INTRO TO PSYCH Exam One Review/ Study Guide
INTRO TO PSYCH Exam One Review/ Study Guide 1004
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Margaret Vaughan on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Benjamin DeVore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Psychology EXAM ONE REVIEW SESSION Psychological science Definition: The scientific study of behavior and brain processes Goals: understand, predict, and control SCIENTIFIC METHOD DELGADO STOPS A CHARGING BULL REMOTE SIMULATION OF THE AMYGDALA Early history— dark ages— renaissance (philosophy and physiology) Wundt: Mid 19th century FIRST PSYCHOLOGY LAB THE RENAISSANCE 1. LAMETRIE “MAN THE MACHINE” POP APOLOGIZES TO SCIENCE 1997 2. DECARTES FATHER OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY THE BRAIN KNOW THE DIFFERENT PARTS AND THEIR PURPOSES “the little man” Language Areas Broca’s area— left frontal cortex— speech production Wernicke’s area— speech comprehension— left Language Research methods outline 1. psychology as a science 2. methods 1. Case history vs single- subject experiment 2. test method— administrating test 3. survey method—administrating a survey 4. observational method— sitting and watching 5. correlational method— a way to measure relationships, correlation does not mean causation. Relationship between ice cream consumption and water consumption- both driven by heat. 6. experimental method— a manipulation of the independent variable and KNOW THIS How do we explain behavior? 1. in the sciences: 1. most common explanation: reification explanation by labeling What about the level of explanation? 1. Psychology 1. biology chemistry physics PHYSICS the uncertainty principle 1. reduces explanation in physics to the level of explanation of the other sciences. (PICTURES ON PHONE) Research terms 1. factual statements 1. Class performance and arousal level 2. murder an temperature 2. empirical laws 1. performance is related to arousal level The yerkes-dodson law— how much arousal is optimum for best performance 1. theory 1. arousal theory Case history: Retrospective reconstruction Freud and “anna o” (hysteria) Single subject experiment ABAB REVERSAL DESIGN self -abusive behavior naltrexone Multiple baseline design torticollis EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN LEADS TO CAUSATION CORRELATIONAL METHOD (not causation) 1. allows prediction of one variable from the level of another variable 1. vt football and city HOH supply r= 0.00 to 1 r= positive or negative r= +1.00 or -1.00= perfect COEFFICIENT OF DETERMINATION Allows magnitude comparison (r=.7) vs (r=.5) Scatter plots of different correlations A negative correlation= video games and grades Experimental Method 1. Must manipulate a variable 1. independent variable 2. must measure a variable 1. dependent variable 3. allows causality inference 4. must have CONTROL GROUPS 1. crest toothpaste prevents cavities THE MOTOR NEURON 1. axon 2. cell body 3. dendrites 4. myelin sheath 5. action potential 6. terminal fivers of axon 7. buttons THE NEURONAL DOCTRINE NEURON=BASIC UNIT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM all or none law How do neurons communicate? 1. Graded potentials 1. Excitatory (+)=EPSP depolarize cells 2. Inhibitory (-)= IPSP hyper polarize cells Axon membrane when a neuron is at rest its kept at rest by separating the ions by an ion protein channel RESTING POTENTIAL; THRESHOLD; GRADED POTENIALS; AND ACTION POTENTIAL THRESHOLD IS ABOVE RESTING POTENTIAL other neurotransmitters 1. dopamine (DA) 2. norepinephrine (NE) 3. serotonin 4. endorphins or neuropeptides 5. Acetylcholine (ACH) frontal, parietal, Temporal, and occipital lobes TWO BRAINS AND TWO KIDNEYS KNOW LEFT BRAIN VS RIGHT BRAIN right-visual artistic left- factual, understanding Common reactions to stroke KNOW LEFT SIDE VS RIGHT SIDE Crossed control left: 1. controls right side 2. the body right: 1. controls left side 2. the world the frontal lobes Executive functions 1. organization 2. planning 3. sequencing 4. regulatory functions left: speech output stutter fluent right: emotional output labile anger sad fear back of the brain left vs right sensory and motor projection areas Precise topographical representation 1. the homunculus 1. upside down 2. little man frontal lobe: strength back: sensation THE VISUAL FIELDS: ARRANGED MIDLINE TO PERIPHERAL Formaesthesisa CORPUS CALLOSUM THE ALIEN ARM SYNDROME 1. MY PATIENTS 2. A SPLIT BRAIN 1. PREPARATION 3. “BUTTERFLY TUMOR” 4. AGENESIS OF THE CORPUS Callosum TESTING THE SPLIT BRAIN PATIENT Examples of two different brains incongruent logical and prosodic speech 1. what does each brain hear? 1. “my mom just died” 2. “i just won a million dollars” “draw a flower” FLOWER “No draw a beautiful flower” ROSE if you are right handed with a split brain MIXED PRIMARILY EXPRESSIVE APHASIA— WHICH BRAIN WROTE THIS SENTENCE RIGHT BRAIN The senses: TRANSDUCTION THRESHOLD ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD DIFFERENCE THRESHOLD ANATOMY OF THE EYE SCLERA, CHOROID, AND RETINA LAYER— FUNCTIONS CONE IS COLOR RODS ARE OPTIC DISK IS WHAT CREATES YOUR BLIND SPOT VISUAL PATHWAYS BOTH EYES SEND SIGNALS TO BOTH BRAINS GUSTATINO 1. ANATOMY 1. SWEET 2. SOUR 3. SALT 4. BITTER 5. UMAMI visual depth perception binocular cues vs monocular cues Lifespan development FREUD AND PIAGET
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