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by: Nichole Pike


Nichole Pike
OK State
GPA 3.776

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About this Document

This study guide covers material that will be on the second exam.
Mechanical Equipment and Facility Management
Study Guide
HRAD, 3473, mechanical, equipment, and, facility, Management
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nichole Pike on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HRAD 3473 at Oklahoma State University taught by Ryan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Mechanical Equipment and Facility Management in Hotel and Restaurant Administration at Oklahoma State University.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
HRAD 3473 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE ­focus on notes and examples from in class ­reinforce with concepts from textbook  DISCLAIMER: THIS STUDY GUIDE SHOULD BE USED TO AID IN YOUR  INDIVIDUAL STUDYING. THIS IS IN NO WAY COMPREHENSIVE, BUT SHOULD  BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH CLASS MATERIALS PROVIDED BY THE  PROFESSOR FOR THE EXAM. CHAPTER 4 SAFETY AND SECURITY  Safety and the Hospitality Industry o Risk Management­effort to reduce the causes and effects of incidents related to  safety and security  Building Design, Maintenance and Safety  Safety in the Guest Bath  Fire Safety o Fire Prevention can be done through o Fire Detection  notifier system is computer controlled system­tells us which zone it is in  red box is a sprinkler notifier system  heat detectors­react to an absolute temperature in a location  smoke detectors­two types  photoelectric­triggered when smoke particles are scattered  ionization­small radioactive material establishes a flow of ionized  air and when changes, it triggers detector o Fire Notification  Should begin before the emergency (ex. flight attendant)  The first response is usually fear, but training is what overcomes it  Lack of training is usually a lack of action  Some instances there are vibrational alarms for those with hearing  disabilities  Must be on a separate electrical supply that isn’t accessible to the general  public o Fire Suppression  Extinguishers are portable  Built­in sprinkler systems  Two types of pipe; wet pipe and dry pipe  Wet pipe is the system full of water; big supply with points of  delivery throughout building  Each sprinkler head has a different device behind it that keeps the valve  shut  This system must be completely separate and dedicated  Electrical boxes have sensors that notify the fire department when  sprinklers are activated and water is flowing  Sprinklers  fuzzy sprinkler heads are generally located by air vent because of  dirt blowing through vents  a sprinkler company should clean these; not a staff member  little glass tube with colored chemical that ill boil at a certain  temperature that will break the glass or melt the plug­it can be  jarred loose or break and set off sprinkler  The size of the water pipe is based on the coverage of area of a building  Kitchen suppression  Specialized fire suppression systems; separate and designed for a  specific area  Since you can’t use water, firefighting material must be in the tank  Dispersion system is completely different for one type of system­ Grade C o Dry pipe directs the retardant into the area; pipe only has  air in it  Fusable cable link; when it melts and breaks, the system is  activated o Fire Control  Fire dampers­installed in ductwork and when closed it contains the fire to  one area by stopping the flow of oxygen to the area  Smoke sensors­controls smoke dampers; may shut down air handling  system  Stairwell pressurization system­increases the air pressure in stairwells  keeping them relatively free of smoke o Stand Pipe  stand pipe­goes from outside the facility to a specific location inside the  building  does not have water in it­dedicated delivery system for water  allows the fire departments to hook up pump, etc in order to travel to a  th certain floor ex. 9  floor in Drummond  designed to assist fire fighters to get fire to a destination to fight a fire  carry a shorter section of hose  hoses are made out of cotton that break down over time so they must be  replaced  Evacuation Plans o Egress­safe exit from the building  Zones are designed to slow down fires  Ex. fire rated doors that automatically close o Ingress­safe entry for first responders  Security o Key Control  Accessibility for certain people; different for different facility types  Key Control Security  Rationale­ what’s the plan and the reason behind it  Records­who has what key  Retrieval­getting the key back when something changes   Rotation­changing the locking key or code; computer systems are  best for this  Replacement­how do I preplace the keys o