EDUC 202, Midterm Study Guide!
EDUC 202, Midterm Study Guide! EDUC 202
Popular in Perspectives: American Urban Schols
Popular in Department
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Goldman on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EDUC 202 at Towson University taught by Saundra M. Deltac in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
STUDY GUIDE MIDTERM EDUC 202 Be able to identify and explain (with examples) the following as they relate to privilege, power, and opportunities in American urban education from the 1600s through the 1950s: Parochial schools o A private school supported by a particular church Prejudice (examples) o Society- said that immigrants would not due well overall and give up their culture o Classroom-said that immigrants were not intelligent enough to succeed in school o Poverty (low SES) correlates with academic failure o Examples against prejudice: Anti-Semitism rising yet Jewish pupils achieving West coast Chinese/Japanese in segregated schools yet did generally well Germans did not give up language or cultural norms and also did well Poverty (low SES) correlates with academic failure Plessy v. Ferguson o Supreme Court case that legalized discrimination against African Americans and gave credence to the “separate but equal” doctrine o The Citizens Committee, an organization of prominent African Americans, chose Homer Plessy, a one-eight black, as a volunteer to violate state law by sitting in a separate but white-only railroad car. o Court ruled that a state law providing for separate facilities for the two races was NOT unconstitutional o Start of Jim Crow laws Charles Eliot o was concerned about the organization, external control, and hierarchical bureaucracy of the school system David Tyack (1 Best System) o Author of The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education (1974) o About history of America developing school system in place today o From farm children to factory workers, frontier teachers, city superintendents, racism, immigrants, and elite reforms Horace Mann o Father of Common school movement o Served US Senate and House of Representatives o Secretary of Massachusetts State Board of Education since inception o Founder of Normal School for teacher education o Argued that universal public education (free) was the best way to turn the nation’s unruly children into disciplined, judicious, republican citizens Industrial Revolution o Professions went from Jack of all trades (individual having multiple skills) to specialization o Houses were closer to each other and more uniform-people lived in cities in apartments close to others o Creation of middle class because people now paid with money o People defined themselves by member of occupational groups vs. allegiance ot society (factory worker, merchant, engineer) Normal School o School meant to train teachers in critical spirit and secular values o Founded by Normal School Hidden curriculum o Something not written in syllabus or curriculum Traits, behaviors, roles expected of students Rarely written in curriculum guides Not acknowledged in school objectives Examples: Conformity to authority (bathroom pass) Adaption of bureaucratic definition Speaking English in class Compulsory education o 1886 Chicago if all children who were legally obligated to attend school, only 1/3 find seats Common School Movement o Free school-paid with through taxes o Gave children equal education to help life where elite and poor come together o People opposed this because they didn’t want to be taxed and wanted control over education o Had more regulations for teachers o Wanted all classes treated equal in school Community School Movement o Started by Leonard Covello o Made school in East Harlem with classes in Italian language and heritage o Building open at night for parents’ classes-to educate them too o Curriculum related to community (urban planning) o Meetings held in several languages o Library books in multiple languages o Classes relevant to students’ lives o Strove to not make school divisive between families and their children Progressive School Movement (2 types) o Administrative progressives Political educational movement Elitist philosophy Control urban Ed by Central board Expert superintendent Eliot concerns Organization External control Hierarchical bureaucracy o Educational Progressives Small libertarian movement Social constructivists Make school conform to the child’s growth Dewey’s schooling Cooperative Democratic “Separate but Equal” o Separating black people from white people was viewed as equal because they still had facilities, they were just separate De facto segregation (examples) o There were policies for tests that lead to segregation in schools Example: tests that non-protestants wouldn’t be able to complete or only English tests to fish out immigrants Tracking (2 types) o Tracking was often done through IQ tests o Led to either advancement which meant: academic schools, college bound, classical education o Or led to Status Quo which meant: vocational schools, technical schools, commercial schools, or training schools Americanization (deletion & addition) o Deletion: Americanize students by getting rid of their culture by force For example: name, language (lose native language and punished for speaking it), clothing, middle class standards, schools should integrate immigrant into