New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Study Guide for Midterm

by: Juliet Chin

Study Guide for Midterm ANTH 1020

Juliet Chin

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This covers what the test will look like, what subjects to study, and a in depth overview of the Ch.4 reading in Professor Balée's book
Cultural Anthropology
Balee, William
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Cultural Anthropology

Popular in Cultural Anthropology

This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Juliet Chin on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1020 at Tulane University taught by Balee, William in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Cultural Anthropology at Tulane University.

Similar to ANTH 1020 at Tulane

Popular in Cultural Anthropology


Reviews for Study Guide for Midterm


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/07/16
Exam  2  Review: Friday,  October  7,  2016 11:02  AM • The  Exam  is  split  into  3  parts 1. Section  1-­‐identify  8  of  10  items 2. Define  5  items  (complete  sentences) 3. Essay  50% ○ Choice  of  2  questions  (both  about  the  ethnography-­‐Davies   Challenging  Gender  Norms) • Materials  to  Review: ○ Chapter  4  from  Balée  textbook Davies  EthnographyC  hallenging  Gender  Norms ○ ○ Films:  Things  from  the  films  will  be  in  the  IDs  and  definitions  not   in  the  essay   ○ The  Huntersb   y  John  Marshall ○ Dead  Birds  by  Robert  Gardner ○ The  Nuerb   y  Robert  Gardner • Notes  from  Ch.  4  (Main  terms  have  to  do  with  the  theoretical  thought   of  the  Enlightenment) Where  Anthropology  Comes  From   ○ This  chapter  traces  the  evolution  of  thought  in  anthropology  in   "North  America  and  Europe  from  the  Enlightenment  in  the  1700s   to  the  end  of  World  War  II  in  1945" ○ The  Eighteenth  Century: § North  American  anthro  originates  in  the  Enlightenment   § Thomas  Jefferson  wrote   otes  on  the  State  of  Virginia -­‐ qualifies  him  as  one  of/or  the  first  ethnographer,  linguist,   and  archaeologist  on  the  United  States □ "Moundbuilder  race" (a  complex  society  was  capable   of  making  these  mounds;  this  race  was  thought  to   have  disappeared  or  degenerated  to  be  more  familiar   with  the  colonial  societies)  and  findings  on  Native   Americans  origins  pg.  106 □ Suggested  to  study  indigenous  languages   □ Suggested  Native  Americans  came  from  China ○ The  Enlightenment  in  Europe  and  North  America § Enlightenment  philosophers  studied  the  advancement  of   humanity  as  well  as  "the  possibility  that  a  science  of  people   could  be  as  rigorous  as  any  natural  science" □ Suggested  to  study  indigenous  languages   □ Suggested  Native  Americans  came  from  China ○ The  Enlightenment  in  Europe  and  North  America § Enlightenment  philosophers  studied  the  advancement  of   humanity  as  well  as  "the  possibility  that  a  science  of  people   could  be  as  rigorous  as  any  natural  science" § Idea  that  people  were  a  part  of  nature  was  developed   § Scholars  compared  and  contrasted  the  languages  of  the   West  to  those  of  the  Eas-­‐t-­‐>  field  of  linguistics  (back  then   called  philology) § 1786:  Sir  William  Jones -­‐-­‐>  the  "common  source";  proved   that  Greek,  Latin,  and  Sanskrit  all  cam  from  a  common   source   § Very  interested  in  the  idea  of  "preordained  human   progress" ○ The  Nineteenth  Century § Auguste  Comet:  founded   positivism (the  idea  that  a   society  could  be  studied  just  the  same  as  someone  would   study  physics  or  chemistry) § Darwin:  (1809-­‐1882)  was  concerned  with  why  plants  and   animals  changed  over  time;  finding  that  some  animals  or   plants  were  going  extinct  and  some  where  being  created;   "decent  with  modification"; Natural  Selection (the  idea   that  creatures  which  develop  traits  that  help  them  better   survive  will  reproduce  and  