Intercultural Communication Exam 1 Study Guide
Intercultural Communication Exam 1 Study Guide CMST 2610 - 03
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gianna P. on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMST 2610 - 03 at Youngstown State University taught by Jeffrey L. Tyus in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intercultural Communication in Communication Studies (022) at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Intercultural Communication Exam 1 Study Guide Key concepts and definitions to know (not in order by chapter): • Connection – the power to link through communication • Engagement – sharing certain aspects of culture • Communication Activism – direct energetic action in support of needed social change for individuals, groups, organizations, and communities Ex. Protesting • Cultural Awareness – improves communication between cultures • Cultural Competence – the level of knowledge a person has about others who are different from them o There are various levels of cultural competence: Unconscious incompetence, Conscious incompetence, Unconscious competence (being able to appropriately communicate without thinking about it), Conscious competence Minority Identity Development • 1: lack of identity • 2: internalize dominant group characteristics • 3: Excluding/offending (negative event occurs) • 4: ideal outcome; strong appreciate for themselves and others Majority Identity Development • 1: lack of identity exploration • 2: acceptance of basic inequalities • 3: “finally get it;” understand power of majority and blame their own group • 4: recognize their identity but can also respect and appreciate others Multicultural Identity • 1: recognize that they are different usually when children • 2: experiment/explore both cultures • 3: develops a more secure sense of themselves; can assert themselves when people question them Honeymoon – excited; euphoria Crisis – hostility towards environment – frustrated Recovery – work with culture in order to embrace it Adjustment – adapt and obtain an increased awareness of new environment Culture shock – the feeling of disorientation when you’re in another culture Assimilating – can’t occur without socialization Anticipatory socialization – form expectations of what it’s like to be a member Encounter – learning more about the group; know the rules Metamorphosis – when new members alter their behavior; want to fit in Enculturation – how we learn our own culture growing up Deculturation – unlearn certain aspects of our culture in order to fit into a new one Adjustment – shortterm Adaptation – longterm Input – what you bring in Throughput – communications with new culture Output – resulting behavior that is learned Ethnorelativism – the ability to see behaviors as culturally bound • Immigration used to be mainly from Europe • Now most people immigrate to the United States from Central America and Asia • Universalist – any culture needs to identify those rules that apply across cultures o What is wrong in one culture should be considered wrong in all cultures o Right and wrong are universal • Relativist – any cultural behavior can only be judged within the context of that cultural community Examples of Diversity • Gender, race, religion, social class, ability (ablebodied vs. disability), language, sexuality • The majority needs to fight for the minority in order for change to happen • Code of Ethics Example: Journalist at the New York Times lied in his articles, breaking the code of ethics • Ethnocentrism – when you think your culture is better than others (typically happens with religion, race, and gender) • Trolling – being negative towards someone online • Identity – how you view yourself and how others might see you • Self – a set of beliefs about one’s attributes, as well as stories or memories that confirm those attributes • The individual – your personal self • The interpersonal – the self that emerges because of relationships or connections you have made with others • The group – the self that emerges because of your group membership o Examples: family, culture, sorority/fraternity • Face – the image of self that we project to others • Facework – the communicative actions we take to show our face • Valence – the positive or negative feelings that we might have about ourselves • Centrality – the extent to which a selfaspect is crucial to how we describe ourselves o Ex.) religion • Currency – how we see certain aspects fitting in time (some are crucial to you at one time and are not at another) • Actuality – the distinction we make between characteristics we possess and those we aspire to have • Social Identity Theory – highlights that identity is a function of one’s social groups and interactions • Communication Theory of Identity – people maintain different overlapping identities within cultural groups • Ethnic identity – depth of commitment to certain shared patterns of communication within a particular group o Ex.) Italian traditions at Christmas • Be aware of stereotypes • Authenticity becomes a concern o Not Indian enough (quote from SkinDeep film) • Age identity – identity can change over time • We always examine people about their age appropriateness • Ageism – age stereotypes • Gender (learned) and Sex (biological; what you’re born with) Identity – expectations that society places on females and males • Be aware of stereotypes Standpoint Theory – point of view arise from the social groups we belong to Inclusive Theory – to bring people together; strive for a broad based language that includes all people o Ex.) mailman mailperson Chronemics – the use of time (time management) o Monochronic – 1 thing at a time o Polychronic – multiple things at a time Proxemics – how we use space and distance to communicate Haptics – study of touch and the message it communicates o Location (on body and place where you are), duration, intensity Kinesics – study of body movements 4 types of gestures Display rules – guide what kind/amount of appropriate emotions Framing rules – standards taught by society/culture that tells us how we should manage emotions Feeling rules – what people should feel/ have the right to feel in certain situations Emotion work – effort we give showing/suppressing emotions Styles interaction in intercultural marriages o Submission, compromise, obliteration, consensus
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