society Post WWI=conformity and patriotism o Addition: school becomes family- want to inspire immigrants to give up cultural identity For example: feed, clean, and maintain the health of the immigrants. Provide activities and access to study Urban school funding o Public schools free-people pay taxes for school Thomas Jefferson (PBS) o Believed survival of democracy relied on educating all Americans o People can’t vote if they’re illiterate o Plan allowed 3 years of ed. For women to prepare for marriage. No education for slaves o Ideas seemed radical to general assembly (thought farmers shouldn’t need to be further educated) o Finally got university of Virginia made o Argument was influential, but denied Immigration (waves I & II) o Wave I 1820-1870 English, German, Scandinavian Immigrants were mainly Irish Catholics Slurs against Catholics in school textbooks Then have all Irish schools and all black schools due to De facto segregation o Wave II 1870-1920 Eastern European, Southern Italian, Roman Catholic Millions of immigrants attracted to US because of job opportunities in industrial revolution Eastern and southern Europeans, often Catholic, Greek Orthodox Christians, Canadians, Mexicans, Chinese, and Japanese Immigrants extremely alienated, poor, illiterate but with help from previous immigrants, managed to get by White immigrants able to intersperse into the white American population, those of color were subject to segregation and racism African Americans and Mexicans forced into tenements Chinese Exclusion Act Social stability o Schools track students and then have the students viewed as not as intelligent go to vocational training and citizenship training to then get a lower income job that was intended to make the social structure “stable” o The students viewed as more intelligent then went on to higher education such as high school and college Cummins vs. Richmond, GA BoE o Case stays at local court, not state or Supreme court o 1899 ruling that schools COULD apply the “separate but equal” doctrine that allowed school segregation o Class action suit (group of people) brought against a Georgia country school board and the local taxing authority demanding relief from a portion of the taxes levied against African-American poverty owners o Lost the case o Petitioners objected to paying the part of the tax used to support to “whites-only” high schools after Richmond County closed its private African-American high school o Government shut down African American schools because of the class action suit Chinese Exclusion Act o Act passed by Congress which disallowed the immigration and those that live in America and were born in America cannot be considered an American citizen which took away the right of the Chinese Noah Webster (PBS)- o Teacher in Connecticut who wanted to eliminate British textbooks from classrooms and made a new textbook called the “speller” o Became most bought textbook at that time o Wanted to teach about America’s natural history and eliminate British culture Educational Stakeholders o Constituents who have a “stake”, or claim in the educational system o Students, parents, teachers, taxpayers, administrators, board members The Gary Plan (PBS) o Children would have classes in school that focused on other things than traditional learning o Would have classes such as mechanics o Progressives claimed that the Gary system could help the way of life o Helped with health because could provide things like plumbing and shows that students didn’t have at home o Students were taught manners o Students were Americanized o School was open at night and during the day to help community Philly Bible Riots (PBS) o Riots happened because of slurs against Irish Catholics o After city hall debate, anti-Catholic remarks removed by hand from textbooks Booker T. Washington’s ideology o Had a parent who was a slave, was older than Dubois o Liberal justification for racial oppression: Darwinian Evolution o Product of Normal and Agricultural Institute o Argued that Blacks were behind in their development when compared to whites because they needed time and support and leadership by whites to fully evolve to whites’ level o Whites should assist/lead Blacks’ education (was for whites being on the board of ed. And assisting black schools) o Economics was the way up o Learning vocation was the solution to the problem of what schooling Black people should receive o Quiet on subject of racism Angel Island & Ellis Island o When the immigrants arrived they had to prove health and connection in America to be allowed in o Conditions were bad, crowded and dirty o Same for both Islands Truancy o Skipping school o Students often skipped school because they were not motivated for education based on their culture, had to work, or worked because the conditions in schools were bad YOUR charter school from ER o SLA o FACTS o Parkway NW o Wissahickon William T. Harris o Established first kindergarten in 1873 o Made high school essential o Encouraged public schools to have libraries o Pupils must be taught to conform behavior to general standard o Schools should be models of bureaucratic punctuality and precision o Believed those values could systematically be installed into the pupils, promoted common goals and social cooperation, with a strong sense of respect for and responsibility towards one’s society o Eventually became the US