transfer  that  trait  on);   founded   that  biological  evolution  is  not  the  same  as  cultural  change § Lewis  Henry  Morgan:(1818-­‐1881)  lawyer;  studied  social   and  cultural  changes  over  time;  and  how  they  relate  to   human  advancement;  people  who  mated  with  whoever   they  wanted-­‐-­‐"promiscuous  intercourse";  matrilineal   decent  due  to  the  fact  that  these  earlier  societies  were   promiscuous  and  could  not  trace  the  biological  father;  he   was  wrongby  equating  matrilineal  decent  with   matriarchy-­‐-­‐political  rule  by  women;  he  concluded  the  first   step  toward  patriarchy  would  be  patrilineal  decent -­‐-­‐ however  not  true;  he  said  that  patriarchal  families  would   eventually  become  nuclear  families,  including  prope-­‐r-­‐y     "monogamian  families"  and  these  were  the  "pinnacle  of   human  achievement"  and  a  step  towards  capitalism   *important  research  overall  because  he  founded  that   people  classified  one  another  (esp.  in  kinship)  differently   □ Savagery-­‐-­‐>  Barbarism -­‐-­‐>  Civilization □ Savagery:  invention  of  fire,  forging  for  food □ Barbarism:  pottery  and  agriculture,  invention  of  iron   human  achievement"  and  a  step  towards  capitalism   *important  research  overall  because  he  founded  that   people  classified  one  another  (esp.  in  kinship)  differently   □ Savagery-­‐-­‐>  Barbarism -­‐-­‐>  Civilization □ Savagery:  invention  of  fire,  forging  for  food □ Barbarism:  pottery  and  agriculture,  invention  of  iron   smelting   □ Civilization:  writing  and  literacy   § Marx:(1818-­‐1883)  proposed  a  materialist  theory  of  human   society;  proletariats-­‐ factory  workers  living  in  poverty,  they   worked  for  half  of  what  they  got;  opened  the  door  for   ethnographic  study  of  class;  has  structured  the  ways  in   which  anthropologists  understand  social  and  economic   systems ○ Museums: □ America  fascinated  with  Native  American  artifacts,   displayed  them  in  museums   □ President  George  Washington  thought  that  it  was   "essential  that  public  opinion  should  be  enlightened" □ 1846  Englishman  James  Smithson  founded  the   Smithsonian  Institution,  in  order  to  display  indigenous   artifacts □ The  study  of  Native  Americans  in  America  was  a  key   area  of  interest  (beginning  the  age  of  anthropology  in   America)  (Esp.  after  the  Civil  War) ® Many  soldiers  of  the  Civil  War  conducted   research;  for  example,  John  Wesley  Powe-l‐l-­‐ became  director  of  the  Bureau  of  American   Ethnology  in  1879. ○ Franz  Boas  &  the  Boasian  Research  Program □ Boas-­‐known  as  the  first  professional  anthropologist   in  the  United  States □ Boas  Notes: ® The  Inuit  way  of  classifying  reality  was  different   than  his  own ® Coined cultural  relativism   all  cultures  and   languages  are  equally  virtuous  and   sophisticated  in  principle   ◊ "Tolerance  of  other  people  who  have   been  encultured  differently  from  oneself" ◊ The  concept  of  race  provided  no   biological  differences  between  people,   therefore  it  was  not  to  be  thought  of   when    trying  to  understand  differences   ◊ "Tolerance  of  other  people  who  have   been  encultured  differently  from  oneself" ◊ The  concept  of  race  provided  no   biological  differences  between  people,   therefore  it  was  not  to  be  thought  of   when    trying  to  understand  differences   between  cultures  and  languages   ◊ Nothing  was  advanced  or  behind,  all   cultures  were  just  different   ◊ In  order  to  understand  the  human   condition,  all  cultures  would  have  to  be   studied  because  each  one  has  its  own   individual  history -­‐-­‐>  this  view  also  called   historical  particularism   ◊ Change  in  culture  was  told  through   environmental  and  social  factors  and   through  diffusion   □ Boas  felt  responsible  for  educating  the  public  and   warning  