Electronic Locks  Accessibility is done quickly and easy and allows for a trail  Terrorism and Other Extraordinary Events CHAPTER 5 WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS  Water Usage in the Lodging Industry  Water Supply o Potable supply and fire system are two separate systems  Flow and PSI o GPM  flow or flow rate  appropriate to devices  flow rate is 3 GPM per sprinkler head  overall flow is 10 GPM for all sprinklers; therefore, there can only be 10  sprinkler heads in order to have appropriate flow and pressure  ineffective flow will not be satisfying needs  PSI  pressure or force  service is the pipe in the street (50­60 PSI)  gravity and friction help us lower the PSI  these two are interrelated  Pumps o centrifuge­brings water in into a part of it and while the wheel is spinning, the fins catch the water and directs (throws) it out another pipe  Valves o each valve is designed for a specific purpose o gate­opens and closes; required for gas and typically used in shut­off systems  gas valves are typically harder to turn off; maybe only turned off with  screwdriver o globe valves­adjust valve­bathroom faucet o (solenoid) electronic valves­timed  automatic sinks­for sanitation  icemaker ex. o check valve or back flow­water can only go one direction  to prevent contamination of water supply o air gap is not a valve but it is a system  prevents back up and contamination  Water Systems o Grouping vertically (stacking) is very important in multi­story buildings o Systems or zones where valves can be turned off for a specific zone  Loop Water Systems o loop water system allows water to be heated at higher floors so that it doesn’t take as long to get hot water o loop system increases the pressure and then brings it back down during the loop to allow the right pressure and flow on multiple stories o used in larger homes o double is the most common o in this system the pumps are running 24/7 o can be applied to different sections and shut down different sections­important  considerations o can put timers in places that close during the night; home, restaurants o water supply or service always comes in underground so it doesn’t freeze and  goes to a water heater of some sort  Water Quality o Aspects of Water  hardness  turbidity­particles are suspended in the water  ex. of seeing all the way to ocean floor vs. Oklahoma lakes   iron­can come from the pipes itself or from the ground  taste and odor  permeable materials o Treating Water  Purifying and Filtering  reverse osmosis­we take everything out of the water, all the  particles, taste, odor and bubbles  more pure than distilled water  taking out the bubbles­lose the minerals; salts, fluoride, etc.  no nutritive value in the water  crystal clear ice is reverse osmosis­not widely manufactured  because of expense  Softening Hard Water  as water is traveling through the earth through aquifers, etc. it  picks up calcium and magnesium salts (not harmful)  the whiteness around the sink is the calcium and magnesium  particles that are left after the water dries  2 things that pull the particles out of the water and is left in things  like laundry, etc. o heat and soap which creates soap curds  film is what is left on car after washing it; the calcium and  magnesium  there’s a lot of saving in soft water  reducing chemical usage o reduce soap usage o reducing the amount of times equipment needs to be  replaced  you have to have a mechanical softening system in order to take  out magnesium and calcium  o Sewer System Types  storm ­drain into another system: river, etc.  vent is a pipe that is attached to the sewer line to allow for air to  help with draining; quicker and faster  also allows for ventilating odors after decomposition away from us  a trap is designed to create a barrier  sanitary­sewer system does not operate with pressure  we rely on slope and gravity in order for the system to work o Discharge/Sewage Water  when these traps are dried up, odors will become apparent and will have to be dealt with o Legionnaires’ Disease  Water Heating o Water Heating Options  Have to make decisions based on energy source  Hard to put timers on gas systems  Electrical resistance is required in some systems but will cost more  Water System Maintenance Concerns  Water for Entertainment and Recreation o Swimming Pool Water Systems  Water Conservation o Helpful Resources  Sewage Removal o preventive maintenance where you put good bugs (enzymes) into sewer system o may have to pump sewage but in most cases it operates with gravity and flow  Sewage Treatment o uses a mechanical plant  sewage comes in and is filtered; solids are separated from the effluent  (liquid)  solids are moved to drying bed and with care they can be repurposed into a variety of things  the effluent is put into large tanks and through