Biology 2602 Exam 3 Study Guide
Biology 2602 Exam 3 Study Guide 40053
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara Notetaker on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 40053 at Youngstown State University taught by Dr. Renne and Dr. Walker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Biology 2602 Notes U NIT 3: Behavior- the observable response of organisms to internal or external stimuli; this has adaptive value Behavioral Ecology- study of behavior responses that contribute to the survivorship and/or reproduction of organisms Innate- behaviors that are driven by genetic programming (not learned) Learning-modify behavior based on previous behavior; this has adaptive value Habituation- one of the simplest forms of learning o Organism ignores/ responds less to repeated stimulus o Animals habituate to humans where there is no hunting o Can be modified in the future Associative Learning- association develops between stimulus and response o Classical conditioning o Operant conditioning o Cognitive Learning- Ability to solve problems with conscious thought and without direct environmental feedback Behavior is often a mix of innate and learned Migration-long-range seasonal movement generally linked to seasonal availability of food o 3 navigation mechanisms 1. Piloting- animal moves from one familiar landmark to the next 2. Orientation- ability to follow compass bearing and travel in straight line cannot adjust for course 3. Navigation- follow compass bearings but also set or adjust path Navigation- the Toolkit o Birds may use three compass systems in their navigational toolkit 1. Position of the sun by day, stars at night 2. Landmarks 3. Earth’s Magnetic field Defending a territory has COSTS and BENEFITS o Territory- fixed area in which individual or group generally excludes others Territory is expected when benefits exceed cost Communication- use of specifically designed signals or displays to modify the behavior of others. o Chemical Communication Scents o Auditory Communication Sounds o Visual Communication Lights, mating displays o Tactile Communication Used to establish bonds between group members Altruism- one’s behavior that appears to benefit others at all cost to oneself o Most “altruistic” acts serve to benefit the individual’s close relatives o Kin-selection- acts that lower the individual’s fitness but increase the fitness of relatives. o Individual selfish behavior is much more likely o Group Selection- group containing altruists would have a survival advantage over a group of selfish individuals THIS IS DEAD o Individual Selection- is more likely because… Mutant individuals that use more resources have an advantage over those that use fewer resources. Hamilton’s Rule- a kin-selected gene that is favored by mature selection when: rB>C o r is the coefficient of relatedness of donor o B is benefit to recipient o C is cost by donor o **Evolution of bright coloration to advertise distastefulness Ex: caterpillars Sexual Conflicts among males and females o The mean number of offspring is obviously the same for each sex o Depending on the mating system, the variance in offspring number can be much higher in males Some males producing many offspring, some producing none o The higher the variance in offspring production, the greater the degree of sexual dimorphism Sexual Selection- traits that are “solely” for reproductive success. o Driven by 2 forces Intrasexual Competition-members of a sex compete over partners w/ the winner performing most of the matings. Ex: male-male competition o Most matings occur when males dominate the resources o Produces males substantially larger than females (Strong Sexual Dimorphism) Intersexual Choice Ex: female choice of male for particular traits Mating System-Types o Natural selection favors production of the rarer sex so that the sex ratio is kept balanced at 1:1 ratio. o Monogamy- 1 male & 1 female; 2 conditions: 1. Neither sex has an opportunity to monopolize the resources, including more members of the opposite sex. 2. Shared parental care also maximizes the reproductive success of males and females. o Polygyny- 1 male & many females; Males may defend females or resources that attract females. Success raising young not greatly reduced by one parent only. 2 o Polyandry- many males & 1 female; Relatively rare, avian system o Polygamy- many males & many females; Uncommon Mating System Structures is Primarily Driven By: o Ability to defend resources Food, breeding spaces, mates o Opportunity to defect after meeting If 1 parent can successfully raise offspring, abandonment is common o Opportunity to get/ prevent extra pair copulations THESE ARE DRIVEN BY ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Population- a group of interbreeding individual that occupy the same habitat at the same time Age Classes- its structure can be resolved through demographic analysis o Expect a population increasing in size to have many young and a decreasing population to have proportionately much older individuals Life Tables- Data on number of individuals alive in a particular age class, and their survivorship and reproduction o males not usually included Demographic Analysis (ex: Life History Tables) o Significant Because: We can estimate age structure and population growth Focus our management efforts on the most important age classes driving the population growth (usually of invasive or endangered species) How Populations Grow o Exponential Growth- resources not limiting, prodigious growth... (potential not realistic) o Logistical Growth- resources limiting, limit growth dN/dt= rmaxN((K-N)/(K)) Density