Study guide Exam 3
• Catabolism breakdown of complex food molecules to smaller ones to make ATP. ATP will be used for building (anabolism, or biosynthesis)
• ATP is the energy storage molecule in the cell
• NADH or any electron carrier has 2 forms in the cell, an oxidized form and a reduced form
• Glucose breakdown to pyruvate
– EMP only NADH no NADPH
– ED both NADH and NADPH
– PPP only NADPH no NADH
– Know the products of each per molecule of glucose
– ATP produced during EMP or ED is substrate levl phosphorylation
• After glucose breakdown to pyruvate, NADH accumulates. The cell has to recycle NADH back to NAD to be able to breakdown more glucose.
• Recycling is either thru fermentation or respiration so the main goal of Ferm or Resp is to recycle NADH to NAD
∙ Which one will occur?
a We also discuss several other topics like How does culture affect the self?
Is there We also discuss several other topics like Name the six attributes of coupled human and natural systems as defined by liu et al.
• Diff bet Fermentation and Respiration
• Types of fermentation
• Organism classification
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• Processes employing ETS in the cell
• Functional components of any ETS (in order)
– Initial substrate oxidoreductase
– Mobile electron carrier
– Terminal oxidase
• The ETS is kick started when the electron donor donates the electrons and protons to the first component
– If the donor is organic, e.g. NADH Respiration
– If the donor is inorganic, e.g. H2, H2S, NH3 Lithotrophy
• The ETS ends by movement of electrons from the last component to the terminal acceptor
– If the acceptor is O2 process is aerobic
– If the acceptor is not O2, e.g. sulfate, or nitrate anaerobic
• The type of the process is dictated by the nature of the e donor, while the aerobic/ anaerobic is decided by the e acceptor used.
• The ETS components are embedded in a membrane.
• During the operation of ETS, the movement of e’ and protons from one component to the next leads to the generation of a pmf across the membrane If you want to learn more check out What is the bourgeoisie according to karl marx?
• Pmf can be used to
– Import nutrients
– Export toxins
– Rotate flagella
– Make ATP by ATP synthase
• Kinds of phosphorylation
• Phosphorylation means those reactions or steps in which ATP is being produced Don't forget about the age old question of What are the unique properties of film?
• If the ATP production occurred before the ETS, or does not need a functional ETS to occur, e.g. ATP made in EMP and ED, and ATP made during TCA cycle we call it substrate level phosphorylation
• If ATP is made after the ETS and needs the ETS to function properly to occur, e.g. ATP synthesis by ATP synthase uses the pmf generated across the membrane during ETS, we call it oxidative phosphorylation
• Also employs an ETS
• Diff from Resp and Litho is that it needs energy from light to release the electron from the e donor Don't forget about the age old question of What is the characteristic of the cerebral cortex?
• Phototrophs have light absorbing pigments chlorophylls
• Chlorophylls are organized in antenna complexes to maximize light absorption.
• Kinds of phototrophy
• Requirements for biosynthesis
– Essential elements C N O S P
• Biosynthetic processes
– CO2 fixation
– N2 fixation
– Fatty acid biosynthesis
– Amino acid biosynthesis
– Purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis
• CO2 fixation and N2 fixation
∙ FA synthesis
o Enzyme: Fatty acid synthase, 2C repeating unit is acetyl-CoA
∙ Amino acid biosynthesis
o Transamination: reaction used during aa synthesis where amino
group is transferred from one molecule to another
∙ Purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis
o Purine and pyrimidine component of nucleotides
o Precursor for biosynthesis is PRPP