SOCL 2001 Section 6 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
SOCL 2001 Section 6 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE SOCL 2001
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristy Trahan on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCL 2001 at Louisiana State University taught by T. Kazi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Mostof the major terms/people and definitions will be on here. Chapter 5 MainTerms and Ideas Socialization: the lifelong process to which people are prepared to participate in society at every level; teaches us how to behave and act on the individual, interpersonal, group, organizational, and institutional levels o infants must interact in order to survive, and as they interact, they learn about society Starts before you are even born- baby showers with a pink or blue theme to indicate gender 5 MAJOR AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION o Family: the primary agent of the socialization process Children learn from their parents: dialect, food habits, leisure activities, etc. The accumulation of all these form our “cultural knowledge” Cultural knowledge helps us advance in our social economic statuses- this is the idea of cultural capitol Cultural Capitol: values, attitudes, and knowledge (particularly on education) provided by parents to help us succeed in society o PIERRE BOURDIEU: COINED THIS TERM IN 1986 o Schools: second most important Teaches us to: compete, achieve, cooperate, and obey rules We learn from schools: work roles of community helpers (firefighters/doctors), feel patriotic, country’s geography, history, and national holidays, and our type of government o PeerGroups: We learn from peer groups: racial/ ethnic interaction, sexual orientation, risk taking, adjustment, clothing styles, and music Some may be more heavily influenced than others o Job: Occupational Socialization: we need to learn certain skills, values, and norms to perform well with our job Reproduction of social class (your job affects your parental values): Blue Collar vs. White Collar parents o Blue collar parents tend to value being neat, clean, and obedient o White collar parents tend to value considerateness, curiosity, happiness, and self-control The children of these workers are taught skills and values that the workers’ use at their own workplace o Mass Media: American children spend more than 53 hours a week watching tv or using other gadgets- this is the equivalent to a full time work week 4 hours tv/day= more craving for cereal, snacks, and junk food SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan 200 junk food ads are shown in 4 hours of children Saturday morning cartoon programming Heavily influenced by capitalism (mother’s and father’s advertisements) More TV= less imagination (can decrease creativity, which is very dangerous) SOCIALIZATION THEORY o Created by GEORGE HERBERT MEAD: the mind, self, and society o Based on the capacity to use symbols (language) o Coined the term SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM Interpret the situation by giving meaning to others’ behavior Other person knows the meaning of the symbol, then it is symbolic interactionism Example: father’s attention to his daughter- the daughter knows that by crying, she will get a bottle of milk from her father o ROLE TAKING: Describes the process of figuring out how others think and perceive us Play, which is mainly done by children Example: playing ‘mother’, playing dress-up, playing teacher Always take the role of importance and significance Role-taking is an important verstehentechnique How you feel to be someone else THE LOOKING-GLASS SELF o Created by CHARLES HORTON COOLEY 1. How we think our behaviors appear to others 2. How we think others judge our behavior 3. How we feel about their judgement Example: I and clumsy vs graceful You want to be graceful to feel more accepted by society o Social theories of self: society exists first, individual is shaped by the society o Psychological theories of self: individual develops first, then respond to the society based on preexisting tendencies to behave in particular ways Example: women’s usage of space Men use more space than women; women always try to keep their limbs closer to themselves and not all stretched out (sit like a lady) Who teaches women these etiquettes? SOCIETY PRESENTATION OF SELF o Created by ERVING GOFFMAN o The way we present ourselves gives other people cues about the type of interaction we expect o IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT: the constant effort to manipulate the impression that others have of them and give out cues to lead interactions to a particular direction Example: handshaking with friends, quiet with strangers In Bangladesh, it is normal to yell at others in the street (just talk loudly) o DRAMATURGICAL APPROACH Prepare ourselves at the ‘backstage’, present ourselves at the ‘front stage’ SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan All behaviors- neither instinctual nor habitual It is a presentation of self- we learn through the socialization process Prepare yourself by bathing, putting on makeup, shaving, wearing suitable clothing Shakespeare- the world is the stage and we are the performers Chapter 6 MainTerms and Ideas Deviance- variation from a set of norms or shared social expectations Deviants- people who violate these shared expectations (viewed as simply being different) Traditional Views of Deviance o Don’t consider poverty and how that can make a person a drug addict (content is not considered) o 1. ABSOLUTIST AND IMMORAL VIEW Are always deviant (absolutism) and bad or wrong (immoral) Homosexuality, criminal acts, dishonesty, or the use of