people  of  the  dangers  of  racism  and   ethnocentrism,  the  value  of  all  cultures,  and  fear  that   the  Native  cultures  were  soon  to  be  wiped  out   □ Boas  &  his  students: ◊ Wanted  to  study  humanity  in  a  holistic   way ◊ The  four  subjects  of  anthropology  were   founded  by  them ◊ Early  20th  century  professions  were   established  in  the  department  of   anthropology,  giving  a  clear  career  path   for  the  field □ Agreed  with  the  idea  of  natural  selection,  however   disagreed  with  Morgan's  concept  of  cultural  evolution ® Rejected  the  classifications  of  "savagery"  or   "barbarism" ® Rejected  the  idea  that  Native  people  were   "living  fossils"  of  the  earlier  human"  stages" ® Rejected  the  idea  that  "human  nature"  could  be   reduced  down  to  single  traits □ Argued  that  no  phenotype  could  determine  language   or  culture ○ Malinowski  popularized  participant  observation   ○ Salvage  Ethnography: □ Boas  and  his  students  recruited  elderly  people  as   □ Argued  that  no  phenotype  could  determine  language   or  culture ○ Malinowski  popularized  participant  observation   ○ Salvage  Ethnography: □ Boas  and  his  students  recruited  elderly  people  as   informants  from  the  Native  cultures   □ The  effort  to  learn  all  they  could  about  indigenous   cultures  until  they  were  completely  wiped  out  (by   colonialism) □ Asked  elderly  informants  to  describe  traditions  of  the   cultures  (dances,  songs,  basket  weaving,  etc.) □ Not  founded  by  Boas  and  his  students,  Salvage   Ethnography  had  been  happening  since  Powell  and   other  Civil  war  soldiers   ○ Kroeber □ Main  theoretical  contribution  to  cultural   anthropology:S   uperorganic ® Superorganic: "culture  is  a  learned  and   shared  thing  outside  the  body  and  mind  of  any   one  individual   □ Culture  was  thought  of  as  a  set  configuration  of   thoughts,  morals,  and  attitudes. □ Studied  fashion  and  how  it  changes  overtime;   repeating  styles  of  different  decades;  "fashion  was  a   part  of  culture  that  could  be  revealed  through   analysis  of  its  artifacts  over  time";  it  changed   independently,  therefore  superorganic   □ Genius:  "defined  as  possession  of  prodigious  mental   gifts  of  discovery  or  creation";  was  studied  in  a  way  to   demonstrate  the  superorganic  essence  of  culture □ His  theories  explaining  superorganic  fed  into  the  field   of  Culture  and  Personality ○ Culture  &  Personality: □ Margaret  Mead  and  Ruth  Benedict □ Focused  on  the  development  of  individuals  from   childhood □ Both  interested  in  the  human  psyche   □ Used  the  concept  of  culture  to  evaluate  psychological   differences  across  cultures □ Benedict: ® Viewed  culture  as  expression  of  a  shared  group   personality ® Classified  cultures  as  Dionysia(Greek  god  of   differences  across  cultures □ Benedict: ® Viewed  culture  as  expression  of  a  shared  group   personality ® Classified  cultures  as  Dionysia(Greek  god  of   wine,  meaning  grandiose) &  Apollonian  (Greek   god  of  beauty  meaning  sensitive)   ® She  was  criticized  for  her  observations  due  to   their psychological  reductionism:   she   reduced  cultural  similarities  and  differences   into  single  psychological  variables   □ Mead:   ® Studied  sexual  behavior  of  Samoan  girls ® They  had  uncomplicated  and  quil-free   premarital  sex ® Comparing  to  American  teens  who  had  strict   "cultural"  restrictions ® Due  to  this  she  noted  that  even  though   hormones  were  biological  influencers,  culture   held  greater  impact □ National  Character  Studies:   information  on   personality  types  of  people  in  other  countries;  used  in   war  to  sense  and  for  strategies;  carried  out  by   "ethnography  at  a  distance"   □ Reductionism: ® Inappropriate  to  reduce  a  culture  to  the   analysis  of  a  single  cultural  trait ® "Personality  