commissioner of Education Sarah Roberts o took place before slaves were freed, but when there were free African Americans o Was denied entry to Boston public schools o Her father was a lawyer and friends with a white lawyer who was an abolitionist (fought against slavery and segregation) o They went to court to fight against segregation in school systems and lost, but got conversation started o 1855 abolished segregated schools in Boston Traits of YOUR school that embrace risk (ER) o SLA o FACTS o Parkway NW o Wissahickon Corporal Punishment (examples) o Paddling and Dunce cap used for shaming and humiliation to manipulate and control the students Ghettos/Tenements/Barrios/Slums o Many African Americans were forced to ghettos usually tenements crowded old building, small living space with multiple families crowded in them o Low economic class and small living spaces were often home to several families o Ghettos formed in urban areas o Mexican were pushed into increasingly isolated living and commercial districts -barrios o Ghettos, tenements, and barrios are the same Acculturation vs. Assimilation o Assimilation: give up culture identity and give in to American culture o Acculturation: Immigrants not giving up culture, which doesn’t divide the parents and children o Salad bowl vs. Melting Pot John Dewey o Most influential educational view in US o Favored human experience as basis for knowledge vs authority o Allows beliefs of individuals o Stresses programs of student involvement that help students learn how to think o Schools should prepare students for change o Emphasize learning HOW to think vs. than WHAT to think o Flexibility in curriculum important o Emphasis on experimentation o Encourages divergent thinking o Student vs. Subject centered o “learning through doing” Nativists vs. Immigrants (examples) o Nativist= moved to America before other immigrants o Germans in Cincinnati passed law if 75 freeholders demanded it in writing, must teach German. Had bilingual schools through early 1880. Otherwisendthey were required to only use English o During 2 wave of immigration, were often poor, illiterate, and extremely alien Margaret Haley o Was called Lady Slugger- fought for female teachers o Founded Chicago Teacher Federation for female teachers o Went against discrimination in the school system Bureaucratic school system o Allocate power o Hierarchical organization o Network of communication of information o Regularize procedures o Set performance standards for students and administration IQ Test o Used to classify students into homogeneous groups o Diagnose students’ failures o Track students o Organize classes by students’ abilities o Guide students’ choice of courses o Vocational (more blue-collar) o College bound W.E.B. Dubois’ ideology o Younger than Booker T. Washington o Raised in Massachusetts, first African American to get PhD from Harvard o Believed there was institutional racism o Thought first thing need to change was political standpoint to change policies, which would increase social status, and better opportunities for economic growth o Called for organized public protest, legal action vs. institutions, higher education for blacks (college, not just high school) o Wanted to do these things to change institutions’ policies Messages and implications in YOUR films o Lean on Me/New Public o Stand & Deliver/Select ED: Public Urban Education o Dangerous Minds/Boys of Baraka o Ron Clark Story/Inconvenient Truth Behind Waiting for Superman o Precious/Waiting for Superman Teachers’ Unions o Inspired after Margaret Haley fought for women teachers’ rights o Now teachers’ unions to preserve all their rights McGuffey Reader o First secular textbook o Most influential textbook of the 19 century o Only had pictures of white children with high socioeconomic statuses NEA (National Education Association) o Founded 1880 o Inner sanctum of elites o Anglo-Saxon European males o Sought to prescribe (un)wise policy for nation’s schools o Consolidation of schools and pupil transportation-make sure children get educated o Supervision of superintendents o Professionally trained teachers (normal schools) o Teach country children sound values and vocational skills- need to have skills to work in the city o Didn’t allow women teachers to join or sit in on meetings until Margaret Haley fought against them Additive vs. deficit model of education o Using language that isn’t demeaning o Examples: Wheelchair user/wheelchair bound; homeless/unsheltered; immigrant/new American Catholics vs. Protestants (examples) o Protestants Protestant rituals in schools Took values as self-evidently true and not subject to debate disliked partisan controversy Took over school system and had Catholic slurs in textbooks Books based off of Protestant beliefs and Bible o Catholics Catholics expected to go to school with Catholic textbooks Expected to learn Protestant beliefs and Bible Irish Catholics had Bible riots which led to 13 people dead Later Catholic slurs taken out BY HAND out of textbooks Then used McGuffey reader which was secular East European Jews vs. Southern Italians o East European Jews Urban background Resistance against strengthened educational zeal Religious educated revered Free NYC schools vs. Russian quotas School=luxury o Southern Italians Peasants Agricultural vs. industry Education family based and school undermined Roman Catholic