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Social Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Donna Park

Social Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC 360 001

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Knoxville > Psychology > PSYC 360 001 > Social Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide
Donna Park
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Social Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide
Social Psychology
Amy Kathleen Heger (P)
Study Guide
Psychology, SocialPsychology
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Donna Park on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 360 001 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Amy Kathleen Heger (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
Chapter 5  Self Concept – How we as individuals think about and perceive ourselves o Affect = self-esteem o Behavior = knowledge of actions o Cognitions = beliefs about self  Awareness of self develops ~ age 18-24 months  Primates, dolphins, elephants have self-concepts  Culture differences in defining self o Western Cultures  Independent view of self – Defining oneself in terms of one’s internal thoughts, feelings, and actions o Asian and non-Western Cultures  Interdependent view of self – Defining oneself in terms of relationships to other people  Gender Differences in Defining the Self o Women  Relational Interdependence – Focus more on close relationships (e.g., spouse, child, or close friend) in defining self o Men  Collective Interdependence – Focus more on memberships to larger groups (e.g., sports team fan)  Self Knowledge o Introspection – Consciously “looking inward” and examining one’s own thoughts, feelings, and motives  We don’t rely on it very often  Reasons for feelings/behaviors often outside conscious awareness  Can be wrong and actually hurt self-knowledge  It can be difficult to judge why we feel the way we do  How much does not getting sleep affect you?  Why are you in love with your partners?  Reasons generated attitude change – attitude change resulting from thinking of the reasons for one’s own attitudes  Self Awareness Theory – focusing attention on oneself to evaluate and compare one’s behavior to internal standards and values  Good: If it motivates planning and execution to get out of uncomfortable state  Bad: If one can’t change behavior o Can cause individuals to avoid self- awareness (e.g., drinking, drug abuse, binge eat) o Self Perception  Three domains where we self-perceive:  Attitudes  Motivation o Intrinsic Motivation – Desire to engage in activity because of personal enjoyment (and not because of external awards or pressures) o Extrinsic Motivation – Desire to engage in activity due to external rewards or pressures o Overjustification effect – Overestimating the extent to which one’s behavior is due to extrinsic, in comparison to intrinsic reasons  Emotions o Experience of emotion is similar to other types of self-perception o Infer our emotions by observing our behavior o Misattribution of arousal – mistakenly identifying the sense of what is making one feel the way they are o Self Knowledge  Social Comparison Theory – Learning about our abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people  Upward Social Comparison – Comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are at a particular trait or ability  Downward Social Comparison – Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are at a particular trait or ability  Self Esteem – evaluations of our self-worth  High Self Esteem: viewing ourselves as good, competent and decent  Terror Management Theory – self-esteem protects individuals from terrifying thoughts about their own mortality  Narcissism – combination of excessive self-love and a lack of empathy towards others  Maintaining self esteem:  False consensus effect – overestimating how much others are like you  Unrealistic optimism – overestimating the likelihood that positive (rather than negative) things will happen to you  Impression Management – attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen  Ingratiation – using flattery or praise to make ourselves likeable to another person  Self Handicapping – creating obstacles and excuses for ourselves so if we do poorly on a task, we can avoid blaming ourselves  Self-Control – making choices about the present and plans for the future Chapter 6 Cognitive Dissonance o Irrelevant  Ex: “I like talented musicians”. “I love chocolate”. o Consonant- related, consisted implications  Ex: “I like talented musicians” “I enjoy Sufjan Stevens” o Dissonant- Related, Contradictory implications  Ex: “I like talented musicians”  “I love Ke$ha” Dissonant cognitions create.. o Cognitive dissonance- an unpleasant state of arousal, resulting from dissonant cognitions, that one is motivated to reduce  Ex: “world hunger is an important problem”  Ex: “I do nothing to help eliminate world hunger” Ways to reduce dissonance o Change behavior to agree with cognitions  Stop listening to Ke$ha o Change cognition to agree with behavior  “Ke$ha really isn’t that horrible of an artist” o Add new cognitions  “Ke$ha is good pump-up music” Self-affrimation- bolster the self-concept Reducing dissonance by adding a cognition about other positive attributes o Ex: smoker who fails to quit  Not very smart of me to be smoking, but I am a good mathematician! Chapter 7  Attitudes – Positive and/or negative evaluations of people, places, objects and ideas o “I like Ryan Reynolds” o “Denver is a great place”  Sources of attitude o Direct experience  Affective-based- based on emotions/values toward an attitude object  Operant conditioning- freely chosen behaviors become more or less frequent, depending on if followed by a reward or punishment o Ex: reinforced for playing baseball=favorite attitude towards the sport o Ex: Punished when playing with a child of a different race= racist attitude  Classical conditioning- A stimulus that elicits a emotional response is a repeatedly paired with a neutral stimulus, until the neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the first o Cognitive-based- Based on beliefs toward an attitude object o Behavioral-based- Based on observations of behave toward an attitude object (remember self-perception theory)  Under certain conditions  When initial attitude is weak or ambiguous  When no other plausible explanation for behavior  The sources of attitudes: o Social learning- attitude formation through observation of others (parents, teachers, friends)  Racial prejudice  Political/religious beliefs o Genetics  Twin studies show some attitudes are inherited  Identical twins share more similar attitudes than fraternal, even when raised in different environments  Two ways to measure attitudes: o Explicit Measures- consciously endorsed, self-reported attitudes  Ex: “How do you feel about Obama”  Pros: Easy  Cons: People lie o Implicit measures- attitudes assessed without people’s direct responses o Implicit attitude- attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable and at times unconscious o Implicit measures predict automatic behaviors o Explicit measures predict controlled behaviors  Yale attitude change approach- conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages  Central route- attitude change that occurs through thoughtful elaboration of a message  Peripheral route- Attitude change that occurs through incidental, automatic cues  Fear-arousing communications- attempt to change attitudes by arousing fear  Attitude inoculation- Making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of arguments against their position  Reactance Theory- when we feel our freedom to perform a behavior is threatened  Subliminal messages- words or pictures that are consciously perceived but may influence people’s judgements, attitudes, and behaviors


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