Dependent Term- (K-N)/K; puts breaks on population growth (dN/dt)- change in number over change in time r- intrinsic rate of increase N- number present K- carrying capacity Populations are Regulated by: o Density Dependent Factor- Mortality factor whose influence varies with the density of the population Parasitism, predation, and competition for limiting resources Predators kill few prey when the prey population is low, they kill more prey when the population is higher o Density Independent Factor- Mortality factor whose influence is generally not affected by changes in population size or density. Primarily physical factors (weather, drought, fire, flood) 3 Life History- organismal adaptations that affect its Darwinian fitness, including juvenile and adult survival probability, age or reproductive maturity, and the number and size of offspring. o Life history strategy/ Life History Tradeoff- “how, when and where” to allocate limited resources to an organism’s fitness Life History Evolution- r and K selection o r-selected traits- are those that maximize reproductive outlook many kids no thought about taking care of them Initially Favored o K-selected traits- those that maximize competitive ability Favored as population grows o If any type of population altering event will determine if r or K is effected o Populations thus naturally evolve as they grow Age Structure- relative numbers of individuals in each defined age group o Population Inertia- survival rates will always exceed death rates Ex: One child policy- population grew before it shrank Competition (type of species interactions) o Intraspecific- between individuals of the same species This form of competition is usual the strongest Because conspecifics generally share more similar niche than heterospecifics o Interspecific- between individuals of different species The Ecological Niche- all the ecological factors that influence the survivorship and reproduction of a species o Fundamental Niche- An organism free of interference from other species could use the full range of conditions and resources in which it could survive and reproduce o Realized Niche- Part of fundamental niche that an organism occupies as a result of limiting factors present in its habitat o FUNDAMENTAL NICHE IS LARGER THAN REALIZED NICHE Gause’s Competitive Exclusion Principle- 2 species cannot occupy the exact same niche and coexist Resource Partitioning and Character Displacement o Character Displacement- adaptive divergence in morphology and resource used when ecologically similar species co-occur DRIVEN BY INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION Antipredator Strategies o Mimicry Mullerian Mimicry- 2 distasteful unrealated species converge on particular morph thereby increasing predator reinforcement BENEFITS BOTH Morph tends to remain stable Mimicry Batesian- palatable prey can also avoid predators by looking like a distasteful species. BENEFITS ONE Instability in Morph o Masting- synchronous production of may progeny to satiate predators 4 high survival rate of young Mutualism- interactions between 2+ species, where each species benefits. Typically involve: o 1. Transportation of Gametes o 2. Nutrient rewards o 3. Protection Hypotheses for Latitudinal Gradient Diversity o 1. Time Hypothesis- Communities gain diversity, or more species, through time via migration and in area speciation o 2. Productivity Hypothesis – greater production of plants results in greater overall species richness Intermediate- Disturbance Hypothesis- highest numbers of species are maintained in communities with intermediate levels of disturbance o Disturbance= drought, flood, fire, predation, etc. o A few stress tolerators dominate in high disturbance areas o A few strong competitors dominate in low disturbance areas. Succession (type of species interaction)-gradual and continuous change in species composition and community structure over time o Primary Succession- Succession on a newly exposed surface that has essentially NO organic matter (such as areas scoured by glaciers or volcanoes) o Secondary Succession- succession on a site that has already supported life but that has undergone a disturbance (such as fire, tornado or flood) Conceptual Models o Bottom-Up Model- food limitation controls population density o Top-Down Model- natural enemies control population density Cascading Trophic Effects- removal of top predators restructures entire food webs, affecting composition and productivity Keystone Species- importance is greater than number of animals Ecosystem Structure o 80-90% of energy is lost as you move up the trophic level (food chain) Energy flow to the next level is ~10-20% THIS IS WHY PREDATORS ARE LESS ABUNDANT THAN PREY (THEY REQUIRE MORE ENERGY TO MAINTAIN) Biodiversity is Important because: o 1. It contributes to ecosystem function- high diversity communities tend to lose resources slower and may be more resistant to invasion o 2. “Diversity Begets Diversity”- high species richness at lower levels promotes diversity at higher levels. Ex: high plan diversity attracts different insects- differing in ecological function o 3. “Diversity Begets Stability”- high diversity communities tend to stabilize oscillations in community composition across trophic levels as well as productivity 5 Ex: insect outbreaks are plant species specific more plant species increases the chance that some food will be available to birds that eat insects at any given time. Positive Feedback- accelerates processes Political Cartoons- there is still significant energy input into green energy 6
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