is  part  of  how  an  individual  relates   to  others  in  a  specific  culture,  not  mental   structure  of  an  entire  population" ® Modal  personality: "the  statistically  most   common  personality  type" § Community  Studies: □ A  community  is  a  town  or  municipality   □ Community  Studies :  ethnographic  projects  based   on  the  idea  that  a  town  or  community  could  possess   an  entire  culture. § Economic  Rationality: humans  as  a  species  seek  to   maximize  benefits  and  minimize  costs  of  goods  and   services"   ○ Malinowski  believed  adolescence  was  a  "biologically  determined   period  of  psychological  stress" § Vaygu'a:   armbands  and  necklaces  made  by  shells  which   § Economic  Rationality: humans  as  a  species  seek  to   maximize  benefits  and  minimize  costs  of  goods  and   services"   ○ Malinowski  believed  adolescence  was  a  "biologically  determined   period  of  psychological  stress" § Vaygu'a:   armbands  and  necklaces  made  by  shells  which   were  used  as  money  in  exchanges;  used  by  the   Trobrianders   § Kula:  trading  voyages  made  by  the  Trobrianders § The  Kula  King: he  system  of  Kula  voyages   § Reciprocal  economy:   "a  nonmarket  economy  in  which   the  value  of  goods  are  determined  not  by  supply  and   demand  but  rather  in  social  terms" § Noninstrumental  Value:   something's  worth  is  not   determined  through  monetary  terms § Delayed  reciprocity:   the  sharing  of  goods  among  people   who  know  each  other § Instrumental    Symbolic  Need:   basic  needs  which   controlled  and  organized  society § Symbolic  Needs:   the  need  to  understand  the  world   around  you-­‐-­‐religion  and  magic § Functionalism:   the  idea  that  institutions  are  created  and   function  in  order  to  maintain  and  create  a  society § Collective  Conscience:   a  similar  sense  of  what  is  right   and  wrong;  ex.  A  sex  scandal  holds  a  negative  connotation § Mechanical  Solidarity:   the  organization  of  groups  that   hold  same  views  of  things § Organic  Solidarity:   the  organization  of  complex   societies § Structural-­‐functionalism:   "viewed  society  as  a  social   body  with  parts  integrated  into  an  interdependent   whole…viewed  the  organization  of  a  society  and  the   behavior  of  its  members  as  distinct  from  ideas,  technology,   and  other  aspects  of  culture."-­‐  -­‐>  this  kept  British  and   American  anthropology  different § Material  culture:   culture  told  through  artifacts Weakness  of  all  functionalist  theory:  "it  explains  how  a  system  of   ○ relationships  works,  but  cannot  account  for  changes  in  that   system  unless  they  are  cyclical,  predictable,  and  repetitive"   Class  before  exam  notes: ○ Weakness  of  all  functionalist  theory:  "it  explains  how  a  system  of   relationships  works,  but  cannot  account  for  changes  in  that   system  unless  they  are  cyclical,  predictable,  and  repetitive"   Class  before  exam  notes: • Ritual  activities  of  the  genders,  what  do  they  do,  what  makes  them   different  from  each  other,  how  do  they  fit  into  the  broader  society • Where  does  anthropology  come  from?   ○ The  western  world,  because  the  three  main  countries  (US,  UK,   and  France)  did  studies   ○ Because  these  three  places  all  are  colonial  countries  across   oceans;  US  studied  Native  Americans;  all  dealt  with  culture   relativism,  evolution, • Kroeber:  The  Super  organic -­‐ real  things  outside  of  people's  -  ex.   Culture   Boaz's  student    coined  ^   • Wallace  and  Darwin  came  up  with  the  same  idea  of  natural  behavior   separately  and  then  published  a  paper  together • Ruth  Benedict:  you  can  look  at  cultures  as  if  they  are  human   personalities  (now  called  psychological  anthropology  ) • Potlatch:  redistributed  feast,  different  from  reciprocity  


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.