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OK STATE / Microbiology / MICR 2123 / Is nadh oxidized or reduced in electron transport?

Is nadh oxidized or reduced in electron transport?

Is nadh oxidized or reduced in electron transport?

Description

School: Oklahoma State University
Department: Microbiology
Course: Introduction to Microbiology
Professor: Noha yousseff
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: MICRO STUDY GUIDE EXAM 3
Description: study guide over chapters 13-15
Uploaded: 10/07/2016
6 Pages 53 Views 1 Unlocks
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Study guide Exam 3


Is nadh oxidized or reduced in electron transport?



Chapter 13 

• Catabolism  breakdown of complex food molecules to smaller ones to make  ATP. ATP will be used for building (anabolism, or biosynthesis)

• ATP is the energy storage molecule in the cell

• NADH or any electron carrier has 2 forms in the cell, an oxidized form and a  reduced form

• Glucose breakdown to pyruvate

– EMP  only NADH no NADPH

– ED  both NADH and NADPH

– PPP  only NADPH no NADH

– Know the products of each per molecule of glucose

– ATP produced during EMP or ED is substrate levl phosphorylation

• After glucose breakdown to pyruvate, NADH accumulates. The cell has to  recycle NADH back to NAD to be able to breakdown more glucose.


What is the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate called?



• Recycling is either thru fermentation or respiration  so the main goal of Ferm or Resp is to recycle NADH to NAD

∙ Which one will occur?

Does the  

cell have  

a  We also discuss several other topics like How does culture affect the self?

functiona

l ETS?

yes

Is there  We also discuss several other topics like Name the six attributes of coupled human and natural systems as defined by liu et al.

an  

No

electron  

acceptor  

available

yes

Ferment ation

No

Respirati on

Ferment ation

• Diff bet Fermentation and Respiration


Does catabolism create atp?



• Types of fermentation

• Organism classification

If you want to learn more check out Which materials are translocated in the phloem?

Chapter 14 

• Processes employing ETS in the cell

– Respiration

– Lithotrophy

– Phototrophy

• Functional components of any ETS (in order)

– Initial substrate oxidoreductase

– Mobile electron carrier

– Terminal oxidase

• The ETS is kick started when the electron donor donates the electrons and  protons to the first component

– If the donor is organic, e.g. NADH  Respiration

– If the donor is inorganic, e.g. H2, H2S, NH3  Lithotrophy

• The ETS ends by movement of electrons from the last component to the  terminal acceptor

– If the acceptor is O2  process is aerobic

– If the acceptor is not O2, e.g. sulfate, or nitrate  anaerobic

• The type of the process is dictated by the nature of the e donor, while the  aerobic/ anaerobic is decided by the e acceptor used.

• The ETS components are embedded in a membrane.

• During the operation of ETS, the movement of e’ and protons from one  component to the next leads to the generation of a pmf across the membrane If you want to learn more check out What is the bourgeoisie according to karl marx?

• Pmf can be used to

– Import nutrients

– Export toxins

– Rotate flagella

– Make ATP by ATP synthase

• Kinds of phosphorylation

• Phosphorylation means those reactions or steps in which ATP is being  produced Don't forget about the age old question of What are the unique properties of film?

• If the ATP production occurred before the ETS, or does not need a functional  ETS to occur, e.g. ATP made in EMP and ED, and ATP made during TCA cycle  we call it substrate level phosphorylation 

• If ATP is made after the ETS and needs the ETS to function properly to occur,  e.g. ATP synthesis by ATP synthase uses the pmf generated across the  membrane during ETS,  we call it oxidative phosphorylation

• Phototrophy

• Also employs an ETS

• Diff from Resp and Litho is that it needs energy from light to release the  electron from the e donor Don't forget about the age old question of What is the characteristic of the cerebral cortex?

• Phototrophs have light absorbing pigments  chlorophylls

• Chlorophylls are organized in antenna complexes to maximize light  absorption.

• Kinds of phototrophy

Chapter 15 

• Requirements for biosynthesis

– Essential elements C N O S P

– NADPH

– ATP

• Biosynthetic processes

– CO2 fixation

– N2 fixation

– Fatty acid biosynthesis

– Amino acid biosynthesis

– Purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis

• CO2 fixation and N2 fixation

∙ FA synthesis

o Enzyme: Fatty acid synthase, 2C repeating unit is acetyl-CoA

∙ Amino acid biosynthesis

o Transamination: reaction used during aa synthesis where amino  

group is transferred from one molecule to another

∙ Purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis

o Purine and pyrimidine component of nucleotides

o Precursor for biosynthesis is PRPP

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