Chapter 10 Study Guide
Chapter 10 Study Guide Comm-103
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christina Robinson on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Comm-103 at Southern Adventist University taught by Lorraine Ball in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Mass Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at Southern Adventist University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Christina Robinson Intro to Mass Comm 10/04/2016 Ch 10 Part A 1. Read Matthew 6:22 and relate it to this chapter. The eye is the light of the body and so we should be careful what we view with our eyes on the screens of cinemas and televisions. 2. Describe the phi phenomenon and persistence of vision. Phi phenomenon refers to what happens when we see one light source go out while another one close to the original is illuminated. Persistence of vision is when our eyes continue to see an image for a split second after the image has disappeared from view. 3. Discuss the early days of motion pictures, including nickelodeons and the birth of MPPC. What was the purpose and ultimately the effect of the MPPC? After making a small bet, the effect of motion picture was discovered when a series of 24 cameras were set up to photograph a running horse. From there, the kinetoscope was made and starred in a brief film demonstrating how it worked. Then the vitascope, an early projector that created simple snippets of action, was created. Nickelodeons became dependent on the audience turnover for their profits once there was a public interested in the movies that could tell stories. Zukor and Griffith introduced long films for the public. Eventually, leading manufacturers of films and film equipment banded together and formed the Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC). It tried to restrict movie production and distribution to the 9 companies making up MPPC. But its attempt backfired and independent producers and smaller film workers appeared and by 1917, MPPC was powerless. 4. Discuss the “star system,” the start of United Artists, the roaring twenties and the birth of sound. Independents quickly recognized the fan interests in film actors and actresses and could be used to draw crowds away from the fan interest by the MPPC. This helped different actors and actresses gain their fame, as well as have a higher salary. In 1919 the star system reached its natural conclusion. Chaplin and Pickford joined with other actors and filmmakers to started their own production company—United Artist. During the roaring twenties, there was a prosperity boom in Hollywood. Profits were up and huge salaries created a boomtown atmosphere in Hollywood. The coming of sound was put off until the late 1920s just because of money. Business was good during the 1920s and major studios did not want to get into costly experimentation with new techniques. But the novelty of sound gave a boost to the film industry, despite economic effects of the Depression. But production became more expensive with a grow in audiences. Unfortunately, this forced many small companies out of business, leaving either major studios with a lock on the industry. 5. Describe the Studio Years, how the industry survived the Depression, and why the Justice Department filed suit in 1938. What was the outcome of the lawsuit? The Studio Years consisted of MGM, 20 century Fox, RKO, Warner Brothers, Paramount, Universal, Columbia, and United Artists. These studios created hundreds of acres of blacklot movie sets, constructed elaborate soundstages, and built up showy stables of creative talent. The financial backing and diverse holdings of the studio system helped the film industry survive the Depression. Attendance and profits went up because going to a movie was just as much a part of American life as watching television today. There was a lawsuit with major film companies, charging that industry’s vertical control of production, distribution, and other exhibition constituted restraint of trade and monopolistic practices. The studios had to cut back on film production and reduce costs. 6. How did the film industry react to television? The first reaction of the film industry was to fight back. Studios stubbornly refused to advertise their films on TV, and they would not release old films for showing on the newer medium. Many studios wrote clauses into the contracts of their major stars forbidding them to appear on TV. 7. How did the industry change from 1960s90s? The 1960s were marked by the waning power of the major studios and by a closer affiliation with their old competitor, television. 80 percent of all American films were independent productions. Large studios, faced with everworsening financial conditions, were absorbed by larger conglomerates. In 1968, there was a new system that attempted to regulate audiences by instituting a GPGRX label system. The relationship between film and television became even closer in the 1960s, as movies made expressly for TV appeared in the middle of the decade. By 1985, MPAA instituted a new rating category—PG13. In 1990, NC17 rating replaced X rating. 8. Describe the impact of digital movie making, including piracy. By 1990, VCRs were widely available on the home TV screen. This caused Hollywood to make more money from the sale and rental of videocassettes than it did at the box office. In the 1990s, DVDs replaced the VCR as the preferred medium for movies. A short time later DVDs found themselves compositing against another new technology because consumers were able to watch their movies on portable devices. Piracy is such a big deal now because DVD sales and rentals dropped 12 percent from 2007 to 2010. Rather than buying or renting DVDs, it appears many consumers prefer streaming video or digital downloads. 9. What are the four defining features of motion pictures? The potential costs; a strong aesthetic dimension; a social experience. Christina Robinson Intro to mass Comm 10/05/2016 Ch 10 Part B 1. Describe the three divisions of the film industry. Production which is where films are produced by a variety of organizations and individuals. A typical setup involves four departments: film production, distribution, TV production, and administration. Distribution is responsible for support prints of film to the thousands of theaters located across the United States and around the globe. Exhibition is the many movie screens around the globe. These movie theaters are clustered around a central concession stands that offer mineral water, cappuccino, and valet parking. 2. Describe three phases in movie-making. Preproduction is when the film begins with an idea. From there, comes the writing of the screenplay, the producer getting actors and actresses that have talent, and the producer trying to secure a financial backing for the picture. At the same time, the producer is busy lining up skilled personnel to work begins now the camera. Once all the elements are put together, the producer will scout for possible locations for filming. Production is when the film moves to the actual filming. Postproduction begins after the filming has been completed and editing can begin. Once the film is done begins edited, complete with final sound track and special effects, it is sent to the laboratory where a release print of the film is made. 3. Break down the revenue streams for a film studio. 1) Money taking in at the U.S box office 2) Revenue from the international box office 3) Sales and rentals of DVDs 4) Miscellaneous video sources such as pay-per-view, streaming video, and video-on-demand. 4. Discuss four ways in which films are financed. 1) The distributor might lend the producer the entire amount needed to make the film. In return the distributor gains distribution rights to the film. 2) To arrange for a pickup. A distributor agree to pick up the cost of a finished picture at a later date for a set price. 3) Limited partnership, where the film is financed by outside investors. 4) Joint revenue, where several companies involved in film production and distribution pool their resources and agree to finance and distribute one or more films. 5. Explain how a distributor works with an exhibitor. The distributor and the exhibitor split the money according to an agreed-upon formula. There's also the sliding scale that states that whenever the box office revenue increases, so does the amount of money the exhibitor must pay the distributor. 6. Describe feedback in the motion picture industry, including how market research works. It revolves around the weekly box office figures compiled and reported in various trade publications including Variety, who is in cooperation with Nielsen Entertainment Data Incorporated. Each week Variety reports the top-grossing films in the American and foreign market. Market research is first when studios find promising plot lines. The next step is analyzing the script. If it seems good enough, the studio will make s rough cut and is used to in a series of tests screenings. In there, the focus group give their critique on the viewing and this helps the studio make decisions on the final edit. 7. Describe the symbiosis between cable/home video and movies. Movies are now being shown on TV through cable/home video. For example, Netflix has a number of DVDs on there. This allows for consumers these two to be symbiotic. 8. What is the career outlook for the film industry? The job prospects in the film industry are highly volatile, but most college students who are interested in a career in film are not discouraged by the difficulty involved in becoming successful. But the career outlook in the various media industries changes quickly.
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