practices different than Irish Ancient customs/practices Against government compulsions (Edu/taxes) Family contribute to support School=laziness and disloyal ETS o Educational Testing Service o Develops various standardized tests for K-12 and higher education o In charge of SATs Jim Crow laws o Laws that it was constitutional to have segregation o Examples: schools, water fountains, hotels, movie theaters, restaurants Legal precedence o Students must go to school (law for attendance put in place) o Segregation in schools allowed by law The Great Debate (NYC) o Bishop John D. Hughes argued in a debate against Protestant indoctrination in public school system and for government funding of Catholic parochial schools Bishop Hughes (PBS) o Catholic Bishop in New York o Campaigned on behalf of Irish immigrants, and attempted to secure state support for parochial schools o Protested against Protestant Bible in public schools o Was against taxes for public on Catholics because they were protestant o Founded independent Catholic school system, mandated that all parishes have a school and that all Catholic students be sent to that school Village school system o Village elders hired the teachers o Teacher must answer/please townspeople or would be fired o Children taught math and how to read the Bible only o School only happened if students didn’t have to help with farming, if the weather was good enough for the children to walk or if the school was close enough for the students to travel o Community didn’t care about age or previous education of the teacher, as long as she pleased the community o School used as a community gathering place Examples: for church, voting, recreation Rural/Village vs. Urban Schools o Rural School only for elite, privately paid for, for mostly males, tutors o Village elders hired teacher teacher must answer/please townspeople townspeople combined paid for teacher looked for teacher who could please community, didn’t care about age or experience taught math and how to read the bible o Urban Diverse ethnicities, multiple languages, greater concentration of low SES School was diverse, had large enrollments, complex, and struggled with growth A lot of students at urban schools are exposed to poverty-NOT all students The changing purposes of education o Before school, elite white males taught manners and skills need in high class society o Education started off as just learning basic math and how to read the Bible (protestant bible) o Then evolved to only speaking English, to discipline and teach manners to students along with basic skills, also had grammer school o Then the Gary System was put in place to include arts, mechanics, and other studies that were separate from the core subjects o Then decided which students could go onto college and which to vocational training o Students only studied courses that were needed for their future career- not just learning to learn Child labor affect education o Children skipped school to go work in factories because they would rather do that then go to school where the conditions were terrible o Schools over-crowded 1600-1700 forms of education (examples) o tutors for elite, male, Anglo-Saxon Protestant white rich people o rural schools-students taught often in Dane schools (in homes); only taught basics o village schools (only started later in about 1700)-taught math and how to read Bible (see village school definition for more info.) Social efficiency o Idea that students should learn material only needed for their future career o Waste of time to teach other material that is “not needed” Ellwood Cubberley o Focused on efficiency, started as teacher in one room schoolhouse o Did not like a one-size-fits-all education o Introduced career tracker which was a new form of college prep courses only for where the students were expected to have as a career o School now a way to get a good job, not just learning to learn o Chose who got into college still based on IQs Louis Terman o An American psychologist who revised the Stanford-Binet IQ test initiating the study of children with high IQs o Classified students into homogeneous groups o Diagnosed students’ failures o Organized classes based on students’ abilities o Guide students’ choice of courses for vocational studies or college o IQ tests were biased towards people coming from high social status families o Equity is responsive to abilities of test takers Abolitionists o People who wanted to get rid of segregation and racism towards African Americans o Fredrick Douglass wanted good education o Fredrick Douglass wanted all black school so black students could get a good education Leonard Covello o Italian immigrant o No high school in East Harlem (where Italians were) o Created Community School model o Fought for first high school in East Harlem o School had classes in Italian language and heritage o Building open at night for parents’ classes o Strove to not make school divisive between families and their children Cultural Relative Pedagogy (examples) o Dangerous Minds- Related Bob Dylan songs and lyrics to English to connect students to curriculum and grab their attention o Precious- had students write in journals daily to practice writing and also provided an outlet for the students to write out whatever is going on with them in their lives at that given time.
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