HRAD 3473 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
HRAD 3473 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE HRAD 3473
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nichole Pike on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HRAD 3473 at Oklahoma State University taught by Ryan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Mechanical Equipment and Facility Management in Hotel and Restaurant Administration at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
HRAD 3473 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE focus on notes and examples from in class reinforce with concepts from textbook DISCLAIMER: THIS STUDY GUIDE SHOULD BE USED TO AID IN YOUR INDIVIDUAL STUDYING. THIS IS IN NO WAY COMPREHENSIVE, BUT SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH CLASS MATERIALS PROVIDED BY THE PROFESSOR FOR THE EXAM. CHAPTER 4 SAFETY AND SECURITY Safety and the Hospitality Industry o Risk Managementeffort to reduce the causes and effects of incidents related to safety and security Building Design, Maintenance and Safety Safety in the Guest Bath Fire Safety o Fire Prevention can be done through o Fire Detection notifier system is computer controlled systemtells us which zone it is in red box is a sprinkler notifier system heat detectorsreact to an absolute temperature in a location smoke detectorstwo types photoelectrictriggered when smoke particles are scattered ionizationsmall radioactive material establishes a flow of ionized air and when changes, it triggers detector o Fire Notification Should begin before the emergency (ex. flight attendant) The first response is usually fear, but training is what overcomes it Lack of training is usually a lack of action Some instances there are vibrational alarms for those with hearing disabilities Must be on a separate electrical supply that isn’t accessible to the general public o Fire Suppression Extinguishers are portable Builtin sprinkler systems Two types of pipe; wet pipe and dry pipe Wet pipe is the system full of water; big supply with points of delivery throughout building Each sprinkler head has a different device behind it that keeps the valve shut This system must be completely separate and dedicated Electrical boxes have sensors that notify the fire department when sprinklers are activated and water is flowing Sprinklers fuzzy sprinkler heads are generally located by air vent because of dirt blowing through vents a sprinkler company should clean these; not a staff member little glass tube with colored chemical that ill boil at a certain temperature that will break the glass or melt the plugit can be jarred loose or break and set off sprinkler The size of the water pipe is based on the coverage of area of a building Kitchen suppression Specialized fire suppression systems; separate and designed for a specific area Since you can’t use water, firefighting material must be in the tank Dispersion system is completely different for one type of system Grade C o Dry pipe directs the retardant into the area; pipe only has air in it Fusable cable link; when it melts and breaks, the system is activated o Fire Control Fire dampersinstalled in ductwork and when closed it contains the fire to one area by stopping the flow of oxygen to the area Smoke sensorscontrols smoke dampers; may shut down air handling system Stairwell pressurization systemincreases the air pressure in stairwells keeping them relatively free of smoke o Stand Pipe stand pipegoes from outside the facility to a specific location inside the building does not have water in itdedicated delivery system for water allows the fire departments to hook up pump, etc in order to travel to a th certain floor ex. 9 floor in Drummond designed to assist fire fighters to get fire to a destination to fight a fire carry a shorter section of hose hoses are made out of cotton that break down over time so they must be replaced Evacuation Plans o Egresssafe exit from the building Zones are designed to slow down fires Ex. fire rated doors that automatically close o Ingresssafe entry for first responders Security o Key Control Accessibility for certain people; different for different facility types Key Control Security Rationale what’s the plan and the reason behind it Recordswho has what key Retrievalgetting the key back when something changes Rotationchanging the locking key or code; computer systems are best for this Replacementhow do I preplace the keys o Electronic Locks Accessibility is done quickly and easy and allows for a trail Terrorism and Other Extraordinary Events CHAPTER 5 WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Water Usage in the Lodging Industry Water Supply o Potable supply and fire system are two separate systems Flow and PSI o GPM flow or flow rate appropriate to devices flow rate is 3 GPM per sprinkler head overall flow is 10 GPM for all sprinklers; therefore, there can only be 10 sprinkler heads in order to have appropriate flow and pressure ineffective flow will not be satisfying needs PSI pressure or force service is the pipe in the street (5060 PSI) gravity and friction help us lower the PSI these two are interrelated Pumps o centrifugebrings water in into a part of it and while the wheel is spinning, the fins catch the water and directs (throws) it out another pipe Valves o each valve is designed for a specific purpose o gateopens and closes; required for gas and typically used in shutoff systems gas valves are typically harder to turn off; maybe only turned off with screwdriver o globe valvesadjust valvebathroom faucet o (solenoid) electronic valvestimed automatic sinksfor sanitation icemaker ex. o check valve or back flowwater can only go one direction to prevent contamination of water supply o air gap is not a valve but it is a system prevents back up and contamination Water Systems o Grouping vertically (stacking) is very important in multistory buildings o Systems or zones where valves can be turned off for a specific zone Loop Water Systems o loop water system allows water to be heated at higher floors so that it doesn’t take as long to get hot water o loop system increases the pressure and then brings it back down during the loop to allow the right pressure and flow on multiple stories o used in larger homes o double is the most common o in this system the pumps are running 24/7 o can be applied to different sections and shut down different sectionsimportant considerations o can put timers in places that close during the night; home, restaurants o water supply or service always comes in underground so it doesn’t freeze and goes to a water heater of some sort Water Quality o Aspects of Water hardness turbidityparticles are suspended in the water ex. of seeing all the way to ocean floor vs. Oklahoma lakes ironcan come from the pipes itself or from the ground taste and odor permeable materials o Treating Water Purifying and Filtering reverse osmosiswe take everything out of the