psychoactive drugs o 2. MEDICAL VIEW Deviance is assumed to be pathological Deviants are ‘sick people’ and that society is unhealthy Rape, child abuse, robbery, mental disorders, and alcoholism o No grey area: good vs bad/ health vs illness o 3. STATISTICAL VIEW Being different from the average person makes you a deviant We are all deviant in some aspects Example: left handed, black hair, member of a minority group CULTURAL RELATIVISM: can be interpreted in the socio-cultural context in which it happens Deviant Acts o By TIME Example: Cigarettes were first banned by many states and countries until they realized how much profit they were making (capitalism) Eventually put the surgeon general warning on each pack to warn the public about the health risks (cancer) o By PLACE Behaviors viewed as deviant in one location, society, or culture may be considered non-deviant in others Multiple wives in Africa show wealth, prestige, and high status; however, this is a punishable offense in the US o By SITUATION Behavior that is defined as deviant in one situation may not be in another, even in the same time period and geographical area Men dressing up as women: many countries would send this person to jail because it is so shameful SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan o By SOCIAL STATUS A mafia don would be granted access to a popular club since he’s so rich, but no entry for prostitutes and distributors even though they helped to sell or contribute to the earnings of the big mafia boss o By GENDER Going topless: easy for men while female nudity is unacceptable in most countries SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF DEVIANCE (the more positive side) o Define the limit of social tolerance Help to clarify the boundaries of social norms and the limits of behavioral diversity Bullying used to be considered normal behavior until schools implemented bullying policies o Increase solidarity Having a common enemy tends to unite group members There isn’t as much pressure on homosexuals since they stood up and spoke for themselves o Safety valve for social discontent When people desire things that the social norms do not permit them to have They may become frustrated and angry and begin to attack norms or even attempt to destroy the social system By cheating on paying income tax, they express their dissatisfaction with the government Doing drugs because of job frustrations or an unhappy marriage are other ways to express frustrations, being the least injurious to society o Indicating defects in the existing social organizations High rates of some deviance may expose problems in the social order o Lead to social change Can involve modifications in the existing structure, modifications in behavior, or changes in the definitions of deviance Due to the resistance from the minority/homosexuals, they have gained acceptance and gained many of their rights back (right to vote) DYSFUNCTIONS! (out-weigh the positives)- disrupts the order and predictability of life o Disrupt social order So many acts against the norms that life becomes chaotic and unpredictable The effect of an alcoholic father on a family system o All routines and social expectations are subject to being disturbed by him o Disrupt the will of others to conform If norm violations are unpunished or if some members of society refuse to obey established rules, the desire to conform is decreased If others are speeding without consequence, then you will eventually do the same (not conforming to the speed limit) o Destroy trust SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan Social life is based in part on the assumption that other people are honest and trustworthy Widespread deviance destroys our trust and confidence in others Become more dependent on the legal system to define, support, and enforce the law o Divert resources The government is diverting its resources to rehabilitation and control efforts while there are more fruitful ways to use these resources o DEVIANCE IS NEITHER ALL GOOD OR ALL BAD AND IS AN INEVITABLE PART OF OUR SOCIETY Deviance and Crime o Types: Violent Crime: involve victim Assault, homicide, rape, and robbery White-collar crimes: FOR PERSONAL GAIN, by someone respectable Individuals are usually corporate or government employees Stock manipulation- Bernie Madoff cheated nearly 5,000 investors and taking their money Felony: punishable for 1 year or more Organized Crime: pretty much its own business Drug dealers, gambling business, syndicate (a channel for all the people involved that help different parties- human trafficking) Juvenile Crime: under 18 Type of crime doesn’t matter- based on age Sent to correctional center because the context around their crime may have been against them (home situation) Deviance and Social Control o External Control: the response of others to a member’s behavior Informal: somebody else is pressuring/judging- parent with child Formal: law enforcement agency o Internal Control: self-control, ego, strength (the development of self) Theories of Deviance o BIOLOGICAL- genetics matter, different XY chromosome formation; physiological, anatomical matter Reasons how a person is made a criminal and why they do these things William Sheldon (1940)- attempted to link body type to behavior 1. Endomorphs- soft, round 2. Mesomorphs- athletic, muscular 3. Ectomorphs- fragile, skinny Found a disproportionate percentage of criminals to be mesomorphs o PSYCHOLOGICAL- focuses on the mind more than the body (mental illness) Emphasizes such factors as personality, motivation, willpower, frustration, aggression, and ego strength SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan SOCIAL THEORIES EXPLAINING DEVIANCE o STRAIN AND ANOMIE THEORY (Merton, 1957) Derived from Emile Durkheim Most cases norms are clear, but sometimes (turmoil, war) people find themselves in unfamiliar situations Anomie, social normlessness, occurs Deviance arises, tension between culturally prescribed goals and socially approved ways of achieving them Example: racial minorities, poor teenagers o Hispanic children know they need a good education to do well in life, however, schools don’t want these students (know they won’t do well on exams and will hinder the school’s reputation/grade) o Child eventually turns to robbery and crime to make extra money Know the goal, but don’t know how to achieve the goal (do stupid/deviant things) 5 WAYS TO ACHIEVE GOALS 1. Innovation- accepts social goals, but rejects normatively prescribed means o Good grades by cheating 2. Ritualism- follow rules rigidly o Lower middle class Americans do not take chances, less major cultural goals, but more petty rules Don’t want more frustration or tension in their lives 3. Retreatism- drastic mode of adaptation o Drug addicts live in their own group/society and have no goals 4. Rebellion- withdraw their allegiance to a society that is unjust o Gay right movement, women’s right movement- advocate for new values and modify social structure 5. Conformity- focus to their goals and the means is non-deviant Criticism: Merton’s underlying assumptions- deviance is disproportionately concentrated in the lower socioeconomic people o CONFLICT THEORY Tension between the powerful (Bourgeoisie) and powerless (Proletariat) Powerful exploits powerless causes institutionalized violence Legal authorities ought to be fair, but become unjust- they favor the rich Criticism: Nonpolitical deviances are ignored Causes of deviant acts are ignored Utopian communist society without crime? o CULTURAL TRANSMISSION THEORY (subcultural theory) Through socialization process or meeting and socializing with peers who do deviant acts, they could rub off on you and influence you to also do these deviant acts- Chicago School 1929 SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan o LABELLING THEORY Some behaviors are labeled as deviant Two people, same crime, different meaning Being labelled as deviant always deviant Terrorists who wear hijabs make people associate everyone who wears a hijab as a terrorist Highly negatively labelled creates stigma Criticism: difficult to test empirically, some powerful people are labelled as deviant o SOCIAL CONTROL THEORY (Hirschi, 1969) 4 types of social bonds 1. Attachment: family 2. Commitment: career 3. Involvement: “midnight basketball” for teenagers, club activities 4. Belief: agreement with traditional moral standards Chapter 7 MainTerms and Ideas DIFFERENTIATION: how people vary according to social characteristics o Example: people who prefer desk jobs vs field job, work in teams vs solitary o Sociologists do not rank people high or low based on differentiation o People are ranked according to the scarce resources they control Money/property and social status/prestige STRATIFICATION: the organization of society in which people are ranked according to their WEALTH or PRESTIGE o Inequality and social stratification are often used interchangeably o Inequality exists between two or more individuals/groups o Social stratification applies to how a particular society is organized Social stratification influences every part of our lives o Living status (neighborhood) o School (public or private) o Work (blue collar or white collar) Types of Society o HUNTING AND GATHERING 50 or less people, nomadic, live on what they can find to eat No surplus food Everybody does work, no division of labor May get special respect (age, wisdom, skill, magical power) but no authority/power ***little differentiation, little stratification*** o HORTICULTURAL Small tools for digging, irrigation, and fertilization Reliable food source, with sometimes surplus Remain in one location, build shelter, make tools Occasionally fight wars to protect land (started to have ownership of land) Division of labor occurs based on specialization: warriors, ceremonial/ political leaders SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan Capture slaves and enforce their edicts ***stratification system develops but not extensively*** o AGRARIAN Far more sophisticated technology- ability to work with iron (metallurgy) Usage of plows and firearms Cultivate faster (domesticate animals and good technology) Exponentially increased production level Three social classes! 1. Serfs- farmers who are controlled by the states 2. States- rich families 3. Merchants- trade a variety of goods Birth of BOURGEOISIE and PROLETARIAT Terminology by KARL MARX ***starting point of huge social stratification*** o INDUSTRIAL Average people’s standards of living increased Overall stratification is not as high as agrarian society Social class- more towards modern-day o depends on wealth, power, and life chances (opportunity) to acquire wealth o Social class: combination of honor and prestige o Power: ability to control others’ behavior without their consent- political affiliation, club member o Socioeconomic status: income, education, occupation Income: easy to quantify, occupational prestige: not so easy INEQUALITY IN THE US o Distribution of Income GINI COEFFICIENT- index that measures degree of income inequality 100%- all income is going to one person 0%- there is no inequality because everyone is getting an equal amount of money (pretty much impossible) Rank of Countries for leastGC o 1. Sweden (least inequality) o 4. Denmark o 13. Germany o 98. US GC is higher in developing countries Median household income, Louisiana- $39,443 (middle income) Occupy wall street movement o Richer are becoming richer, poorer