule capable of triggering an immune response Cancer cells: Result when cells no longer obey the homeostatic signals that control their growth Vaccines: Substances designed to deploy the body’s natural defense against a mock pathogen Allergies:Caused by immune responses to nonthreatening antigens Autoimmune diseases: Caused by a breakdown in the immune system, resulting in the body attacking its own cells Understand the main functions of the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Nervous system: Controls and coordinates the body’s responses to stimuli and integrates the activities of other organ systems Endocrine System: collection of glands, cells, and special neurons that produce hormones distributed by the blood stream. Immune System: provides protection against infections and toxins Is chemical signaling more rapid than electrical signaling, or vice versa? Electrical signaling. This is used by your nervous system What type of cells are the functional units of the nervous system, and what is the structure of these cells? Neuron and glial cells. Neurons all have a cell body, which contains a nucleus that directs the cell's activities. Dendrites bring info to the cell body and axons carry impulses away from the cells. Glial cells protect, support, and insulate neurons. Why does your brain float in fluid inside your skull? To protect and absorb shock as well as nourishing the brain Is the interior of a “resting” neuron positively or negatively charged? Negatively What type of pump maintains the ion gradients present across a neuron membrane? Energy requiring sodiumpotassium pump Why does the maintenance of these gradients require energy? Because maintaining the right distribution of sodium and potassium ions on either side of the neuron membrane is an energyrequiring process. The movement of which type of ion “sets off” a nerve impulse? Sodium? How (through which type of structure) does this ion move across the cell membrane? The Gradient using the sodium potassium pump. The axon Which ion provides movement that will reestablish the negative charge in the interior of the neuron? Potassium Understand that the concentration gradient across a neuron membrane represents electrical potential (action potential). Rapid changes in the charge across a cell membrane creates action potential Can nerve impulses move in both directions along a neuron’s axon? Only one direction, dendrite to neuron cell body to axon Can “greater” stimuli produce larger nerve impulses? No, all that is required to initiate an action potential is a minimum, or threshold, amount of stimulation. Are all types of neurons receptive to all types of stimuli? No, the nerves in your eye cannot pick up sound stimuli What can happen when the axons of neurons are damaged? Nerves are bundles of axons, so if they are damaged the connection between stimuli and the brain is severed. Understand how a nerve impulse moves from one cell to another (electrical signal to chemical signal to electrical signal). How can prescription and recreational drugs be used to affect the creation of nerve impulses? They contain chemicals that can serve as neurotransmitters to make nerve impulses more or less likely in neurons Why do we have reflex reactions? (What purpose do they serve?) It provides us with voluntary and involuntary responses to potentially harmful situations. What is the series of steps through which a reflex reaction is generated? (Is the reaction routed through the brain?) The impact of the reflex hammer stimulates a receptor on a sensory neuron,the stimulus generates a nerve impulse, which travels along the sensory neuron to your spinal cord,the the nerve impulse stimulates a motor neuron to produce another nerve impulse. That motor neuron is connected to the muscles in your leg. (no) Be able to recognize some of the characteristics of a fightorflight response generated by the nervous and endocrine systems. Bronchi relax (allowing more gas exchange) Pupils dilate (allowing better vision) Heart beats stronger/faster Liver releases glucose into the blood Digestive organs relax, allowing energy/blood supplies to be used in other ways Bladder and colon stretch to hold more contents Adrenal glands are signaled to send out hormones that will enable you to react quickly How are hormones transported through the body? Endocrine system, though the blood stream Which hormone is associated with a fightorflight reaction? Adrenaline Know that the presence/absence of the correct cellular receptor determines whether or not a hormone will be “recognized” by a cell or organ. What is the main difference between steroid hormones and peptide hormones? Steroid hormones are nonpolar and can cross cell membranes to reach intracellular receptors. Peptide hormones are water soluble, polar, can't cross cell membranes and attach to cell surface receptors. Be able to recognize general examples of nonspecific (skin, tears, saliva, macrophages) and specific (cellmediated and antibodymediated) defenses. Why is it beneficial to have some types of bacteria growing on/in you? Some bacteria in the