water, all the particles, taste, odor and bubbles more pure than distilled water taking out the bubbleslose the minerals; salts, fluoride, etc. no nutritive value in the water crystal clear ice is reverse osmosisnot widely manufactured because of expense Softening Hard Water as water is traveling through the earth through aquifers, etc. it picks up calcium and magnesium salts (not harmful) the whiteness around the sink is the calcium and magnesium particles that are left after the water dries 2 things that pull the particles out of the water and is left in things like laundry, etc. o heat and soap which creates soap curds film is what is left on car after washing it; the calcium and magnesium there’s a lot of saving in soft water reducing chemical usage o reduce soap usage o reducing the amount of times equipment needs to be replaced you have to have a mechanical softening system in order to take out magnesium and calcium o Sewer System Types storm drain into another system: river, etc. vent is a pipe that is attached to the sewer line to allow for air to help with draining; quicker and faster also allows for ventilating odors after decomposition away from us a trap is designed to create a barrier sanitarysewer system does not operate with pressure we rely on slope and gravity in order for the system to work o Discharge/Sewage Water when these traps are dried up, odors will become apparent and will have to be dealt with o Legionnaires’ Disease Water Heating o Water Heating Options Have to make decisions based on energy source Hard to put timers on gas systems Electrical resistance is required in some systems but will cost more Water System Maintenance Concerns Water for Entertainment and Recreation o Swimming Pool Water Systems Water Conservation o Helpful Resources Sewage Removal o preventive maintenance where you put good bugs (enzymes) into sewer system o may have to pump sewage but in most cases it operates with gravity and flow Sewage Treatment o uses a mechanical plant sewage comes in and is filtered; solids are separated from the effluent (liquid) solids are moved to drying bed and with care they can be repurposed into a variety of things the effluent is put into large tanks and through chemistry, water becomes safe to discharge into hydrologic cycle (not potable) but can be released into a river or ground st o can be seen in Tulsa off 75 on 71 o sewage rates are high to build these systems for future capacity Septic System o designed for an isolated property with no access to a city system o smaller in nature and is focused on usage of one location o goes into a big underground system solids sink to the bottom and the effluent is on the top effluent flows out into a distribution box which sends it to large pipes good bugs are placed into the box to break down solids chemicals dumped down the system and kill good bugs (ridex) and must be replaced or it will be clogged again no access to box Lagoon System o made for a larger location with no access to city system ex. of gas stations and such off of turnpikes or highways o more of a static system; no irrigator but because of sunlight and fish, etc. the solids can be broken down and the effluent enters the system through evaporation CHAPTER 6 ELECTRICITY, ELECTRICAL THEORY AND SYSTEMS Energy o Heat, light and sound o we get all of these by changing energy; none of it is lost Transmission o electricity is a commodity o power grid allows electricity to flow through the country Resistance o the greater the resistance, the less electrons that flow o the principle byproduct of resistance is heat Conductivity o we want things to conduct electricity better; we want less heat Master Service o supply of the energy or utility to its primary breakdown point (and can be sub metered) o how is it being delivered Big C’s o Conductor/Resistance heat is the byproduct of resistance resistance is the force that is hard to measure o Circuit we want to form a circuit so that it can be contained, effective, useful and safe the more force we put behind it, the more we can use o Current volts and amps are probably the two most important in this equation Direct Current conductivity and direction effect current currentmotion that electrons go in to our devices Wire o must be the correct size in order to be effective o the larger the wire the smaller the number and vice versa Transformers o changes the form of electricity o transformer can do multiple things at the same time strengthcan decrease or increase volts or amps currentcan change the current o transformers (chargers) state the volts that the item can be usedso you know whether you can use it safely internationally System Design and Operating Standards System and Equipment Maintenance o Electrical Plans o Training in Operating and Safety Procedures lockout/tag out proceduresnext slide communicates at the cutoff that someone is working on the line (all systems, electrical, water, gas, etc.) really important; the person who puts the tag on it should be the one to take it off System Components Safety Devices o all 3 types of safety devices measure amperage or the flow of electrons o Fuses first of the 3 types of safety device is a fuse fuse operates on the function of resistance fuses can be seen in cars, Christmas lights, AC compressors, etc. draw means to use electricity o Circuit Breakers nd circuit breakers are the 2 safety device operates on 2 principles resistance and electromagnetic energy give us the opportunity to reset and keep things safe when a circuit breaker detects there are too many electrons flowing through it (amperage) when it detects too much it goes to the trip position can tell which circuit might have a problem based on which ones are tripped have to move it to the off position before turning it to the on position it could trip because of a ground fault o Ground Fault Interrupters 3 category of safety devices operates on the principle of measurement when it detects a large difference it will trip GFI outlets operate in milliseconds and are mainly used in wet areas it measures the flow of electrons between the input side and the output side ground fault measures the flow of electrons GFCI’s required for bathrooms, kitchens, outdoors now in residential codes, there must be a GFCI in bedrooms o Distribution Panels and Wiring o Electric Motors, Controls, and Drive Elements o Electrical Equipment o Emergency Power Systems o Electrical Maintenance Equipment Electric Utility Billing and Building Operations o Reading Electrical Utility Meters o Checking the Bill for Errors o Choosing the Best Rate Schedule Electric Utility Deregulation Telecommunications Systems Electrical Systems Calculations o volts=force o amps=flow 0.04 causes pain to humans and higher amps can kill o watts=use o Electricity is sold in kilowatts o Watts to kilowattsdivide o Kilowatts to wattsmultiply INTERNET NOTES AND APPENDIX 494498
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