are becoming poorer o Distribution of Wealth Top 1% of households hold 34.6% of wealth Social status in the US: difficult to assign on the basis of wealth Wealth became a secondary attribute to rank people SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan Class Consciousness 1983 study done by Jackman o People always categorize themselves by class categories o Occupation was the primary consideration, then education 1930-people had consciousness of wealth in society because of the Great Depression (were not concerned about poverty) 1960- changed views and poverty became a concern 1980- Americans appear to be uninterested in the government’s actions to reduce inequality and poverty 2012- social inequality becomes a major social problem o Why the rich are getting richer and the poorer are poorer Poverty: 46.2 million people were living in poverty in 2010 Feminization of Poverty: females get a lower income than males $50,000- median for males $38,500- median for females o Even if doing the same work and putting in the same hours SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION o Structural Functional Theory Believe that systems of stratification develop because societies need scarce leadership skills and reward those who are willing to assume the responsibility of leadership Stratification is inevitable- so it must be serving some functions Complex nature of modern society: specialization needed Whose job is more important? CEO or garbage collector CEOs are not as easily replaced as the garbage collector Importance and difficulty vs demand and supply CEO- demand is high and supply is low= high salary All human beings equal but their skills make them important Explains human equality and inequality at the same time o Conflict Theory Derived from Karl Marx’s class theory Believe that stratification develops because some groups gain a monopoly of the scarce resources, through their either inheritance or conflict, and they use those resources to maintain their high positions Inequality develops because people want power False Consciousness: lack of awareness of own interest and acceptance of elite rule the elite making a vibe for the poor people to make them think they belong in the poor class Class Consciousness: are aware people’s fates are tied to the fate of their own class realize that the quality of the neighborhood school they attend is determined by how much money they have Marx’s theory is too simplistic so sociologists tried to modify it Neo-Marxism: added two extra dimensions for proletariats Organization and skills are assets SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan o These are developed through education, technology, and networks Negative aspects of Social Stratification o Less productivity- I can’t get out of this class so there’s no point o Animosity- jealous and such towards the higher classes o Strong ‘status quo’- no social change Feminization of Poverty o Average pay is still low; female workers are underpaid o Due to high divorce rate and single mothers o Women make 77% of what men make Inequality and Life Chances o Occupation yields the most important life chances o Majority are working class/ blue collar jobs o Full time year round income $14,500: below poverty line Housing and Lifestyle o Upper class (rich): own several houses, manage business affairs with mutual respect and close cooperation, wealth remains in the same group through wedlock o Upper middle class: top 20% own homes mostly in suburbs, houses are considered a good investment o Working class: resides in suburbs (rental property) prices increase, rent increases, difficult to maintain living standard o Poor people: substandard housing in rural areas, 3 million homeless, often assaulted and raped Half a million kids are homeless (mostly in foster care and hospitals) Education o Upper class: private, high social network o Middle class: public, excellent chance of going to college o Working Class: neighborhood school, drop out, teen pregnancy, trouble getting a job ***education is the only component of life chances that are associatedwith family wealth Medical Care o Upper and middle class: insurance o 1 of 8 children under age 12 suffers from malnutrition/ 24% not vaccinated o 2010 ObamaCare extends health coverage to 32 million people Social Mobility in the US o Caste System: no way of moving through the social classes (India) o Class System: open, fluid, can easily move throughout the social classes o Upward Mobility: most influenced by structural changes in the workplace by developing skills and bettering your education o Downward Mobility: moving down a social class Life of veterans/marrying someone with lower rank o Intragenerational Mobility: people who change class or status within their own lifetime Drop out of school and comes back, get a degree to pursue a better job SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan o Intergenerational Mobility: measured by comparing the social positions of parents and their children Parent was a farmer, but the child went to college and has better job o Structural Mobility: upward, intergenerational mobility bound to change your status because a structure in the society has changed Life chances for occupations, housing, education, and medical care vary in relation to a person’s place in the stratification system. The important determination of class position in this country is family background. Chapter 8 MainTerms and Ideas Racial Group: distinguished by inherited physical characteristics o Facial features, body type, skin color, hair texture, etc. o Self-defined race: 2000- 1 to 19 possible groups o 2010: 9 million people multiracial o Biology vs. socially defined Ethnic Group: unique