large intestine produce vitamin K, a vitamin important for normal blood clotting that the human body cannot make. Harmless bacteria compete effectively against pathogens that also occasionally inhabit your body. Understand what happens during cellmediated and antibodymediated specific defense responses by the immune system. (Cellmediated response: Cellmediated responses begin with the ingestion of a pathogen by a macrophage, which then allows a Tcell to recognize the pathogen’s antigens (proteins). A second type of Tcells is then activated, and these will destroy all infected cells. Antibodymediated response: Antibodymediated responses also being with the ingestion of a pathogen by a macrophage, which then allows a Tcell to recognize the pathogen’s antigens (proteins). Bcells are stimulated to produce antibodies (pathogen attackers) to “flag and clot” the pathogens for ingestion by macrophages.) How do histocompatibility molecules (proteins) allow your body to discern “self” from “nonself” cells? They coat the outside of each of your cells. When the cells of your immune system patrol your body for foreign organisms, they recognize the the histocompatibility cells and don't attack. Why does your immune system attack “self” cells that are cancerous? Because they produce unusual proteins, called tumor specific antigens that do not appear on the surface of normal cells. What will happen to organs that are transplanted into individuals with the wrong histocompatibility molecules? Your body will attack the new organ and you could die and or reject the organ Why are immunesuppressive drugs used to increase transplantation success also hazardous to your health? It can increase infection risks. Why is the body able to respond more quickly to a pathogen that it has “seen” before? The immune system has a "memory" of infections, enabling it to produce more powerful second and third attacks against a pathogen. Why would cold, flu, and AIDS viruses not be “recognized” easily by your body, even if you have encountered versions of them before? BEcause these infections change and “disguise” themselves all the time Why do vaccines better help your body to be prepared for infections? It gets your body to recognize the potential infections and fights off the mock infection What voluntary choices can you make to improve immune system health? Better sleep, eat better, less stress, go running, take vitamin C What immune system malfunction causes allergies? Your body finds the nonthreatening antigens threatening and tries to fight them What immune system malfunction is responsible for autoimmune diseases? The body fails to be able to tell the difference between self and nonself cells How can societal decisions impact the immune system health of large numbers of individuals? Stop smoking cigarettes , stop drunk driving, limit air pollution and water pollution Chapter Four Know the definitions of the following terms: Metabolism: The sum of all chemical reactions occurring in an organism Matter: Atoms and molecules (of which all body parts are made) Atom: Smallest unit of an element that retains all of the characteristics of that element Molecule: Group of two or more atoms bound together Heterotrophs: Organisms that obtain energy from foods by ingesting or absorbing them (Ex; human / fungi) Autotrophs: Organisms that produce their own food from smaller molecules. (Ex; plants/protists) Chemoautotrophs: Make sugar from carbon dioxide and water using hydrogen sulfide as the energy source Photosynthesis: Use of sunlight by autotrophs in order to build biological molecules such as sugar and oxygen Energy: The ability to work Work: Changing the position of an object or its physical form Potential energy: the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative to others, stresses within itself, electric charge, and other factors. ATP: An energy storing molecule Why is all animal life dependent upon plants? Animals needs oxygen to live and also they eat plants What energy source do plants use to make sugars? Carbon Dioxide and water and sunlight What are the four groups of biologicallyimportant macromolecules? Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids Do larger molecules or smaller molecules contain more potential energy? Larger molecules Why does it take energy to produce large molecules from small molecules? (Remember the concept of entropy…) Larger molecules are harder to keep together because of entropy. There are also more bonds in larger molecules. Bonds are where the energy is stored What is the original source of the fossil fuel reserves that we use today? Decayed plant cells from prehistoric times. (Dinosaur times) Are all autotrophs photosynthetic? No some are chemoautotrophs In what way are chemoautotrophs dependent upon photosynthesis? The need the oxygen from photosynthesis What types of organisms can photosynthesize? Plants and protista Which molecule, ATP or ADP, represents more potential energy? ATP it is charged and holds more phosphate (3) than ADP which is uncharged
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