chemistry, water becomes  safe to discharge into hydrologic cycle (not potable) but can be released  into a river or ground st o can be seen in Tulsa off 75 on 71 o sewage rates are high to build these systems for future capacity  Septic System o designed for an isolated property with no access to a city system o smaller in nature and is focused on usage of one location o goes into a big underground system  solids sink to the bottom and the effluent is on the top  effluent flows out into a distribution box which sends it to large pipes  good bugs are placed into the box to break down solids  chemicals dumped down the system and kill good bugs (ridex) and must  be replaced or it will be clogged again  no access to box  Lagoon System o made for a larger location with no access to city system  ex. of gas stations and such off of turnpikes or highways o more of a static system; no irrigator but because of sunlight and fish, etc. the  solids can be broken down and the effluent enters the system through evaporation CHAPTER 6 ELECTRICITY, ELECTRICAL THEORY AND SYSTEMS  Energy o Heat, light and sound o we get all of these by changing energy; none of it is lost  Transmission o electricity is a commodity o power grid allows electricity to flow through the country  Resistance o the greater the resistance, the less electrons that flow o the principle byproduct of resistance is heat  Conductivity o we want things to conduct electricity better; we want less heat  Master Service o supply of the energy or utility to its primary breakdown point (and can be sub  metered) o how is it being delivered  Big C’s o Conductor/Resistance  heat is the by­product of resistance  resistance is the force that is hard to measure o Circuit  we want to form a circuit so that it can be contained, effective, useful and  safe  the more force we put behind it, the more we can use o Current  volts and amps are probably the two most important in this equation  Direct Current  conductivity and direction effect current  current­motion that electrons go in to our devices  Wire o must be the correct size in order to be effective o the larger the wire the smaller the number and vice versa  Transformers o changes the form of electricity o transformer can do multiple things at the same time  strength­can decrease or increase volts or amps  current­can change the current o transformers (chargers) state the volts that the item can be used­so you know  whether you can use it safely internationally  System Design and Operating Standards  System and Equipment Maintenance o Electrical Plans o Training in Operating and Safety Procedures  lockout/tag out procedures­next slide  communicates at the cutoff that someone is working on the line (all  systems, electrical, water, gas, etc.)  really important; the person who puts the tag on it should be the one to  take it off  System Components  Safety Devices o all 3 types of safety devices measure amperage or the flow of electrons o Fuses  first of the 3 types of safety device is a fuse  fuse operates on the function of resistance  fuses can be seen in cars, Christmas lights, AC compressors, etc.  draw means to use electricity o Circuit Breakers nd  circuit breakers are the 2  safety device  operates on 2 principles  resistance and electromagnetic energy  give us the opportunity to reset and keep things safe  when a circuit breaker detects there are too many electrons flowing  through it (amperage) when it detects too much it goes to the trip position  can tell which circuit might have a problem based on which ones are  tripped  have to move it to the off position before turning it to the on position  it could trip because of a ground fault o Ground Fault Interrupters  3  category of safety devices  operates on the principle of measurement  when it detects a large difference it will trip  GFI outlets operate in milliseconds and are mainly used in wet areas  it measures the flow of electrons between the input side and the output  side  ground fault measures the flow of electrons  GFCI’s required for bathrooms, kitchens, outdoors  now in residential codes, there must be a GFCI in bedrooms  o Distribution Panels and Wiring o Electric Motors, Controls, and Drive Elements o Electrical Equipment o Emergency Power Systems o Electrical Maintenance Equipment  Electric Utility Billing and Building Operations o Reading Electrical Utility Meters o Checking the Bill for Errors o Choosing the Best Rate Schedule  Electric Utility Deregulation  Telecommunications Systems  Electrical Systems Calculations o volts=force o amps=flow  0.04 causes pain to humans and higher amps can kill o watts=use o Electricity is sold in kilowatts o Watts to kilowatts­divide o Kilowatts to watts­multiply INTERNET NOTES AND APPENDIX 494­498


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