cultural traits, ascribed membership, sense of community, territoriality o also refers to group membership based on religion, language, or region o Dress, language, religion, speech pattern o Subcultures o Sense of peoplehood o Like race, ethnicity is socially created and maintained Minority Groups: not in number but in terms of power and privilege o stereotypes: over simplified beliefs about that minority group usually begin with an undesirable characteristic of said group Often change and develop out of fear Middle-eastern people riding planes Media Rarely used to create positive image Racial and ethnic profiling o Clark and Clark 1939 A study done where black children were asked to pick between a black or white doll The majority chose the white doll because they thought it was the good doll Prejudice: preconceived, negative attitude and judgement o Usually based on stereotypes; thoughts and beliefs exist inside a person’s head o Economic Theory of Prejudice: competition and conflict Supposition that competition and conflict among groups are inevitable when different groups desire commodities that are in short supply o Psychological Theory of Prejudice: suggests that prejudice satisfies psychic needs or compensates for some defect in the personality Frustration Aggression Theory: o Groups who strive repeatedly to achieve their goals become frustrated after failing a number of times; become so frustrated they take it out on a socially approved target (racial or ethnic group) SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan Nazis taking frustrations from failure of nationalist ambitions out on Jews Normative Theory: emphasizes socialization as an explanation for prejudice o People from an intolerant household are more likely to be openly prejudiced Authoritarian Personality Theory: some people are more likely to be prejudiced than others due to differences in personality Discrimination: refers to the unfair/unequal behavior or actions o The categorical exclusion of members of a specific group from certain rights, opportunities, and/or privileges o Prejudice is a judgement, an attitude o Individual vs. Institutional Discrimination Individual: discrimination from a certain individual, usually resulting from prejudice Institutional: the continuing exclusion or oppression of a group as a result of criteria established by an institution “white only”, denial of voting rights for blacks o Structural Discrimination: apartheid policy in south Africa No laws or rules apply with the intent of excluding any person or group from particular rights, opportunities, or privileges Not discriminated at the individual level, but as a group Racism: one particular race is superior o 5 functions a racist ideologies serve: 1. Provides a moral rationale for systematic deprivation 2. Allows the dominant group to reconcile values and behavior 3. Discourages the subordinate group from challenging the system 4. Rallies adherence in support of a “just cause” 5. Defends the existing division of labor o 6 ways of dysfunctionality 1. Uneven distribution of resources- fails to use resources of all individuals 2. Increase social problems- aggravates problems such as poverty, crime 3. Time and resources- to defend the barriers that prevent full participation of all members 4. International conflict- undercut goodwill and friendly diplomatic relations between nations 5. Discourage social change- is inhibited because it may assist a subordinate group 6. Disrespect for law and peaceful settlement of disputes (discrimination) o Individual Racism- originates in the racial beliefs of a single person o Institutional Racism- racist ideas are embedded in the folkways, mores, or legal structures of various institutions Patterns of group interaction: o 1. Ethnic Antagonism: Mutual opposition, conflict, and hostility among different ethnic groups o 2. Integration and Assimilation Integration: ethnicity becomes insignificant and everyone can freely and fully participate in the social, economic, and political mainstream SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan Assimilation: individuals and groups forsake their own cultural tradition to become part of a different group and tradition Melting pot vs. Anglo Conformity Melting pot assimilation: a+b+c=d o Each group contributes a bit of its own culture and absorbs aspects of other cultures such that the whole is a combination of all the groups Anglo conformity: a+b+c=a o Everyone adopts the dominant culture (a) and the minority completely loses its identity o 3. Cultural Pluralism: a+b+c=a+b+c (salad bowl) Situation in which the various racial, ethnic, or other minority groups in a society maintain their distinctive cultural patterns, subsystems, and institutios o 4. Segregation: physical and social separation- de jure vs de facto De Jure: segregation by law (schools for whites only or blacks only) De Facto: segregation in fact (black and white neighborhoods) o Donald Noel- three factors that cause social stratification 1. Ethnocentrism 2. Compete for resources 3. Inequality in Power o Mass expulsion: expelling from the homeland Genocide: WWII Major Ethnic and Racial Groups in the US o Hispanic Americans Large families, strong family bonds/ties o African Americans 2 largest in the US Only minority group that do not have their own distinct culture Don’t know exactly where they originated from List transitions later o Asian Americans Highly diverse (Vietnamese, Chinese, Korean) Chinese were the first Asians to come to the US o Native Americans o WASPs (white anglo saxonprotestants) and white ethnic Americans Mainly European immigrants o Jewish Americans More jews in the US than in Israeli
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