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Chem 42, Study Guide Exam 2

by: Ariana Notetaker

Chem 42, Study Guide Exam 2 Chem 42

Marketplace > Santa Rosa Junior College > Science > Chem 42 > Chem 42 Study Guide Exam 2
Ariana Notetaker
Santa Rosa Junior College
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

This study guide includes notes from weeks 5, 6, and 7. All subjects for Exam 2 are covered.
Introduction to Chemistry
Study Guide
Bohr Model, Ion_formation, Naming_ions, Ionic Compound Formulas, Naming Covalent Compounds, Ionic_v_covalent, 3D lewis structures, Lewis Structure, bond polarity, naming_ionic_compounds, molecular_shapes, Balancing Equations, States_of_Matter, reactions, Types_of_reactions, Precipitation_reactions, solubility, acid-base reaction, net_ionic_equation, Total_ionic_equation, total ionic
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ariana Notetaker on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 42 at Santa Rosa Junior College taught by Fassler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Chemistry in Science at Santa Rosa Junior College.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
Polar vs. Non polar Covalent Bonds PolarCovalent bonds- H — F electrons are shared unequally Non polar covalent bonds- H — H electrons shared equally Which bonds are polar? F O N Cl bonded to another type of atom any other type of bond is non polar POLAR COVALENT BONDS (between F.O.N.Cl. and non F.O.N.Cl.) + H — F — F.O.N.Cl. end of the bond is negative (-) Non F.O.N.Cl. end of the bond is positive (+) H (+) (-) (+) HOC H Cl polar covalent bonds Ions - -atoms that have a charge -an alternative to sharing where atoms still gain an octet loses 1 e +3 nucleus -2 electrons Li atom Li+ ion +1 net charge Positive ions are cations - always metals Negative ions are anions - always nonmetals What ion will form? O oxide Ca Calcium Al aluminum P phosphorus Ions form ionic compounds Total charge on on Mg + O ionic compound 2 MgO must be zero Covalent or ionic? CO 2 -only nonmetals -covalent compound CaCl 2 -Ca is a metal -ionic compound Naming ions -Cations (metals) keep the name of the metal -Anions (nonmetals) end in -ide -transition metals get a Roman Numeral to specify their charge Sn —> tin (II) 4+ transition metals Sn —> tin (V) Ag —> Silver (I) 2+ Ba —> barium cation Naming ionic compounds —> check for a metal (ion) —> identify the ions —> name the ions —> total charge of all ions is always zero Examples: CaO KBr K + Br- Ca2+ O 2- Potassium Bromide Calcium Oxide FeO L3 N Iron(II) Oxide Li+ N3- Lithium Nitride Naming Covalent Compounds —> make sure there are no metals —> count each type of atom —> add greek prefix to show how many of that atom there are —> do not use mono- for the first element (but do use it for the second) —> make sure the second element ends in -ide Prefixes mono - 1 tetra - 4 hepta - 7 deca - 10 di - 2 penta - 5 octa - 8 tri - 3 hexa - 6 nona - 9 Examples: Cs2—> carbon disulfide SF6—> sulfur hexafluoride P2 5—> Diphosphorus Pent oxide CO —> Carbon Monoxide Polyatomic ions Polyatomic ions -multiple atom ions Ones to know ammonium NH 4+ hydrogen sulfate HSO -4 3- nitrate NO3- phosphate PO 4 carbonate CO 3- hydrogen phosphate HPO 42- hydrogen carbonate HCO 3- dihydrogen phosphate H PO2 41- acetate CH CO (bicarbonate) 3 2- cyonide CN - hydroxide OH - 1- 2- -3 NO 3 CO 3 SO 4- PO 4 nitrate carbonate sulfate phosphate Examples: Sodium Carbonate magnesium hydroxide Na + Na2CO 3 CO 3- Mg 2- Mg(OH) 2 OH - FeSO 4 Iron (III) Sulfate Iron(II) Sulfate Fe3+ Fe (SO ) SO 2- 2 4 3 4 Shapes of molecules V.S.E.P.R. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (Theory) Linear X— A — X (-X atoms are far apart -Steric #2) Steric # = the number of atoms bonded to a central atom Trigonal planar X X A steric # 3 X Tetrahedral (3 dimensional) Trigonal Pyramid X .. A X A X X X X X Bent - atom replaced with electrons .. A X X Chemical Reactions reactants products gas (g) liquid (l) solid (s) aqueous (aq) Examples: Burning methane (CH )4in oxygen produces carbon dioxide and water. CH + O CO + H O 4(g) 2(g) 2(g) 2 (g) unbalanced reaction -includes each substance but not in a particular ratio Balancing Equations Unbalanced : CH 4(g) + O 2(g) CO + H2O (g) 2(g) Balanced : CH 4(g) + 2O 2(g) CO 2(g)+ 2H 2 (g) Coefficient a balanced equation has the same number of each -indicates the # of atom on either side of the equation (i.e. 2 Oxygen and 4 Hydrogen on either side) each kind of molecule Unbalanced: C 3 +8O 2 CO + H O 2 2 Balanced: C3H 8 5 O 2 3 CO + 4 H O 2 2 Unbalanced : CH 4O +CO 2 2+ H2O Balancing : 2(CH 4 + O (3/C)O 2 2+ 2H 2 ) 1 O + 3 O 4 O 1 C 1 C 4 H 4 H Balanced : 2CH OO +C 3O 2 + 4 H O 4 2 2 2 Types of reactions Combination/Synthesis C (s) OO2(g) 2(g) Decomposition H CO CO + H O 2 3(aq) 2(g) 2 (l) Single Replacement A + BC B + AC Zn (s) HCl (aq) H 2(g)+ ZnCl2 Double Replacement Reactions Double Replacement Reactions AB + CD AD + CB AgNO 3(aq) NaCl (aq) AgCl (s) Total Ionic Equation - aqueous ions written separately Ag +(aq)+ NO -3 (aq)Na (aq)+ Cl-(aq) AgCl (s) Na +(aq) NO 3-(aq) This is a precipitation reaction (formation of a solid) Acid - Base reaction -formation of water Ionic compounds in solution -in water, ions separate and swim independently Net Ionic equation - cancel spectators Ag (aq) + Cl (aq) AgCl(s) NO3 and Na were taken out of the equation because they did not change from one side of the equation to the other - meaning they did not react Solubility Rules Soluble in Water —> Na+ , K+ , NH 4 , Li+ — no exceptions —-> NO -3, CH ,3CO 2 most Cl- , Br-, I- except when with Pb + , Ag+ 2 2 2 2 2 -insoluble most SO - 4 except when with Ca + , Sr +, Ba +, Pb + Insoluble in water most CO -3, PO - 4 S - Except : Li+ , Na+ , K+, Nh +4 soluble most OH - Except : Li+ , Na+ , K+ , NH4+ , Ca + , Sr + , Ba +


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